Geologic and hydrologic features of the Richland area, Washington, relevant to disposal of waste at the hanford operations of the atomic energy commission

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Geologic and hydrologic features of the Richland area, Washington, relevant to disposal of waste at the hanford operations of the atomic energy commission

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Geologic and hydrologic features of the Richland area, Washington, relevant to disposal of waste at the hanford operations of the atomic energy commission
Parker, Garald G. (Garald Gordon), 1905-2000
Piper, A.M.
Publication Date:
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Box 1


Subjects / Keywords:
Aquifers -- Hydrogeology -- Everglades (Fla.) ( lcsh )
Hydrology -- Florida -- Biscayne Aquifer (Fla.) ( lcsh )

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Source Institution:
University of South Florida
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
The University of South Florida Libraries believes that the Item is in the Public Domain under the laws of the United States, but a determination was not made as to its copyright status under the copyright laws of other countries. The Item may not be in the Public Domain under the laws of other countries.
Resource Identifier:
032968560 ( ALEPH )
891343127 ( OCLC )
G16-00670 ( USFLDC DOI )
g16.670 ( USFLDC Handle )

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• I I I I I I I l I I I r • I . ' . ~ . . . . , . .. .. .. _ . . { ... : . . . "'. . . . , ,., ; I -.. -.......... •• • ---.I.. ' . EPARTMENT OF THE IN Gi::OLOGICAL SURVEY This DocWtent cons .,....,1 -~ ~57 No. :J.,.1 ::,! ja eopi --C5CLOGIC AND. H!DROLOGIC ~.\T'JRE.S OF Tl • WAS:!:llQTON, EI.EVANT TO D!SPCS.U. OF W F • .AMFOP.D OPERATIONS OF THE ATOMIC t.'IERO! By a. a. Parkar and~-ll. -=t ' ' . 111 "'lift-... . ... 3WWW"lf:, ' ' . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . ~--' ... ' a;,;-i.:~.; ••• '---"'. ~... ;.. .. . . . . Prepared 1n cooperation Tith the Atoldc E:lergy Comd.asion Jul7 1949 Released, Nowmber 1949 . -jtJN 5 DOCUMENT A :rN


• -• • ~li~~~~=~!f1J]r_ Arc~1:.~ fol ii:,:ttl torr ""r:.aj :'".:~ces ~pec!:!1. .-~aapo~ P::-o!ect &t::!c :t:~.:.-..i~~i:-::., ~ :::.shina. :ton ~:ook.~s. f:! n I-,a ~:. :!'".:;l. L3. bora ~.::a:, ~".l!"es.u ~z !.!e:iic:.::~ Su:;;~~ .. i;ure~u 'J! ~ip3 Ci.1.rbitle a.!".d :c.::~: :he;..ics.l~ C ,:-p,r:.:. t:!.on Ca.r:!.:is ~d Ca:-":>:n: Cha:..ictls C::-pj:-~t:.:>:: General !:l~c t.ric Cor.p:!.:v, i .ichl.a...91~ ~e~ ford O'Cer~~~~n~ 0~ice Id~o Jpe;at:.cns Of.!:ice Iasa ~~ta C~lle~e ~.oils ~t.o:ic ?Jwer Labor~t==-:' Los A..b::os 1!.oun:i laul'.:>:-a t.:;rf ?~.aticnul !;t:::e::.u :,! Skr.aa..-ds :.~idlot:ical D-J.::s~e t:J:"j" i,aw Yo~l: C~r:. ti~ns 0!!ice Oak i~idee ,.::.ti~r.t?.l La.cor~ ~:-/ Pate::-: ::;~ncr., -;:a;:lu:.:~n Pelle iia:uth Se:-vice .3ii ......... --Technical Ir.!:Jr!.-.a. ~!.Jn ::--~ch, C.Z-Z UCLA. ~dical =-~3et:..rcb. labJ:ato!j" (;i:.,:-rer.) Ur..iversit7 C~J.i.:'ornia ~!~t!o~ :.a.bor~torj Univer~it7 o! : .. ~chester ?lesti1'!.#-~use Electr:.c C~:-;,orfl tio:l h.eproduced Di~t:-ibuted ti, 0:1 tad Sta i-ee A t:::ic :.:r.iargy ~o!'d Operatio~s U!'!ice I,


St..::::1S.r!.t • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • L~tr~cu:tio=•••••••••••••••••••••••••••• •:)b jec~ives 01" ,:~~ i!'lves":.! ~ic~ ••••••• :ers~:1.~el ••••••••• P.~lcvar.~ a.i:ta:~~e~~ work •••••••••••••• ~nc. ::' o:-:::s ot -:he P.!c ~; e.=.~ a:~s. •••••••.•. !x?lo:-a~or,, pro:ec~ c-:z~. ( er.:er.:ei; •••••• :.!ethoci!l of :test -:.r:.:lin; •..•.......... !':"~::a.tion o~ sa::?les .••..••••••.•..•. Ee~ords o! expl?:-~~o~r ~ells•••••••••••••••••••••••••• 3e~lo&ic .for::-.aticns c,f t:l:1 ?.!.cl:la.~: ~:-ea •• ••. • .............. . Succession a:~ his~~ri:a: set~:.:,~•••••••••••••••••••• ?~~s!.ca.l ch.!.::-acte:-:stic~ •••••••••••••• ; ••••••••••••••• Ys '.r~ 'iS '::>a. s e.l t ..................................... .. R::golc !c:-:-.a.t1o~ .............................. ...... .. ~erracs tep~sit!, und:!!eren~iatec .................. .. J.l!u~i=1 a:i:. Dis~:-ib~tion &~d tr.ick:ess ...................................... . Syc.rolo~!c fs&~ures cf the ~:hl~~c area ...................... . ~ne?"!.l cli=ati: a~peo~s .................................. . D:-!.~ ge ................................... .............. ; .... .. ?er::.~a.::ili ties cf -:he ~c !' ~:T.S. tie-ns . -.............. . ".:--e:i-,re.l f ee::~:-es cf ~::-;\.~-=-' te::oc~urrenc:~ ............. . ~!oisture i::1 the ~one of a'!~tion .............................. . Re~o:'.al oody of uncor.i'"ine-:. ,.,ter, na.~.:n.l conliti::ns .. . lot::t &~d poaition of the na.tural water _tarle ...... . Natun.l sources and _ mov!~ent cf N&.ter ................. ~luctu&tio~s of T.&t,r levels i~ wells ................ .. ?.9gi~nal body or unco~~'i~oc w&ter, artifi:i&l CO:leitio:s, .......... ••••••••••• ...................... •••• For::: of the v.:::e::-"';~ble !.r. l\0V4'::9r l~-s~ . ............. . Mov~ent cf water =~~!-e.-;::-. 3.:-l'l nea.r t:ie "2C0" a.reAs ........................................ ~•••• ?ota:~i&l r~~Ur9 c~ndi~icns ........................ . Pe::-:~en wa~er ................................................ . Cis~osal of ra.ciioa.c:t!.~~ v.-r1ste r:u!.:.s r::-o-:-. th'! "200" :; .............................. • • .... • • • • • .... • .. • • • • • • • ~cope cf s'b!.~e~en-: ........................................ . "First-c~~le" wa.s~c .......................................... .. "S~eo:c-eyele" waste rro= th~ 200-i~ a:-ta ................ .. !iistcrlcal review •.................. , ..................... . i:.!'f!cac~: of ::1. ~bi:lc es '6::.t... ~e.~s c: .. waste diS?OS~l .................................... : ........... . "~e-cc=.d-e.r-:l!'" R&~t~ !'r~ ~~-? :.•~:-.~ a..-ea. ....... .......... . . . .:.'!tna.l an~ ~et~~-=~!.l ec::-:a..-:-.~:~~i::: i:-c~::.=-! G1.ter •••• ~~~!9~ent or wat~~--a.~1-~a,~! C~!p~,Ll ................ .. R9cc=e=ef ~-.::--::.9:-i:.~~!-C!.b~~ic!!: •••.••••••••• ,. •. • • • • • • •


• -• • Pla.t.e l. ILL: ST R .~TIO c! the Rio:.:.a.."l'.i C.:--:!e., ~a.shi!'l.o--ton, showic~ locot.:on ~ certain well,, and r~era:. ~o:r:ou:-, on 4wh~ regiona.l imter te!:>l~ i1!l oi ~:ove~oer l~4F. ••••••••••• • . • . 2. Ea~~-t:-9nc.;j,_,:!g ::~ol-Je::..e s'3c-:i\):'!S t.r~ou~n the ... o-: . ~ ... --:-;-~,---he =.; c;,i :s..~ ara• -. : .... -. . ,--.• -... . ---. "'.' \t asr.:.~ on •••••••••••••••• , . • , ••••••••••••. J. !!:::-th-tren~!~!.: g-eolcric se:tio:!s thrc~n t :-..s n:>:-t :~e:-n p~ a! tr.e! ar'! a, i':asc~~gton •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 4. !!::t.= o! the Richland ::~a, 'nasr.:!.ngton, shorri:l; A, gene:i:l.l.i Z43d co:itours or. the 7fa.te:-t a:Jl! a:::i gen-,ral. di..~ctions o! ground-111ater :r.ove::ent ur.-der na.~ural eonditior:s; B, Ge~a:-;1" me. cohtours on the .rat. sr toble ar~ General ciirec~ns o! ground.-wat~r ~~,,e'l:l~nt in ifovecber, 1948; C , For?:l~&~~ extent u! zone ir.tar:-eci to ha. .. ,e 'oesn s&tu:-atad arti! ••••••••• s. Ca.-relation between !luctuation or wa~er level in selected wells and oi ::,aromatric 72 pres_su:-s... •• • . . . . . • • ••• • • • • • . • • • •• • . •. • • . •• 75 TABLES Table l. General cocparati 75 data on e:q:,lorator~ wells ..•. 2. 6. L:Jbs cf ~lo!9atory wells •••••••••••••••••••••••• Cribs an! oth~r was-:a-d.i~~!a.l ..-.erk? in the 200-W area a! c1 Decs=ber 1947 ••••••••••••••• Per!o:-::arJce o! mst.e-i:.~osal cr!.bs in the 2~\i' lS a.-ea. as c! :,!a:c;:-Oc":.oca:-194':'................ ae 1 ....... .,.. ...


