Early stage of hydrogelogy in the United States, 1776 to 1910 - final draft - March 6th, 1978

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Early stage of hydrogelogy in the United States, 1776 to 1910 - final draft - March 6th, 1978

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Early stage of hydrogelogy in the United States, 1776 to 1910 - final draft - March 6th, 1978
Parker, Garald G. (Garald Gordon)
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Box 1


Subjects / Keywords:
Aquifers -- Hydrogeology -- Florida ( lcsh )
Hydrology -- Florida -- Biscayne Aquifer (Fla.) ( lcsh )


Hydrogeology is concerned largely with ground water and, as ground water occurs in a geologic environment, an understanding of the geologic fabric and framework is essential to its development and use. But ground-water flow, discharge, recharge, response to pumping and other related matters, including salt-water encroachment, are described by mathematical formulas and tested by engineering techniques. Until both the sciences of geology and engineering hydrology were far enough advanced to be of practical help; in the late 1800's, hydrogeologic progress was stymied. Additionally, an economic need for hydrogeologists wu required before a demand developed for such scientists. With the opening of the West in the late 1860's the demand came. Hydrogeologists were needed to find irrigation water for the arid lands. Concomitantly, in the South, ground water was needed for growing rice, com, and cotton. The rapid growth of cities, especially in the North, required hydrogeoiogists to find safe supplies of clean~ pure water to replace polluted surface-water sources. By the early 1900's engineering techniques and equipment needed to drill and pump the deep wells and to evaluate the aquifer pumping tests were available, satisfactory for the times, but clumsy and awkward by modem standards. By 1912, the beginning of the "Meinzer Era," the U.S. Geological Survey had developed into the foremost governmental scientific organization in the world and its small cadre of hydrogeologists were world leaders in their science. A wealth of information concerning the history and development of the science was summarized by Meinzer (1934). Oscar E. Meinzer, regarded as the Father of Hydrogeology in America, was the third Chief of the Ground-Water Branch (1912-1946) (Figure 1). (KEY TERMS: hydrogeology; history; definitions; Meinzer Era; water budget; water crop.)

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University of South Florida
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University of South Florida
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The University of South Florida Libraries believes that the Item is in the Public Domain under the laws of the United States, but a determination was not made as to its copyright status under the copyright laws of other countries. The Item may not be in the Public Domain under the laws of other countries.
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032968560 ( ALEPH )
891343127 ( OCLC )
G16-00667 ( USFLDC DOI )
g16.667 ( USFLDC Handle )

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• Geraghty & Miller, Inc. CONSULTING GROUND -WATER GEOLOGISTS AND HYDROLOGISTS Dr. John E. Moore, Chief USGS-WRD 4710 Eisenhower Blvd Tampa, Florida 33614 Dear John: • Carrollwood Village Executive Center 13902 North Dale Mabry Highway Suite 150 Post Office Box 271173 TAMPA, FLORIDA 33688 Telephone 813 / 961-1921 March 6, .19 78 Enclosed herewith is the final typed copy of my GSA ms. entitled: "Early stag~ of hydrogeology in the United States, 1776 to 1910.11AThis copy contains IBM photo duplicates of the portraits which I sent you in an earlier revised edition of the ms. Please substitute the original glossy black and white portraits for these duplicated copies and the ms. then should be ready for transmittal for inclusion in the proceedin~volume. You will note that, as we discussed in our recent phone conversation, I have split Figure 6 into two, Figures 6a and 6b; thus, no great reduction of the original drafting was required. All of your and Stan Lehman's suggestions have been included, gratefully. Best regards, Sr., CPGS Senior GGP:ca Enclosure: Manuscript, final draft


_!_/ EARLY STAGE OF HYDROGEOLOGY IN THE UNITED STATES, 1776 TO 1910 BY 1/ GARALD G. PARKER, SR.-Senior Scientist, Geraghty & Miller, Inc., Consulting Geologists and Hydrologists, 13902 North Dale Mabry Highwny, Tampa, Florida 33682, and Visiting Professor of Hydrogeology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611.


Eaily Stage of Hydrogeology in the United States 1776 to 1910 by y Garald G. Parker, Sr. Abstract Hydrogeology is concerned with ground water and, as ground water occurs in a geologic environment, an understanding of the geologic fabric and framework is essential to its development and use. But ground-water flow, discharge, recharge, response to pumping and other related matters, including salt-water encroachment, are described by mathematical formulas and tested by engineering techniques. Until both the sciences of geology and engineering hydrology were far enough advanced to be of practical help, in the late 1800's, hydrogeologic progress was stymied. Additionally, an economic need for hydrogeologists was required before a demand developed for such scientists. With the opening of the West in the late 1860's the demand came. Hydrogeologists were needed to find irrigation water for the arid lands. Concomitantly, in the South, ground water was needed for growing rice, corn and cotton. The rapid growth of cities, especially in the North, required hydrogeologists to find safe supplies of clean, pure water to replace polluted 1/ -Certified Professional Geologist and Senior Scientist, Geraghty & Miller, Inc., Tampa, Florida 33688 and Visiting Professor of Hydrogeology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 33611


surface-water s6ur6es~ By the early 1900's engineering techniques and equipment needed to drill and pump the deep wells and to evalute the aquifer pumping tests were available, satisfactory for the times, but clumsy and awkward by modern standards. By 1910 the U.S. Geological survey had developed into the foremost governmental scientific organization in the world and its small cadre of hydrogeologists were world leaders in their science. A wealth of information concerning the history and development of the science both in the United States and abroad was summarized by Meinzer (1934). Definition of Hydrogeology The term "hydrogeology" _apparently was first used in a publication by J.B. Lamarck (the Chevalier, best known as the Father of Invertebrate Paleontology) in 1802, entitled simply "Hydrogeologie." Lamarck intended this ~erm to.me~n the sbudy of aqueous erosion and sedimentation that has carved mountains and tablelands through the limitless vista of the past, during much of which time ancient seas covered what is now dry land. He did not mean "ground-water geology." Much later, J. W. Powe11 (1885), Figure 1, used a similar term "hydric geology" with much the same meaning as that of Lamarck . . z


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Probably the first use of "hydrogeology" in its modern sense was by J. Lucas (1880) in his report entitled "The Hydrogeology of the Lower Greensands of Surrey and Hampshire," published by the Institute of Civil Engineers, Minutes of Proceedings, (London), v. 61, p. 200-227. But the best publication of its kind came out in 1887, a 3-volume work by A. Daubree on hydrogeology entitled "Les Eaux Souteraines, Aux Epoques Anciennes et a l'epoque Actue1le." The term came into use in the U.S. Geological Survey in . . the 1880's among Geologic Branch geologists assigned to ground-water studies. Also, when a special organization for groundwater investigat~ons was established by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1903, there was some indecision as to the proper name for this group. Fuller (1905), reporting on the ground-water program of the U.S. Geological Survey in the eastern United States before the 8th International Geographical Congress, 1904, said: "The division of hydrology, or hydrogeology, as it might be most aptly termed, is that division of the U.S. Geological Survey which deals with rnderground waters in the same manner as the division of hydrography of the Survey deals with surface waters." (The underlining is mine.) Later, in Water-Supply Paper 160, 1905, p. 10, Fuller (Figure 10) speaks of "geohydrologists" and on p. 11 says that "geohydrologists, or those devoting their entire time to the study of underground water, ... " Meinzer (1942), in 4


his monumental work on the volume "Hydrology"-also uses the term "geohydrology", but in an earlier paper (1934) he used the term "ground-water hydrology." Modern usage approximately equates hydrogeology with geohydrology, ground-water geology, or ground-water hydrology and intends it to mean the science of the occurr.ence and behavior of ground water in its geologic framework and fabric . . Some scientists make a differentiation based on whether the emphasis is on the geologic environment (hydrogeology), or on the water, particularly quantitative .studies (geohydrology). The broader term is used h~re. Thus, I have done as Humpty Dumpty did in answering Alice's query as to what he meant when he said the word llglory" and, to paraphrase him, he replied that it meant exactly what he chose it to mean, neither more, nor less (Carroll, Lewis, 1871, p. 125). Revolutionary War to Civil War Period When this account begins in 1776, European colonization and exploitation of the thirteen American Colonies was more than 150 years old. About three million colonists had settled the eastern seaboard from Canada to Florida, and an estimated 250,000 had migrated into or across the Appalachian Mountains. Already, Boston, Philadelphia, New York and Charleston had become large, busy cities, and th~ir original water supplies-the shallow, dug wells or the open springs--had become unusable for public supplies. The waters from these sources 5"