G::CLOG!C . • um h"!tROLDG!C FEA':'1:.-..E.S CF THE ?.:: :-:!.A!:L A.~, =:o-:oN J p_:;~•;~!:T ':': !:~?OSAI.. CF ,•.-.~T:: AT TS r~\'FO?.!: OPS?.AT!ONS OF TS ATC!.!IC 3:HE.~~y COl!l!:SSION. Inter~ report No. l 57 o. a. Park9r and~-M. Piper This report by t.he Geological Su.-.-a:; cove:!i 1.-,teriz: p:-ogress , certa:.n e~lont.0?7 activit-i-3~ rof.arence to seologic and hydrolo~c !ea~~-es as they affec~ the ,eneral problt:r-of c.1$cn.a.:-~g waste products at :~he pl.o.nt o! t~e Atou.ic Energy Coc:::ission. Ir.tensive -.ork ns dcne c r.:.e!l:; L"l tha:t part of the !ian!"c:-d ~eser'\o"i:. tion which is south o! ' Oa.ble lfou."1-Ui."1 and Gable But.ts, east o! the !ak:i.::a P..a.nge and the P.attlesr.aka Hills, acd ire st o! the Colu:bia ?.i )Sr. It encor:?asses sli6htl7 more th&.n 100 square m!.les. As deter.r..:.ned !rom test-well d:-~lling and geologic reconr.ais~am;e, !'our f'or:ia _t:.ons are the chief ~olc~ic ur.!. ts underlying tr.i~ ari,a. These • ara, fro~ oldest to youngest: l. !akizl basalt, 0 volcanic origir. and cc::posed chien7 or dense rock, with so~ beds ~nich are sco:-i&eeows anci ctMrs o! tuf!9 or agglo::.erate. Origi.~r f'lat-lyi.n~, the basalt as !' and f'aulted, thsn subjected to erosicn, to gi,•e consider11blP. t.opocraphic relief. • cocling or the lava layer, eave rise to columnar partings; tbe folding • aod faulting caused jointiLg and, a:i;pecia.lly on and near the axes of folds, : -developed blocky !ractl::"ii:g; to all these :.actures and to its scoriacacus zones, ~he ! basalt, as a whcle, con:monl:, is sll6r.tlj or ever. mociera tel:{ per:neatle. 2. Ringold. formation, of sedi:r!; origi:1. The P.ingold !or::ation crops out in the cons;:i:uous White Elut!s along :the bank ot the Colu:cia P.iver and unciarli~s most, o! the are.;. :.::,estigatacij it is ir.!erri,d to !o!":1 the main part o! the core o! the ni,n terrace en which the 200-E and 200-n operational units -are built. In the olu!!s c:.tec, tne Ringolci f'ormation consists o! a. lower :gra?ellj port:.on, largel1 b~und with silt., ft?7 f'ine sand, and some clay; and an upper portion which 1a COl!!?osed chie!l7 o: silt, sand, ~d cla7 and 'ilnich at ml:!!erous places 1.s scme, calcareou:s. On the 1rilole, this .fo:-...ation, e,"er.. the g:-ave . ll:;-lower part, has a relatively low pe~ea~ili tj, lar&"elj to tr.a &.bunda.nce o! f'1nes. It -q.:, depoaiteci on and atove tl'.le !ar -s basil t, o:: stres.cs a.r.d in a. lake or lake:s. .... s4,,y itt covered all bu~ tr.s highest ~art o! Gable ~auntai,"l ar:d •~ cor.tinuou:, wit:i the White Elu!!s. Revised by insert!.c:: c! sun-....ary, ::o~car 1949 Cor:ti::~ed on pae;es inclusive "t


~. Unc:'.:.!.,re:'ltiate,J ta.-rn.ce c.e~osit.~, of cet-r:.tal ori::.rl.n !rot: cculcier~ and ccarsc g:-a,e:. t.: c!.Ar. On th~ lfr.ole t:a ier:-ace deposit~ a:-e .! c02.r~e:-a~d: cleaner tr;~ F.:!.r.r.olci :ater..a.l!, a.nd so are :each more oer::1Eiabls. Th~: were denosited cv str~arns 't'hat nave alt.e~tely c"J.t, ar.c ag;radec th~i:-course;. ; loc~.l~) the cutting ~s .. been a !fSJf tans 0 !oat below ~:At _c! th~ .?resent Colur~ia ?.ivar. 4. Allu~~ and ci~~e sc.n.!, :::-esentlr beir.,: t!epos:.tec. a.long a.r.d near t::e Go!.w:icia Rive:-. The a.ll-.."w-.ur. <;-.:.:.ta like t-:.e ::atar:.als o! tte unc.::.i'ferant:.a~ed te:-~ce tj.e~c~it~ anci L: beinr lai~ down under a reg-'-::en to that under w~.ich tnc,~ deposits were accw:n:lated. It is i.-.ier:-ec tr..s. t, u."'\Cer tura!. conditions, tile wt. ter table o! the a.rea s lcpecf gend:t ciClill fror. : the !'lanks o! tno Ya~:i.::a Rar~ anci the F.s.ttlesna~~ s t.o the Co!.~ia and Iakizr.a In a st-r:.p acja.cent tc the Col~bia ?.i ver a.nd a vera.S"' ;:arhaps :; miles , wi.cie: wa tar is alter::ately s4:.or9d ax by eeaso:ia.l c:ha~-es ir. st.age of t.he :-i --:ers. Benea:t,h acc. near tte opera ticns area, . groundwa tef' body is u:.con!i."lec ( ) and occ\!rs chie!l7 in t:.e PJ.ngolci for,--...a.tion but lccally ir. the !ak:i.:r..a ba,alt a.~d il! the terrace deposits. W",..are in the basalt no cha.."lge in watter-table g:-2~ier.t i~ appann't., thus i.nciica.ting that 11ater mow~ tht-ough the basalt without too great hinci.-a.nce--probably as .!reel1 as L"l the :iir.golci, or even more so. It, is . belieiV'ed tha. t -.ater moves most !reely throl!g:: the ter:-ace deposits. natural r'3charg,! to this!i.~erl watar body beneat:: the operations area 1s chiefl:: by bctl: si.::-!ace !'low a.::ci ur.dererou."ld !low out of Cold Creek and DI"/ Creek vallers, cirA.inage -ways tlJa t head in the uplands cf the Yaki:na Range. Ra.iniall on these uplands is at present u.'1:neasured, but it is probably two to i our tilne~ as r.rsat as that en the area of investigation wh9re little :-air.fall percolates do,m t,o 'the water table in most years. Waste-water -di.=charge !'rom th~ "200" t>la.nts ha.s uo on the' :wa tar table two distinc~ mound., and a lo:w brid~"'lg spu:-between the 200-E: a.-id 200-t: areas. Available da~ indi:ate tba t these mounds will continue to g:-aw i.f' disposal su=ps are used as in the past, butthis growth can be larsely con~:-cllec as desired, by c:1a.ngi.11g the sites of the dispo~al s~s. In e!!ec't, !or a consicierable time at, these a:ouais w:..ll act as groWld-water daJ:s b9hind which contam:ir.ation ca.i: be cont...i:lec:.. tventi;ally, as the a:ea t r.e "dams" !illa up., toey ir:.,, no longer so act. Deep artesian ira.t~r i.s not a !actor in the'ord, !or it is e!!"eetively sepa.,ted f'rom the. nona.rtasian water body above. !nvestig .. ~iQns :a.da "we ci.ate not, ccc:;,late, but :they do point the way tc !utl:ra needed invastigations a.."'ld study. Ho quantitative pun:ping tests have been i.11 this a..,s., there!ore coe!!"i:ients o! transmissic:ility, per=eability., ar.d ~t:,rag-, a:-e still unkno...r.. Sa.~onal


&::~ c:,:l!: ~~.&:-:~! : ... •:;! ;?"~~::::-,,e,:t'!r ~-:ers-rn 1.:-e :ic;t ! '\9ta lo: i tie: =~ ::-~ ::-." -:.-.: .-•:-~e•:e=.~n-: ~-~a.t•~r~-: • ct ccr.-::a..~~.a.ted ::11.t~~~~ls r,~:~:~-r.&ter bcdy are not precisely k:~-:m, nC'r -i! :!:e :-~ :--Ull: ~.::-.:er'?toci,; :ec~~im by which rn~!.oact:. ve cc~~c:,~::~s ~:" e~r<:t-1:-:. uutt !'lu:.d.: have oeen enracted. • • t c:: ~ea.rt!-., s.t lea:s~ in sub::~ar.tia.l pa:-,;. T~e dis~ributi.on of: the saveral c;eolo~ic ~o:i:::i.t! ons i-l.:aarn. i."'1 a. r,-enen.l we.:,, but h&s not: • be,:: &.rleq~ta!:: :-.srr~•.;; 3.!!io, k::::,•,:~~g! ~ th,, :.istri~\:~i~:l, ' a..r.c cepth of seer.,_~~ c!' !.~c~l :"'!.:.:. &r.~ sn-j.:~elt wa.-:er is :-:ill l&ckir.;,: S~uc~es tc det~r:.!::~ ~~~~~u:-~ow: :\:t ~:-:.tica.l fac~ors !hcul~-~9 \:DG'3r-:a~:e:: i:: order-1:: a.n.l ea:-1:sEJq-.:~ni::e. This repc:-t b~thfl c~ologica.! Surv~y covers its parti:ipa.tion oe:-tai:i exp le~ -:er:: 1:tJ':i vi -:!e ! R.'t: t:19 Hs.~cr-:. Ope:-s. tio:ls Ofrice of ;.to~c ::=ter;:r Ccn:::iui~~, a.t, ;;ashi:-.;-:o::., :1:it~ :-eter9n::~ to g9olofie a.:ic: ~ -rOQci-wa~er !"'9atur,= as er:::i•i:al dft:::e::-: s in the r;eneral ?rc~l-e.= cf se..!'el:: ciisc!'.argi!'l.( ~ ':l:-od~cts. !r. t~i! n:ploratie~, the S'l!:-1e:t ha.~ acte~ as e.:i !::.t3;•!:: !e~t ocllacoro. tor v."'i-:h the .\to:-J.: :'.::erg:,• Cc:-=~~sio~ a..~c i~s ?ri~~ c~n~:-,,.c~c~ &t 3ancr~--the ~neral ~lee~:-:.: Co~pe.:l~---b:-1.::;i~il tc i:-ea.r-its ?p~c:!:l!.!.1:e-d. rele--rc::-: e:,;p!'ri~nee. 3t;r;:h t>&r:ic!.~-:ic::. wc.s a't t:-.a s~•!'e!!'ic rec-..1es't o~ t::e Co::::issior. 1/. -.. -. -T~e ~:-ea of specific i~7estiga-:io~ is the c~r.t:"9.l•r.orther:: p&rt of ~he'ort Reser-;aticn, ~~tw~e:l lccal en("ir.eeri:1.: ccerci~ates 20,000 and o5,00~ nc:-th, 20,000 ~nd 90,00C west (s~e pl.l;. '!hu~, it lie! larzel7 so~th ol' G&ble 11.our~tain ar.c ~cle ?.!Ut-te ; iti lon~er, et.:terlr dimension is about 13 :.uhe its ! dim9nsion a.bcut 8 miles. This area enco:i;asse-s thcs~ process o~ra.t:.:~s wr.ich yi~ld thet wa.ste rrec~cts of ccncer:. ReS1.:l~s o~ ~he s~e~ific inves~is;e.tion are applier. i:1 , & general w,iy t~ th-a so~tr.ern pa~ or th~ r~se"ai:i• on • .exhr.d!.:i:f to P.icnlar.d. &.'1d the !a~::.s. River. J.c:inistra:tivel::, th~ scopeo!' ~hs i:ivestig:e. -:!or. he:-~ reportec coupled tc that cf "?~oj~ci:-c-1:s s (er=tnde"c)" ~r -:he pri::.e •'-•~,-~,.. ... "'~--ions/'\~ . .,, ... .., I"" .... ~-; ~ro".:.,.. C•41'l~ •~e. '•s we ... 641 ..,, ..... \J:"'-ei6w '------..-. .. =-••iit••-• • ....... . ......... •" ourren~ ens~sior. ?r~i1e f~r c!ril!~n, :~:-ta.!:i. te~~ ~ells a~:'e~lori:g geolosic, hy-!rologie, e.n~ o-:~~r !'ee:t~r,~ of v,asta-cis:>osal ;;n.ctiaee-the in!tial pro_!l!e~ 'C'1&._ s . • i:c:-.eer:lt-:i with -ax;:lora~ion within tbe two "ZOO" ~r~a!; the ~r.:~n5i~~, heN tre~~e:, is ~cnc~~ed ~-1th the 1-ec!!~t~lr surrc\U!f.iri~ are& cci :e~ks a ~!nor&l ev~luation ot those ta.c-:ors v1hic~ W'ill ll..-ii4: the !'ur~he:-9\'"clutior. ai:d :ol~tio:: the n.ste prcbb= ?l'9it!'ler th!' !.nitie.l ?re~~ct ncr !::., :urr~n~ ~xte:sic::. pretends to,":e the N.S'te-~rr:ol!r. .. 1ns.llj'J rather, tach is a si:i;le • s~;e in ?ro~r9uive :l.:-.s.l:•si ! , ..-it:: r•~r' si;eps to b-. ror.:ula.ted 1u


• -• • J -!~<:ts ~nco I t:18 CU.~e:it re:'O:-t is nc more _;r.a.~ &n inter...:i 0! prog-r'!s~; r..Jwevar, it u=cartai-:es to cover ~hose !eatu:es of ieolo~ and h:,crolog; are ca.sic to a !ull evaluat!.on o! past . !..'lve stigc=.t.i '\'8 results, ar.~ wr.:i.d~ ,'fi.~: i.".lide !'urwher ir.vest;p.t! •,e e!'!~rt, P:-ojec:t C-1;3, which r.a.s car:1.e~ 0"'1t by ths pr..:ne c:mtracto:-in 1947, inclucisd ths dr"1,..~ 01 severril. t.ens o! test, walls o! whic~ only a !'n . tht:, \'tatttr table. The Gao:o~-:.::al Sur"1a:t :-.a:i no. fiel~ ra5:>ensibil!.t7 i=. ~!:::i.:s p:-ojec~j !".Owtnrer, cert.a:---: o! its res-~-;sare rele\~~-to and e::bociied in t::i.! re~ort.. P:-ojec-t C-133 (e:cer.dec:.) inc!.uded t:e c!:-1,"ng of te~ r.alls at 25 sit_a~ d:!.spersed over the ar'!a: o~ speci!ic !::wst!.g ioz: prev:.oi:.slr ciescribeci (se~ pl. l). Sxcsptini ::;:a wnich ,rer~ not coz:pleteci cr.r..:g to d:illin& cii!:icult~es 1 t-hese wells were c...-'!.l l 9C. to I and. about .• ...... t!'!V,Qi~ !:-o?:. 5 to !eet below t~e. li'a.ter tacle. With respect-. to this extended. c.:-..: J,.; n.s p:-og:-am, it was contemplatec th~t the Geolc~cal Sw..""78,-would1r,,~~~,J~~t~~z~, (!) :10?:itor t:'~ saat~l!.."'lg ot • cutt!.ll5s at the te~ irell$, also classi!7 t _hosa C?Ut-:ings L'"ld correlate the?: llit.h 6eologic ~o~a-:ions exposed at tbe la.."l.i!a.c:e r.:.thin or s.cijacent to the ar-,a; (2) utic~te tl7.e wate~bear-'~6 cha.racte!":..stic:, o _ f the es.:-th cater:.c:.l~ underlj"inG the. area. o! invasti~ation; (3) d.etar:nine the !o:-m of the watar ~able, nth :-e!e.~nce to source 2.nd ~cvecer:t ,:,! h-ound water unde:-natural ~onc.:.tions and unde:-both p:-ese:it ar.:i polier.tia:. arti!'icial cor.di :ions :rea.ted. by t:ie Ean!0rc operations; and (.l..) prepa.:-9 the present re;-:o:-t. coveri!1f. those !unctions c.r.d the, derived interpret at.:..c~s. Eowe~r, the or-ng fu.91cti.0n was !let rer.derec by the Geological. SU.r\"9~" ali 7 o! the ~5 1'81.l si~es, whe:-e dr.1 li:l~ had been com~le~ed be!o:-e Sur'i--ey personnel was on the ground. . Per~or.:r..el ond. acknO'iiledgt!!ents !n the ~lla.borative prog:-...: here re~o~aci; the interests of Atomic Energy Co~ssion were represented a.t Richland by R. C. Habeman, . . Ch:ie! 1 and W. K. Crane and D. Sturges o! tha orera-tions di vision. The inta."ests o! the pril:e eont:-actor were a responsibility o! its inS'tru:ent d:.i:visior., under :i. u. Parker, Chief, c. C. Gam~rts!slder, and. F. P. Sej.nour; ~. Sey:ou: e~rci!eci 6e:eral scperviaion o! Pro~ect C-lJ) through R. E . Bretr.l, who was in_ i:::nediat.e cha.ree o! the field operations. For the Gaological Su.-ver, general supervision was by A. ?.!. PiR!r, sr-a!! sciez::tist, a~ Portland, Oregon; G. G. Parker was assigned ~o i=eciiate charge ill tne !ielci, ass:.s-ceci by M. G. Sonil!a and R. c._ Townsend~ . E!!ective !'ield 110rk on the project b:, Geologicc.l Su..-vey per,onnel began June 2:3, 1948, &nd was te:-:::ina.ted by Tcnmsend on September 30, by Bonilla on October 30, and by Parker on Dece:bar 2Q. The =ore general pa..~s of this reporv were dra..4'teci oy Parker in the period endi:g Fecnar.r l.l.., 1949; subsequently, these ~ve 'been reviend. a.z:d :-ela'ted to the general waste-disposal_ problem bj Piper. ; Aside i:-oc ';)ersonnel with some!ct llty project., as just in"', ackncT.l~cgr.tent i! due _ num-!rous !or a.s~ist.a."'lee o! m~y kinis.. '!he~e :., . ~er=s0n:1el ~f