were polluted by human, animal and industrial wastes, and some sources near the ocean were contaminated with salt water .from the sea. The usual solution to such difficulties was the development of surface-water sources from adjacent and still not too seriously polluted ponds, lakes or streams. In fact, in order to take advantage of a sufficient supply of potable water for culinary purposes, to obtain water power for grist-mills and _other power-using industries of the times, and to obtain harbors for sea-going commerce, a whole string of colonial towns and major cities became established along that geologic and geographic feature known as the Fall Line, where_ estuarial tidewaters meet the-falls or rapids which gave this feature its name. The list includes such names as New York City, Trenton, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Washington, Richmond, Raleigh, Columbia, Augusta, Macon, and Columbus. For those colonists living away from streams or lakes containing potable water, dug wells or improved springs answered the purpose. There were few "deep" wells in these earlydays of American hydrogeology. Driven wells of small diameter, commonly an inch to 2-1/2 inches, were in general use where coarse sand or gravel offered easily obtained_ supplies. Larger and deeper wells were constructed chiefly by boring, done by rotating a rod having an auger bit attached to it at the base. It is thought that the famous flowing well at Lilliers, Artois,. France, completed in 1126.A.D., was a bored


well. Boring generally required a casing of some kind to prevent caving of the borehole walls and this made the construction of such wells an expense that few private citizens or small municipalities could afford. Boring was widely practiced in Europe beginning in the 12th century and was introduced into the United States from England_ in 1823 (Encyclopedia Britannica, 1972a). Jetting is another method of well construction and involves washing a hole down into the earth by means of a stream of water issuing from a cutting bit at the end of a small diameter pipe, the jetting rod. The bit comminutes the rock and the wate r washes the cuttings back up the hole inside the casing discharges them at the land surface. Jetting was introduced in the United States about 1884 and by the end of the century was the principal means of well drilling on the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts (Encyclopedia Britannica, 1972b). Few jetted wells of the time exceeded 4 inches in diameter or 500 feet in depth. Once a jetted well reached artesian water with sufficient head to cause flow, this natural pressure was then used to clean out the cuttings. Percussion methods were next introduced into early America, beginning about 1808, although such methods--very primiti~e~had been used by the ancient Chinese to produce wells as deep as 5,000 feet or so. They used bamboo rods and bamboo casing; some such wells required several decades to complete, often having been started by a father, worked on for a lifetime by his son, and finally completed by the grandson. 7


The drilling of the first successful oil well in the United States, that 6f Col. Edwin L. Drake, near Titusville in western Pennsylvania in 1859, at only 69 feet below land surface, started an "oil boom" and spurred the dril~ing interests to develop bigger, better and more powerful drilling and pumping equipment until, by 1910 (end .of our period or reporting), the hydraulic-rotary method had been well advanced over that of the first rig, built about 1890. The discovery of the Spindletop Oil Field in 1901 at Port Arthur, Texas~ was the impetus for rapid advance of both cable-tool and rotary methods, and from the oil-well fields these advanced methods then became available for the drilling of deep wells that could reach the deepest artesian aquifers successfully. The improvement of pumping equipment followed rather closely the advancement of drilling equipment, although, even in 1910, the commonest form of pumps were suction types with a capability of lifting water only about 20 feet. Thus, the search was on for flowing wells, wells that would produce large quantities of water without having to be pumped. So much for water-development tools and equipment. Before hydrogeology could make its first, feeble steps toward becoming a practical field of endeavor,the science of geology itself had to make some large and essential strides. One might be tempted to think.that, by 1776, the science was well developed already, and that the colleges and universities were founts of geologic knowledge. This was not the case. To