• --• services di ruiQn o! At~i:u.c ~e:-~ &'t ?J.chlar..:i, Rudolph ii-> glund; Clinton liem--""g anc. J. ;.. :.::cCool ot -ehe pr'..m• co:r&ctcr I s e11ta"'1.:leerine; sta.!.!", wnc fu.~sL&Ci ,.-a. .. e:-leve: d-.ta a.n:i celpaci ir. t,ha !felci loca::ion of exiscir..g ,:ells; also t.i~e d:.; J J 1-ng crews o! tl:.a i);-'-:ne coa;ractor, \Uldar sn:perli~ors E. E. Gilll!m and C. A. Ru~sel:.. The rece-ptive spirit in which the d.-il1ing supervisors ar.d c:-s,rrs recei suggestions or i:np:-oving test-drilling tachniG,USS ,:a.~ particularly grati!' . Al::ecedent 'Wt>rk setting a oackgro\!nd !or, or bearing directly on the su=jeci:. :na~tar of this :-sport onl: reccnnaissanee co,.,-erage of the re:se:va~ion a.rea o:, Gillson .l.~ ~epars.tely '::>:,• Piper i:i 1944, also ltha explora.t.ion under initial project C-133, :-sported in part by Brown and ?.uppert i.~ 1!ay 1948. Citations to these several reports are included 1ri a. follo...--!lg bibliography • .... I.11 partiC\!lar, Bro-wn and Ruppert (l9L.4) report in son:e detail on the cha.ractar of mat.e:-i.als underlj"ir.g a pa.rt o! the "200-W' area.". anc. map tb.e ffli,.ter table i the central part c! that area tor !!arch 1948. Their crou sections based on coctrolled ta st cirilli~ anci give a.n excellent graphi~ representation o! tids very localized area., 1rhich is less than a. .mile square. Some ~01fledge o! the geologic an~ grou.od...-ater !eat.i::es o! the . P.ichland area. and its vicinity n-s Eil:i.sted tr:ough t~e works of several previous invastigators, including Wa.-i:1g (1913), .Jenkins (l9~, 1924), Piper (19.44), Newcomb (1948), and' Taylor (l94e). Citations to their paper:s appear !rem place to place in this report. Biblio~aphy Beck, G. F. (i940), ~e Tertia..-; strati~c.pby am paleontology 0! aouth-c~a:ral Wa.shtngton am adjacent Oregon LabstractJ: Geol. Soc. America Bul,J.;., vol. 51, P• 2018. Brcnrn, R. z., &%Xi ?.nppert, F.. G. (191.S), Undergroum waste at Hanford. Works; an interim report coveri~ the 200 wast area; Ean!ord . . 'Viorks classi!ied ciocwnents Nos. rln-9L..28 am :m-;67l. l.U.meographed, 22 PP• 1'&7 3, 1948. Call::i."lS, F. c. (1905), Geology ar.d irater resources o! a portion of, tJ. S. Gae;~ S-JrVey, Paper llS, 96 pp. Culver, H. E. (1937), Extar~ons of the Ringold !or:iation: Sci., vol. llJ I:o. ; , PP• 5?-60. Flint, R. F. (19 .38), Su:.i:a.~ o! late-Cencioic ieolo~ o! • Yla~h.ina~or.: A::1. Jou:. Sci. 1 5th serias, vol. 35, p;,. 223-:30.


Gillson, J. L. (19"), Undergro\l~C. conci ticns at :=~o:-d a!'!'scting cisposal 0 inciustricU wastes: E. I. cc. Po!lt de Neccr..irs & Co., Works classi!ied report, lToject 95J6, March lC, 19.44. Jenkins, o. P. (1922), Undergrou.'ld water suptJlj• o! the region about White Blu!f s fJld Ha.'"!ford: Wa~hington, Dept. Conservation and Develapmeat , . Di vi~io:i cf Geology, Bull. ~6, 4l pp. 1 Jenlc.~s, C. P. (1924), Uncor.! ; 'betwee~ the ?J..ngcld. and !o~at.ions, Washington: Cal:.!orn:.a, Ur.:. v., Dept. Creel. Sci., -vol. 15, No. 2, !)p. 45-47. Luphe:-, P.. L., a..,ci War.en, w. c., The stage ot ihe P-.iver car.yon nea: Lawiston, Idaho: Jour. ~cl. , "9'.01. SO l9L.2. , I.upher, P.. L., Clastic dike~ of t.h9 Colwn~ia. Bas::.r. re,ion, iiasni~on Ida.ho: Geol. Soc. Ji.r:.. Bull., vol. 55, pp _ . l4:3l-l4c2, l9i..4., R. L., Clarkstor. stage of_ the North?tl!st Pleist• ocene: Geol., wl. 53, pp ~ 337-348, 1945. Ye:-ria:n, J. C. a."ld. Bmralcia, J. P. (1917), Age of strata re! to the Ellansbu:g 1::i. the White il..u'!.s o! the Colu:ibia River: Cali.form.a, lJr.i--;., Dept. Geology Bull. 10, p. 255-266. Newcomb, R. c. (1948), Ground. water in the Kennewick area, U. S. Geol. Survey typewrltten report, 1.4. pp., April 1948. Piper, .al. K. (1944), Disposal o! 1tastes from the'ord En~ neer Works (Project 9536), l:'.an!orc., Washington: U. s. Geol. Surve7 . typawritte:a report ( Ean!ord Wor~ classified report) , 13 pp., Ap~ 10, 1944. Piper, A. U. (1944) , Adequacy of public water su:pplies n tbs Han!ord: Bar:-acks and P..ichlanci Village Areas• of the Han!orci ::r.gineer Works (Project 95:;6 .), Han!o:i:!, Wash.: U. s. Geol. Sur-iey typewritten rs-port, (lia.n!ord Works cla.ssi!'ied rspo~), 17 pp., May 3, 1944. ':" . P.::t,sell, I. C. (lS93) ... A reclogi~al recoMaissa~ce L"'l qe::tral U. S. Geel. Surv. ~. 108, lC8 PP • . . I Russell, I. ~. (1897), A reconnaissa.."':ce in southeastern ,:a.shington: U. s. G9ol. Sur,. .vater-Supply '-, 96 pp. ~sell, I. C. (1900), Geol~gy of the Cascada Mount,ains ii: W-.snington: U o S. Geol. S\!r••• 20th J..r:.. Rep,;., pt. ~' FP• 8j,-2l0. Smith, G. C. (l9C!.), Geolo'='-:: a.,d. w.tar rssoi:rces o! a por:ior. Yakima Cou.~y, .Wasm.ns""'tor.: tr. S .. ~eel. Sl:,___.-. Vta.~ e:--SU;:?lj ?~er ,


---------.... . --.... - •-_ .. -.. -• • • I ' I l -Tayler, ~. C. 1 Jr. (19/J:) i . Gr:,u:,:i water ir. the -~Slope I a.~ Pasco Slope su>are-.s or the Columbia Basin U. s. Geolat"ical S1:..-ve;," typewrittan repon, 162 pp., Jul l . ' '!'re~nar, a. ;:. (1;25), Origin o! the loe~s ot t:.a. ;a~'!J::_-ton: Scienc&, new ~eri~s, vo~. el,~• 469 Treasher, R. C. (1926), ~tra~i;:-a~ni.c aspec~s of lpess ?alou~e re~o~: ?an-k:. Gsologis~ , vol. 46, pp. 305-_Jll;. . ?i'arl11, G. A. (1913), GeoloiJ iil'Xi water ?"!!Source! o! a po..~ _ion o-• : , south-c9ntral Washi~-ton: U. S. Geol. Sur,. Su;:?lY' -?apar:-.:316, •._46 _ PP•,. Wa..~n, C. R. , The ii:>od River Co?'-,~ocerate in ~ashingtor.,.a_ Cou:ae 6! Columbia River in southern central 'iasrJ.."lgton: i.m. Jour. Sci., vo~ ~ l : .-;•.rjj.ft;;llf,l""•lrn;"\, 239, pp. lC6-l27, 209-2;2, re~ctively, 191.l. U..'IP t'OE:.!S OF TEE RIC UuJ~ iJ).S;~ The ce:tral pa.~ of the llchla.~d ar!&1 rlth ir:-.ich this rs?ort • is co_:-.cerned, is a shal vine; cc~le:t o! acz.ndonec atre~ ter:-aces anci cna.,nel~ , of w~ch the -hi~ilast is rol.!bhl.j !aet ~ova ,.sea. level, lower terraces drop of! by• •teps 00~mrard L'"lci a.stwarci tc ~he Columbia. River (.325 to t.00 feet above sea le ... -al); and sol!tmrard anc southeastwa:-d through the Cole Creek Valle,-(675 to SOC !eet) to the Ya.ld.Zila P..iver (32S to 450 feet).; Within.the llOrtn-central part o! the area, Gable Mountain and G~le wtte ri:e ..cove this.terraced plain, the former to a summit , altitude of l,116 !eat a.hove sea level. Along the western tla.nk ot the . area, tha terraced plail. a.buts on the !i.kima Range mi tile Ra.ttlesnake ~s, 'With ere~ altit.ides r..:c~~ about !rom l,J.00 t.o -),620 !Nt abo sea level. (See ;,l. l.) ' J TM highest tar:-ace 1 rov.ghly from 2 to. 2t miles -wicie, treJJds sout~ south•~ !or some l2 miles, about, t~ougil the cer::er o! the are&. co-nared by axplora.t-ory prcject c-1:33. Its c~sr, nat dasceDC.s grad-.iall.7 !:-om an altitude o! Seo !eat aoow sea. l9V9l at tLS !lank o! the !a.ld.a ?.ange on the west to &00\.~ 700. :aet on the .east. Cutting across the cz-ast !lat ia a sha!J.O'W' 1fim. gap, p:-obiQly a segmer= o! a !or=er st.rea= chacnal, about th:-ee-quarters or a =ile Tride ar.

• I • • • ----------A cou.ntet?art o! ~hi.s highest. ter:-ace exists i:,.. the fiat which nc~ches tlla c:-e~ o! Gable ~tai:1 about micw~7 ot its len~h1 also another which ror:n~ a spur on the east end o! tba mo1:.ntain. still a.cot her counterpart is tha i'ai:ly extensive plain 11hich is north o! -the Colu:n.bia River one. whose eastern:nost oart sxtenda i::to the ncrthnst 'Oar:t o! the area sl:.o,m on Plate 1. PreSU3a.bl7, all these are remnants o! a. once-contimlous plain occ-.1pyir~ all the nort.:iern pa:--:. of tne :licnl.2.Zld. area ar.d later d.!.ssectec to . t.~e pr9sent la.~ !orms. North oi' this principal hign-torrace r9mna.nt o! the lti.:hland are&, the l.a.?Xi s~e~s cio,rn ir: benches to an aba."'lCioned bifurcated st:-eam channel which t:-e~.ds east-so~~heast alonz either fla."'lk o! Gable !lountai!l. ?arts of this chai::..~el o,.9er-ut 4 75 ! e9t -.bove sea level. . South of the ~rineipal hi6h-terraca remr.ant is the broad Cold Creek Vallsy, wr.icn he acis between two spurs o! tte Ya.kima Range about al.cng local coo?-dina.t-e 45,000 ?J0rtn. Dry Crsek Valley, a. na::-ow-bottomed trench bat,rean th.a _Rattlesnake iiUls ed. the Y~.....:na., ente:-s Cold Creek . Valley fro? the west, about a-: 201000 north. F~her southeast t.ha Cold. Creek V:;,1 ley broadens wi.del:, and merges!.sti."'!~ly irith a co:plax oi' law plains which generally are oet~een 650 a.."'!d 500 feet above sea lswl, anci lClich extend eastnard to the ColUltbia. River. Nw:1erous parts o! these low pla.i.115 have a z:arked dune topography. Gable Uo~ain is a conspicuous ridge tretxiing soi:erca.t south o! east !or 6 along the oo!" margi!l o! the ~a considered in detail b7 tbis report-~eci!i:ally be~ween coordi."lates 551000 anci 27 ,OOJ . nst, at a.bout 601000 nort~ ( sea pl. l). It rises aoout 7CO !aet above the adjacent plai..~s. ~e mountain is essentia.ll.J mass o! ~ica.,.. .. c :-ocks (basalt, with soma ta!!) irr.ic!-. was up-!olcied, po:ssibl.7 up-faulted in part, and somewhat eroded be!ore the sur:-oundi~ deposits were laid doll'Il. 1ieo;:e, it is an isolated anc expo sec!. "high" on a. !a.'"mflr volcanic terra..'19 irr.ich once occu-pieci all the P..:!.chland a:t-l!a as well as the su.-rou.~ region; its volcanic rooks a:~ pa.rt o! a ::nation (! ... \-:--b al) . . . . •-' . •"" .. ,~ •h d ;...; . ' as 11'tll.c~ i~ c~n~.nuous oeneaw •• a..., an Wu.en -s exposed in other •highs" to be _d. Although "Tolcs.nic rocks !or:n the greate:-part o! the, a local deposit oi gravel and sa.9ld bisects the :nountain' s crest and .another elo~ates t.'-19 :iou::t.ain to the A!5 has been stated., the~e local deposits are re::i:-..:xt~ of a former hi6 h terrs.cs, t:.ara a.bout ?00 feet above sea level a.nd 400 !eet below ths sw=it o! the i:ountain • uable Butte :..s thi! largest a::ior.; .. o! rock hills about. dua wast of Gaol-a, bet"lraan coo:-d! 701000 a.~. SS ,COO Like th.a =ounta.:.."l, thesa :,.;, J., ars cc:n?os~d of volca.9:ic :-ocks ar.:i "!


---------• • ~r 11higils" ct the !or:ner volc..n!.c t~rr~. Their nighest is 763 !ee~ a.cove sea. lewl, or so:iewh~ lolrar tha., the ~gb-ter:-ace . re=a."':t.s to the south and to the iiort~, on .either _side o! the Colucbia Ri var. cence, U!llike Gabie :.!ountai.~ 1 Ga:ola ~tte and its satelllt~ hills once pro!:Jacl7 were wholly buried by t!le deposit, and have be-an exhw::iad ciur~ the cutti~ and grading o! tile . latrer plains pr~viou~l7 des~r:.bed. Ever since t.~ey wer~ raised as "highs" on tile G.:lle liountain a.--ici Gabls ;lutte witil its s~tallites ha.e acted, at im,erti.ttently, as f'ende:-s locill7 deflgctilli ar.d li:niti."'lt: . the cours the ance:r~ra.l and ?resent Colu:oia River--in ~rc.s, throughou4y several epochs ir. which the pre sent comp~ex o! pl.a.ins i:l the Richla araa iras formed, tha mou.":tai:l and butte loea.ll.y nave detar:d.'lad the pattern of stream-~.1tting, a.~ so the distri:ru.tio: o! deposits by -;:hi -ch the area has oeen up-graded. I!l tu:n, that distribution 0f deposit.s (r..!.ch ..r..ll be developed speciicall7) is a prlnci~al ele~errt in h;rcir.'ologic reatu..-es With -.rhicl:. this report is concerned pri::laril:,.i In regional perspective, the and .butte just d.esc!"ibeci . only small features of the !ormer volca."-1c t~rr.a:1e. Analogous major !ea.tuns 'are the Yald.:na Ra.."'lge and "whe Rattlesr.a.ka HLlls, which enclose the area. on the 11est a.91d ~uthwest and which rise as Jml~ as 2,800 !eet aoove the ;llain.s co:n;.lex. EssentiaJ.17, thes• ciajor !ea.twres also up-!olded {and locG].J.y':) 'ma~su o! the wlcanic roe~, now so:newhat d.i~sected an'd fr~"'lg-ad locall:, with a detrital blanket irilich is only in par: analogous 'to tha plaina-for=ir.g deposits previously treated. T'nese ma.jor "higbs" o! volcanic rocks c"ata a wester?l boun:iar/ !or the hydrologic sub-province 0 concern in this r~port. EIPLoa,..roRY PROJECT C-133 (EITE?IDED) Met.hods of test drilling .Because they have some bea.-L"lg on the later i!lte?"?retiva sections o! this report and would be ger.nana to a:iy i.'urtner explora.tion in the Richland area., certain aspects ~f adequate test-d:"-llinb methods here reviewed b.--.-eny. T".ne discussion pertai:s to co ntiitions oi Project C-133 (extended), ira.ich used standard cable-tool d..~ .rigs and orc.ina.1 accessories to explore uncon:solid.ated or slishtly collSolidatad alluvial deposits as much as several huxxired !eet thick , resting on volcar.ic rocks. In ~articular, it treats o! methods and ruling princi,lss which were evolved ciur.-.9lg the. project, and which were achieved in !ull as tne project was nearing its end. ; Rather th.a.., to 11::ake hole" ra;,idly, a. ;r..::ia.~ objecti w o! test d.~g is to glean all pos~ble i:l!or:nation .s t.o the character o! the earth rnatarials .s they exist in place, benea~h the land surface. Fu,ll it:f'or.nation is deri -:eci no~ only !:-o~ ej:arn.: ... a.:ticn ot j)rope:-ly sat:pled


-I • • • • -------------"cutting:", :ro: clos9 observati~n o! tr.e tec;,o of dri1,in:-operations. T!-~us, us9!ul a..-.: cri~ical tacts ma;• be shown by "bit action", !r9ed.o?:1 with ,rhicr. cui.~ driv,s1 t:. a::iou."lt ct d....UUng 1a.ter acid9d to tne hol-e and stabilit:.". o! unca..,aci hole. !n fact, excludi.--i,; mec:-.r.ical !ailu...-e of eq-J.ip::?e~t, eve:,-de..-'.atior. !roe ave a~e drillin; pro~:~ is ex;,la:i..:lable ir. t.arms o! varia:tion i..'l character, ti:e ?:a::.eri-=-l :einb d.-U:ed. FTojec1; C-1;3 dea:.o??st:-ateci the utilit al;!rt., i.-.::'or.:ed, ani co::'ti;uc:.l "i~sp9ct ion" .t eac:. operati.".;r ri.;-y geologist i! a. o! ~olo;i~ ir.~or=ation is scu~ht. Cut, ti:--.g-s car. be fully and rel!.abl:: inte?9?r!tec i! each sample, accor:i:..~ to da?t;. zoos, rep:-ese!'!t.s all constit~ents o! tilt\ -ea.~h ! :::ia"tion in tneir tr.1e ~roportion, retains soce ! of or::iation t-9,:; , , ~ a:id. n .. s no ad.~ure oi material. car:-iac d.OTrn !ro::: overlyi~;; zones. 1'hese requiretten~s lee. !ina.lly to these Beneral!l:: ;,ri:lci;,les; : \ , .. ,• l. ill drilling procedures should. be . so cont~ll~ that, !or a . sa..--:;>li:6 ;inte:-1:.J., the bailings~ are an a.deq--ia~• gross sCi)le of the beds penet:-a~eci i.~ each interval and are not "diluted" by material. !ro::i beds previouslj ;,enetrated.. !n the allt::vial materials ti:e sa.,iplitli i:terval should. not ,, exceed 5 feet, with that i~erval reduced at necassa..'") tc szr~le a.ltarna'ti~g tr.i:: beds of dit!ersnt textures, or to sample • . rigorously a..v :one contami.-~ted by process asta. To that -•"11nk:•c!""'•11J general end, the speci!ic controls fer tes~ cir:,, ing i.~ the alluT.Lal catarial.s are outlined oelcnr. 2. For ,each sampling interval (S feet or lass), the bol.e is clean-bailed and casintt is dr!.ven to tha bottoc before d.rilli:.-ii is resumed-j:. other words, ca.sin; is dri'\-en in steps which _ coincids with sm:zpling interval.3 a.nd "open hob" is not tolerated through a....-y beds previously sar:pled. I! the !onation "caveslf so that the length ot open hcl~ must 'be shortened, the samplint i:itarval 13 .sharteneci .;: . j. In :ziaking new hole , ~..J.llng-cable is ~aid out as rapi~y as is, so that t;ie ma.tarials ar~ not ~veri.zed and chips or a.&.~ega::es o! rrains i."1 t:.e drilling sludge re:nai:i ~o ind!::a.-ce .ror::iation textu:-9 • . I... A . •sand-~u:no" baile:-now is used. !or the dual reason that it 'Will p1':k up !airiy coarse cut-~i~s and can re~ova d..'"il.llng sludge to .the ver-_: bot ton:. ot the hol-a, whereas the mere com:::011 "ciart" bailer recr.:.::es that. ti.a :a.t.e:-ials be ci.-:.J.!eci to a Iairly !ine sludge anci does not r9:ove the last toot or so of that sludge. In o-eher words, a st:-ictl;" clean :iole is unatta.i:able with a. da...-t bailer; .the slue!~ whicn can.'lOt be r!moveci not onll• , ... , ... .-.~~-~•.,, is likelj to cor:t-.i."1 tl~e la:-;-,~st cr.i~s -."'ld :.aa.viast r,rr-:S s (wr.ic.'l 110u.ld be the ::lOn i."l!"~r::a" nth resp.,c:1; to !0~4-ti~n terwur., a:i.! co:positi:n), out also inavi~a::!.; is ac:::.:c,-,d r.-::. tha-e o! the


ne~ sa:ip~,g i~~rval. Sue!; "ca.-:-:;-dow:." of ti:-n, .. nb sluciis w~ul .: oe es;eciuly l:,:xiesi:al)le i:l the sa:nCJli:ls , o! any zoca S con-::.a:::.z,-.t.eci by pr0C9S! w~ste 1 .nci. -mien~ . cause &n ovar-e~i:ata o! the amou.,t ol c:ont-a:ni na.:it &ix!. its, vertica.l spar.. Sa..'lci-;,u....":) baile:-s were acquired !or the work in the ?.ichland .area in ifo.vem:>er 1942, a.~er p.-ojec-: ~133 (extamed) was !a: adva.~c9ci. ;. Ylhen the for.llation lack.! !:.nes, the r..a.t.ural cirilli.'"lg slude,:e may be so "thi!l n ~hat =u-:~ir~s cio not reaai:l in suspecaion ar:d ca.'"'lllOt be bailed readily. Under tnese circu:tstances, a sl~ge of prope:-consistency i~ acr..:.e..-ec b :i;; n J..q-.:agel" or ot.:ar co=e:-c~al 11:l'".:d-:aker11 o! disti:ict.i ve . com?osition. The earl:,practice of :ciir.; local soil f~r the pu.-;:,ose :!.s quite un:iesira.ble becausa, i:1 the final s~le, tnat soil cz.."'--iot be disti~-uished sha.-plj"' ro:: co::.stituent~ in certain of the material.s bai!lg ex;;lored. 6. The s::all satz;)le of cutti.,gs ta.'c~n or laboratory-study should o! course re~resent all t h9 :)ailir..f'S !ro: the ~a..-tiel! depth interval. '!'o this er.:i, a!ter ~ass into tne well tne bailer is emptied into a claan ::ontai:1er, the emptiad b&ili:lgs are stirred U?Itil mi:'8d, arid then the Sital.l jar • sample is ~aken. I! several passes are necessarr to cleari tiB hols , a.,ci i! a. coatai!ler of a.dequg.te si:e is availa.ble, the bai Ji ""'gs !~:.. the several pa.-,ses are accwm:J.ated, then stirred., sa:it?led. Ot.benrise, separate sub-s~les are taken !:-01e the bailings o! eacn pa:ss .(i:: proportion to their several amounts) 1 then ! c0cbined, stirraci, and sampled. 7; Dril1in!; "str..:ig", oailer, and baillnss tub are hosed clean before each use lest !oreian materials, e5:>ecially' soil and otber !oreign matter !roe tl:le land surface, be introduced into the well am ad::ixed ntn the in appreciable ama_u:zt. J.a a means o! obi; the most in!or.natiw samples, one me=ber ot the d.-illi:15 crews, C. H • . Row, devisec:. a;ler, in its simplest !or:n, is a 2-i."lch stHl ~.ibe c~ached to tha lower end or a set o! dr'..lling "jars". T:lese .ja:s a;re usac. t.o ci:' the 4wube below the bottom o! a clean-bailed :,.ole, t:ms a "core n of little-disturbed. materials ahead of tr.a ciz-.J.l. ;J.thour:'l t::ere are several "" to be remedied, the device cid obtai."l, lata in t . hs course o! the project the tinest _set o! samples obtair.ed !:'Jm a:1:, or the test 'W9lls. sam;,lsr wo:-ks best i!lcva th~ water t. ~le ;..r.c! !ine ar mr~um uncon-. solidated ~avel, sanci, silt, and cla:.7. Eelow the -,u~tar, however 1 the coa.:-ser cc=only ru.., ::,.el~ o! the saar;lsr. a.'lCi are lo t; han?er, silt and c:la:; can be sm~:,:lad ef'!"i,cti;el;.


. As a part o! their mo:iitaring !'u:lction in project C~l33 . (extetiis~). , S~y perso:" ztade pre 1 i Ti na_-1 '!~"la tio_ ns., ~ t . ~a• , a1; the "Kell sites-spec~call:,~, sac;;>las •r• screer;ed . as best they might be wi":..:i t,ha li~u:ted. equipmsnt naila_ble 1 'eonstituen~ _te_r-4..alsi..ire~ idanti!!.ad l:::dar a. hand lens 0:-a. binoc' micr.cseope , anc1 sed.;:en tio_ n tests or o~-ier ph7sic:al and .cr.e=!.:al toasts were :na'!e. 'Results' ,o!•these•; d eXL'::!.:.aticns were inco~o:-a~eci i:lto tabular' ar.a ~phi: wcrk-logs ana:, .. ~,m~,H ~ .. records, kept. in !'ielci books. As was statea ir. the i."ltrod~ct c;n • ' to tc:!..s report, these p:-ocec.~~s we:-~ used a.t onl.7 lS. 0 the 25 , e::Ci)lora.. t:)ry well~ i."lclu~ad in t:1a project-ttose d:;.llec a!~e:-Oeological Su:-wy-.'. persor.nel wers o~ the groU?ld. aif:i.r,

• •• I -contract.or's'f. For e~l~, lfell 45-69.5 {I.S/~t::J.5 or. pl. l) has bee?: locate-i I ter.ta.t.! vel:; at coord!.natet! 45 ,:,c") no:-t.h and. 69,500 wa,t •. L'l co:-..nectio:; • r.:apr,i.~e-,-:o~:-ol 'i'roject ! the field wo:-1: was , c~;,!'?+.,ec: r9cent!.:, .. cy the topocrt.;:hic division o! the ~olcgical SU..-rey, coorci::.:iate pos:.t:.ons o! ell-the well:: r.ll. be• • !ixed. Al.thou;!! thes~ pos!.tio:: datr. are :1ot ret a.vailal:le, it is l!.~k-ely ~hat tr.e~ -:r:.l "! re•;-.:.~e t ha t ents::.i .-e c.eta:-::-.i:.a~io~s S\.i"!'ici.t:=l;; to ir.valic.ate ar.~r !ssen~ia!$iO:--..: :-ea.chec !.:. re:::ort. .

-----------l • •• I I j I I • • -LAll nils ca.sad with 8-inch standard pij)e. All !eet above sea-level datum ot 19~9; leveling by General E : I I G CD CD. -a ! i I l'-4 o CJ 0 I 0 cG , = :a t~ I fe.4-1 > '-4 c:,,.... -4 ?fo. When d:-:.lled 1~;-;1 ..:~ 0 ... ,.... J... G 91 (1942) ' .0 :: CJ f .0 (0 t ::S ID CD i . ..., I CIS ;) ID +1 -4 I C..-4 o..., I .... --, c3-j ~1 ~-s ID '-4 e "O .,;a? I = , " G = . ,.... d I ; '1S :! ,= Q CD -4 GI ,.... I ,~,.... N c.-,-4 ' I I I

-(l) JL-Se.5 Aug.26-Dec.:i 35-40 Jl&y-June Je.5-60.5 July 2C-,iug.~ 43-ea.5 45-69.5 J.6-42.5 July J-16 Mar 16-June 22 June )-23 47~5-60.: June 2:-July 20 50-30 Uay 22-July J Ju.~e 7-29 SL.5-42 .5 ~7 18-June 5 U.7 20-June 2 June 2-l6 J.,il.:; ; c;2.5l 1.3 llOS .J 567.9 1.2 205 ' 6 607 , ) Oct. ;-Hov. 2 .o t2:3Lo4?,, .a ~5 l sos.s 2.s lLay lS-JUll8 l Aug. 3-28 sso.6 !195.~ 2.0 . . ~192 1 >.ug.;l.J-Dec.16 510.0 j253.~ l.9 .(a) {119.4 (llS.09 179.96 179.:30 2:,s.o llS-!.47 11;.~ 161.0 (a) SS-50 55-70 s;-sa.s 60-60 60-80B 62.S-90 22J..-B-4 224-T-4 361-3-8 361.;.a-il l253 J June 2-26 !/ 643.0 270 June lS-July 21./672 J06 19 708.0 3J.B Apr.2S-Jl&y 24 616.0 248 .31. .s 256.c 22s-2sss12s3.36 l.4 303.0 27"'".,-)0;~235.J.S 1.4 344.s 31:3-34:3~319.26 .9 229.0 216-2-~226.66 !I casing r.ot pertorated. 21' Drilling disconti..~ued be!oro water table w Water level probabl7 not r~coverarl !'rom ba" . 9/. F-e:!ora. e;,orted; de-;,tr.s giver~ '!/ lc;J.7. Jul7 lO Nov. 3 July 10 ~ov. 22 ~ulr 2C Nov. J Uul:, 10 Nov. 15 Uuly-lO Nev. 22 July 10 Nov. 22 July-10 • NoT. 22 July. 10 Ho•• 17 ?lov. 30 Jul.710 Nov. 19 Sept. 2 NoT. lS. Sept. 7 Nev. 12 Nov. 4 Nov. 4 Nov. 4 Nov. 4


I !?u.11e topo~apny. ~titucie o!-~inch casing, 505.1 !set. !'.sce!lt all.uviu:::. Silt7 sa.rxi wi ~r. some !ini ~aval. ?a.-,;iclas c:1ie!ly b asalt, • • •Terrace cie;ositsJ undi!!er~!ltiilT.ed: , . ?!.."'le ~anl a.:-...:1 !!:ne to. -very coarse sane., sli~tly: si!-:y in part but generall:r clu.:i an:. !a.i:l}' per.:ieable • . Coa:se particles chiefly b~salt, an~a: to sub-roU!lded. Silt is ta."'l. • • • • ~~gol~ !01-::a~ion: Silty sar.::., ta.~a-:-a7, sub-angular to sub-rounded; ' very !'in9 to coa:-se, averages medi~.. ~out 50 percent quartz, !aldspars, and 1?'.i~ (typical. 0 i;b.e Ri:gol:; a.od SC percent basalt • • • • • ~a.val ar~ sa:-..d i.,: a :1a.tri:c o! silt and clay. P~bbles c.-tiefl7 qu~zite and basalt, sub-rou."lciaci to :-our.dee.; sa.~d is vecy ! to coarsa , : averages ::iedi~, an=i is la.:-g9ly ql!art :, !el~pa:~ z;ic., a::d basalt • ,. X),;h sa.'ld and silt are tan Tan silty sa.r.d wit :i sane !i."le gravel. Sa.'ld ia chie!l1 quartz and !eld.spars nth miner i.l:lOU..~ o! basalt; siz~ ranges !rom !ine to coarse , r1ara6es ~edium. Pebbles generall7 wll-. . rounded; mostl:,-quart=.t3, era.911.toid. and gneissoi:i rocks, and basalt; also-some serpentine • • • • • • • • • . • • • • • !~edium to coarse iTavel and fine to coarse sacd, slightly. silty ami highly per.:eabl!. ::Ostly • quart ;:ite an:. ~ani-:oid rocks, genera;, y SU~ rounded; may i?lCl~de cobbl!s or 'boulders !ram 145 ~o lS5 !eet • • • • • • • • • • • • • . • • Casi.~g sea~ed 156.5 fee~ below . iana S\!:!ace, anti ~er!or~ted to 15: !eat. . Final depth of well 152.6 !en a!ter p9:!oratin6 casing. Y!ater l~el 120.5 !e~t belo.: top o! 8-i:J:h caS" .... ~g at 6:10 P•=• on July 2!?1 l9l.S. Wa.te.._;level reccrdsr i.~stalled !,ove~ber l.2, . l94S.


I !lo. 25-35. t-,p0g:-.ph7 in Co~d Cr aur!ace 28.7 .teet; of top~ 8Material Recer.t allu'Tium (dune sand.) a Sand., and Ynite, tine to coarse. P~icles c\.."e.!l:' ba.salt. rlt.h considerable quart:, !elcbpar and ~coTi te. 1.pp&Nm17 deri Ted in part t:-om the Ei.:lgold !ol"?&ticn . • Ringold .torma.tion: . Silty ea.nd. Sand 1.s gray, o! varied rock tjpe&, sub-rolUlQ.ed to sub-azlgttlar, fine to coarse but &Terage . medium. Silt is tan and. =akes !roi:l 20 to.JO pe;-(?ent of sample • • • • • to coarse sa.nd, graeuiar, and tine :to , medium gravel in a silt matrix. Coa.rae par-;icles geoerally aub-rou:ided to rounded o! di Terse rock t:,pea rlth. considerable basalt. Silt is tan and :zzaJces 25 to 30 perc\!nt at. s~l• • • . • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Si,+tr sand., tr0:1 diverse rock t7Pes, very tine to eca:se. Silt u ta: to gray-tan, ranges L~ .20 to SO percent ct sample • • • • • • • • 0:--aval. a.nci sand rith sc:e cobblea in a tan silt matrix. Peboles and cobbles are larg~ basalt and qu.rtzit•; sand den:-red largel.7 .troa q,uart:ite, gn.Jij.t.e, ar.d. gneua ..•••. • • GranJ.l1' and sane:, silt. lfa.ter-1.l.a aa above : , except tor llUch greater proportion ot silt Sand and g;raT,l, UD&Ssorted, nnor amount ot silt. Particles aub-round.ec1 to ~b~, and de.~ nd 11ost C011monl.7 . troa 'b&s< or qua.rt.zit• • • • • • • • • . • • • • iiii ua.~ 165. ?eet 'oe!c:m tiiia STJr!ace, l.64 feet. niml. d.epu c.t well 162 !'eet &!tar • lnel l38.J.u feet bel.air top at ca.silJI &t 2.,20 . p 'Water-level reccrc!er. inst.lled Hov~ l6, l9


-I Tab1e 2.-Continued. Mo. 25-56. Dune topo_grapl:y in Celd Creek '7a.lley. ilt!.tude 0! land _s\lrface, 67:! .4. fee~; of t~p : B-~n:!':. ca.s lr.g;. e1, .4 fHt • ! Recent a.llUTiu:= (dune sand): . Silty sand, tan; o-! quartz but . in part ct felds?ar, mica., and basalt; ~! t:-ci: !ine to medi~; angular to :s_ub-a~!ar !orution: . Sa.nd., sil-:y a.lld clayey, of relat:.velj' lO'tf per.:eabil:!.ty. Sand as in member above. Considerable coarse ba.salt sand bet;veen llO and. 120 reet. Silt and clay are ta.n and color the whole sample ••••••• Silt., sand;r, clayey, and tan. Sand is !ine and do:ina.ntl.7 o'! quart;, !elda?ars, 'and . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fine tc coarse sand and tine to mediu= gravel ill a ta.,91 clayey silt :a.trix. Pebbles cio:inantl.7 o! basalt; sand. grains of quartz, ! , and cica. • • • • • • • • • • • • Silty, clayey, fine sand. Sa.nd grair.s predomi nan+,~ or quartz a.nd a.n5J.lar to sub-rOllllded • • • . . • • • . • • • • • • • • • . . . . . • • Fine gravel and very !ine to :iedium sand with minar amounts of tan silt. Sa.nd u predominately o! quartz, !eld.,pars, and mi ca.. Silt ranges f:om. less than one to aoout ien percent 0 sample ••••••••••••••• Gravel ar.d sand in a. ma. trix 0 tan silt. Sin:i.Jar to overlying bed but silt is from 20 to 25 perce?lt o! sa:::ple • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Gravel, boulders, sand, and silt; cie!lr quartzite, g:1eiss, basalt, and_gram.toid. rocks ••• Fin& to: :.edi~ve: 3.nci ,sa..~ i~ tan-silt.:a.t:-~. Pebbles rounded. to suo-~c,unded •••••••• C...,ing sea~e~ 51; !ee~ oe!ow !iii~ sur!ace, 28h to 3lu !eet. 1-4_:oa.l cie?ltr. o! well ,oe. 8 .teet ca.sing. level 28$ .49 !eet belaw t= o! 8 on J~ 17, l9h8. . . . s 206 10


---------- • • • I I I -25-70. Dune to:,ograpq in Cole. Cre . • • !I • s~rfac•, G28.8 4e•~; o: top 01 _, Uateria.l. ' Recent alluvium ( dune sand) : Sa.I:d, t:rat, clean, :edium tc tine, sub-a." to sub-:-o~c:sd.; dow-..iDant~ q_ua:-t., !'e!, and 9ca..saJ. t . . . . . . . 1 • • • • • • • • Ringold tor-...a.tion: Silty sand, tan. Sand as in me:ber above; cor..stitutes 20 to 30 percent or s~le. Silty and cl.qey sand. Sane. u dcc1 narlt~ o! quartz, rel~ars, ::iea, a.nci; very !ine to meciid, avera~s !1:le. Clay sufficient to ~e su;>le slightly plasti= • • Silty sand, tan-brawn; cc::;:osition above but a~erages mec:ium • • • • • • • • • • • Clayey sand, brc,m , ot va.."'1.ed minerals 1 verr !ir.e to fine • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Sand:7, cla.7, brO"tl'Il. Impermeable • • • • • . • Med:!.um gravel, cla7ey, pebbl~s ~'i gr~e: with a caliche coating • • • • • • • • • • • " • • Sa.n~ clay, brown, with quar.titj• ct _!ine gravel and granules. !J:;)~ea~le •••••• Clayey sand, brcrrn. SimiJar to ma.tei-ial trc= 125 t.c ]JO feet; i::per:ieable •••••••• Cl..791' sand., brown, nth small amcu:t !iJle gravel shcwing caliche coating. I=ermeable . • • . . • • • . . . • . • • . • . • • • Clayey sand, brown, Tith caliche !ra.g::ients. J:mE>e%':leable • • • • • • • • . • • • • • • • • • • • Med!.m t~ coarse gravel 1c;..a.: catrix 0 brown, clayey silt. Peblllea sub-rcuncied, chie!'lT quartzite. Very low per::eability. Proca~ boulders .u:d cobbles from 200 to 215 feet •••• Gravel, samd, si~t. S1miJar to bed above but lac~ the clay • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • liecii'Um sand, gray, clean, moderate~ wel.1-sc:-ted; large~ ot light-~olored.DQ.nerw; fairly b:1gh permability • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •• Gravel, sane, a.nd silt. Pebbles chie!'lT ot quart:ite, ra:,clite, grad.ta, gneiss am built; t9 sub-rou:ded. A t• lu.o:cita concretions from 2c0 to 265 feet • • • Gravel and sand in a matrix 0 tan silty Pebbles u in bed above • • • • • • ., ,: _., I• ••.


• • I f I -* . ' ' .... '"'' . . ' Table~--Continued • Ringold rormaticn (continued): . Sand a.nd. madiu: tc coarse . gravel, rith tan silt matr!.%. Pebbles and cobbles of diverse cc:&&position ~ a.cove; su'b-ro,:.:ided. Sanci gra:tr..s sub-angular, poci_r).y sc~ed, . mostly o! lignt-eolored mi~erw •••.•••. • , •• Sa?ld a:!d gravel 1n a. ma.t~..x of 'brc,,rn claye7 silt. Dii".ters !-:oc. cve:-!y-ir.g bed o~ in cla;r coi:.tent . • • • . • • • . • • • • • • • • • Sand and gravel in a matrix 0 tan-crown ,ilt. S:i:mila.r to 290-to 295-!oot bed • • • • : • Clayey f!.ne sar.c., mettled reddish-brcim 'cy ~r.ite • • . • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 7ine to p:edium sar.d and fine to coarse gravel:, a.l!:iost free of silt.• Gravel a:.d sand are sub~--ular to rounded, a."'lc. most co::monly o! quartzite and basalt ••• Ca.s~ ~ea•weci GL'.0 • d ! eec DeJ.cnr .La.Ila. SU.tac er!orat. . 21'0 to 270 a8t. F~ dept~ c! well 3~0-~ tee pertora ca.sil'.g. Wa.ter level 228.L.5 f'eet belaw tcp c! 8 ing at. on September 2, l9u8. Water-level recorder vemoe~


---------------I -I . I ..,,,,,..,.. Table 2.-C0nt1J:ued. Ne. 2$-80. Dune topogra;hy in Cold Creek Valley. ilti s~face. 614.8 ae~; 0 top c~ S-incn casi~; 6l5. Ka.ter' Recent alluvium ( dune sand) : . Silt:, sand, crown-tan, fine to medi,m Ri::gold. ro~ .. tion , Silty sane., brcr.:-tan; fine to coarse, a~erages medim:; light-colored :iinerw predomi."1ate ~ed!~ to.coarse gra7el, sand, and silt. Pebbles and cobbles pri:cipall,1' quartzite a?.d basalt. Some saJ:ple contains oriy a trace o! silt (a.s f~o~ 85 to 90 !eet wt.ere aqua.gel was required to make a sludge) ; in ot,hers t!:le silt !raction inctease, to near~ So ~erce:it of the whole. From. J3 to 38 teet ~cnta.:i:., calicile-coated pebbles and caliche-cemented sand • • • • . • • • • • • • • • Gravel and. sand. in matrix ot clayey silt. W!ers from. overlt;llg bed. in i~s clay fraction •••• Yaldm. basalt: 'i/ • • . • • •. • • • • • . • • • • • • • Volcanic ash or tu!'! rlth ai:gular _basalt_ !ra.g:::euts • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Ba.salt, black • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Volca.cic ash or, ri th angular basalt !'ragi:ents • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • . Ba.salt rt~ a. !ew thin ilrterbecis ot or tu!!. Basalt ranges :rom. dense, black, and !'re~ to scaracio~, gray, de-Ti trit1ed. The !:-esh basalt is joi:lted into~ blacks . Tuff, altered in pa.-t to bentonitic (?) clay; light gray, ta.n-br01m, and greenish-brawn. In part 1s sa.nd;r a.nd contains considerable amoum, o! glus snarc.s, alao acme basalt fragments • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • !a.salt, blaick and red, sccra.cious in part. tcnrest h ! eet entirely s cora.cious, T.i th ccnaidera.ble ash • • • • • • • • • • • • • ea.sing sea~a

I . --• • ?lo • 34 er:-aca sh0 inch d&S Reesnt allu'ri.1m (cl:ane sam): Silty sand, py, verr t1m to Tef"/ coarse, sh..::, to sub-a.:igula.r; predo:i:!.~ntl.7 'oasalt • Tam~~ ieposita (un:ii!!~rantiated): Sil4;7 sa.nd, tan; chie~ basalt, grain:s anguls.r to sub-roumed' . Silt. i.s a.bout :;o to SO percent o! each suple • • • • • • • • • • . • Silty sand a.nd. tine to me!.ma gravel. Sand am silt a.s a _ bove; pebble9 o! va.ried rock t1P,9s S1lt7 s~m, _gray. S1m~,a,-to overl.14-ng bed (reworkad Ri:lgold tomation?) •• •••• P~-old. !or-..ation: . Sil~7 sa.m, t-.~gra.7. Sa.Jld and silt fractions about equal •••••••••• Sa.Mr sil-t, ta.n, semi-co~ol!.iatad. sam u very tine to coarse, averages medium • • • Sil~ ~&!Xi, Un. Silt ranp~ !rom about 30 to SO per:eat of saJ:Iple. I:1 large part, probaol7 lenses a.Dd an alternation o! l&79rs o! almost clean silt irith elean sarxi •••• Silty sand; composition similar to, but more , 1 !i.~ consolidated tha.n overljing materials.!, • Silt, gr&'Nll7 am gritty, gra,-.ta.:i. Pabblaa am granules chien7 ~rtzite, granite, granodiorite, am basilt, ! •dium ••• ~. Silty a.m ~t~7 sam, calcareous. Core sample dusty dry. Ditter, tro:21 bed onl7 in proportion ot comtituents to JNdi'tml gra"iel; verr tim to very C0&1"S8 v sand, and tan silt. Silt is calcareows and tram, 3 S to SO percent 0 sa=ple . • • • • Silty clay, plastic, tan-brown. Cl.&7 1s damp a.nd ::aria th, to'O ot cliacernibla iDoistu.~e abow the 11a.ter table, is 59 teet below .1 • • • Sand7 silt J light ' Kr&7' with (r&1111l8S a.nd line ' . ; ••••.••. • . . . . • • • • •••••••• to coarse sane!;, am silt7 gra:vel • • • • • • • Boulda17 gravel 1n mtrix of tan silty sand 1lt1icll 1a 45 to SS perc•= otsample • . Pebbles am cobbles stream--.,r:, sw,,-ro=cied to ovoid., c:hia~ liiht.-color•d rocks i) Drive-core obt.a.~~ in !eet (aee p. lJ). To adept.ho! at least appeared ~t7 below the penatn.4;:1.on


• -• I • I• • • Table 2.-Continued. No. 31'-Sl.$ • .:. Continued. Katerial Ri.J:liold !onnation (continued): Gravel, sa.:ld, and tan silt. Sand is Terf' !'ice tc i:i.ed!.ci -a. •c:iuiwand•. P:-cportic?lS are a.;proxi:a. tely 60, JO, and 10 percer.-t. r9speetive~ •••. . , • , • • • • • • • • • • Gravel and sand 1.--i a. :::a.tri.X ot gray-tan s~ty clay; relativ~ imper:ea.ble :matrix • . • Gravel, coarse; clean, irell-worn, and h.::.ghl.7 pe.""::D.eable • • • • • • • • • • . • • Fil;e to medi...:m sand, gray, pen:eable ••• Gra.vel u:.:i sar.d ill a silty clay catrix; relative~ i:;,er.nea.ble • • • • • • • • •• ti,ne to me~= gravel, ch.yey. Pebbles mostly quart:d::.e. Cla.y ia silty alld gritty. Grj:t is ve.-r !ine to coarse sa.nci a.nd. granules,, to ~-Very law per.i,ea.bili-t.y .• • Sand, very fine to media, clean and per:eable • Le~tici.::la.r sai:.d and. gravel. ,ri th clay and silt; iron-oxide s-ta.i:l. Cl..7 a.nd silt ar~ less ~h.a.n +O percent c! sa:;,l.e. Sand u gray ncaceous, l.a.rgel.7 quartz. Medium p~bili'ty •••• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 4 Zigh~-~ casi.-,.g sea.~ed at Joj.) !ae~ below l.a.nd s~!ace, a:d. perlo=ated. !'rem JU to .381 teet. depth 0 ,rell 381.&..9 !eet atter perforating casing. irater level 345.l !eet below top of 6-inch cuing a.t l:~S p.m. on liovcber 29, 19L.8.


• • • I I I I I I -Ho. 311-69 • S. . . s on ar:-~ee marg4-n of "vo~ oi' ::-inch casii:;, a . kteri&l !ecent a.l.luvium ( dune sand) 1 . Silty sand; basalt and q~: gra.:in3 a.bundant; mica and ! cc=mc:i; to Ter:-ace det1osita, undi!!erent.ia:ted: I • Fi:le to medium sanc.1 silty; predom:i.nantl7 basalt, quartz, and teldspar, generall7 sub-t-oanded , , to suc~-ular • . • . • • . • . • • • • . • • . • Silty sanci ' and tine tc medium gravel. Pebbles a.nd sand g:-a.ins sub-rounded ro rour.ded, and apparently' derived from tor.-..a.tion., enriched 'rlt.h. basalt particle, 1'?1,ich g~ner~ , are ar.g,il.a.r to su~ • • • • • • • •. • . • Sand a.lld. silt nth _ cla.y. Sand. gr~ are predcmin.antly quartz,, and mca; basalt generally sedium. to coarse, suo-... ) &npla.r, aD4 less tha.n 3$ pe:-cent or total sand. Silt and el.a.7 are~ a.nd comprise 3$ to Ea percent. ot total sample • • • • • San.d1' and clayey silt., tan, plastic. Sand is yer:, !ine to med:1Jm, less t~ So percent o! total sa:;,le • • • • •••••••••••••• SaDd and. granl., tine to coarse, clean, permeable Silt., clay, sand:, and gra.vel in respec:-..1. ve per-. ceatage i)ropcrticms or ' a.bout 40, 20, 30, and. 10 • Silt, sa.nd., a.nd. gravel. Ditters r rom cverlyi.:lg bed in lack o! cla.y • • • • • • • • • • • • • Silt, clay, sa.nci, &lld gravel. Sim l ir to 231-to 2$0-toot beci • . • • • • • Silt, sand, and gravel. . S1:nila:r ta 2$0-to . 290-!oat bed • • • • • • . • • • • • • • • • Fi:1e to coari• gravel and fine ta medium sand; cl~an, !.;!.rly' nigh , .; t7. ~ stly o! r • light-colored. minerw . • • • . • • • • • Gravel a.ncl .-.nd, s1rldJa-:t,o elver . ~ bed, nth cla.yq silt mat.~. Per:neamlitJ' rela.ti veq law • • . • • • • . • • • • • • • Cu~ a•ai,acl j2L..Ii teet. below lane. .s 295 t0 310 feet, and ,JlS to 320 feet. F ating1 32$.u teet • . Water level 290 •. 10 te at a.m. on Septe:zibe 1948.


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