most educated men of the times, including chiefly college. C, professors and medial doctors, geology meant mineralogy, a . " . branch of the science for which Georgius. Agricola had laid a firm foundation in his famous book, De Re Metallica (1556). The Hoovers (1912) in their translation say of Agricola: "He was the first to found any of the natural sciences upon research and observation as opposed to fruitless speculation ... the pioneer in building the foundation of science from observed phenomena." About the time that our account begins, the most famous, respected and revered mineralogist of these times, Abraham Gottleib Werner, was holding forth at the famous Mining Academy at Frieburg. He began his teaching there in 1775 and by 1800 had attracted worldwide attention. Students from all over Europe, including Russia and the British Isles, flocked to Frieburg to learn from and to follow avidly "the great teacher." But Werner possessed, along with other more commendable characteristics, a habit of forming judgments based on very limited data. Not having travelled outside Germany, he founded an entire, erroneous school of geologic thought on extremely restricted observations; he and his followers came td be known as the Neptunists. This followed from Werner's teaching that all rocks were formed by successive precipitation out of a piill\te.vsl, universal sea, even the basalts were considered by Werner as a precipitate -the last to settle out.


Opposed to the teachings of-Werner were those of James Hutton (1795), a Scottish medical doctor, fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, and gentleman farmer. Hutton's astute geological observations of geologic form and process, which he h _ad studied in Britain, led him to develop the "Doctr.ine of Uniformitarianism." He first .presented thoughts in a well-planned and documented publication enti_tled "Theory of the Earth,. or an Investigation of the Laws Observable in the Composition, Dissolution and Restoration of the Land Upon the Globe;" publication was in the Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 1788. But this paper came under a severe attack by Hutton's opponents and it wasn't-uritil-1795 that he published his now famous "Theory of the Earth with Proofs and Illustrations." But Hutton's writing was obscure and difficult to read, therefore it was not until Hutton's colleague at the University of Edinburgh, Dr. John Playfair (1802), published his version of Hutton's theory, that his ideas became well known. Playfair's publication was entitled "Illustrations of the Huttonian Theory" and it became a best-seller.of the times. Further to bolster Hutton's case came the stout support of anoth~r powerful colleague at the University of Edinburgh, Sir James Hall, who later became known as "The Father of Experimental Geology." It was here, then, at the University of Edinburgh, that the "Plutonists" school developed and it was from the opposing points of view of Werner and Hutton that geology was rendered apart by the great controversy that lasted some 70-odd years before the Neptunists finally threw in the towel.


Here in the United States, college faculties were largely staffed with graduates of Scottish and English universities, chiefly Edinburgh, Oxford and Cambridge. The NeptunistPlutonist controversy raged over here as well as in Europe and didn't die out until the 1850's. By 1776 there had been established in America-about 20 colleges and universities of which_ the following are well-known examples: Harvard, 1639; William and Mary, 1683; St. Johns, Maryland, 1693; Yale, 1701; University of Pennsylvania, 1740; University of Delaware, 1743; P .rinceton, 1746; Washington and Lee, 1749; Columbia, 1754; Brown, 1764; Rutgers, 1766; and Dartmouth, 1769. For the most part_these schools prepared students or the ministry, teaching, law and medicine. Most of thestudents got a smattering of science, especially the doctors, and it was because of this that most of the geology of the.times was done by men originally trained as medical doctors. Their chief interests in the sciences were in botany and mineralogy. Botany was studied as a source of healing herbs , and mineralogy, probably because of a natural interest men have in rocks and possibly in the hope of finding precious minerals such as gold, silver and copper. Back in England, during the beginning of the controversy between the Neptunists and Plutonists, a self-educated drainage engineer had turned geologist. From his observations of geologic struct~re and the fossils contained in the various formations II


that were exposed in the banks of the canals he worked upon, William Smith noted a regular stratigraphic succession which he could identify anywhere in Brit~in simply by a study of typical fossils . . In 1774 Smith prepar~d th~ first g~ologic map 6f any part of Britain, the vicinity of Bath; his map showed-for the first time the ranges of the diffeient strata (Jurassic). t In 1799 Smith di~ated his remarkable table of British strata entitled "Order of the Strata, and their Interbedded Organic Remains, in the Neighborhood of Bath; txamined and Proved Prior to 1799." This he presented to the Geological Society of London so that others might take advantage of his unique knowledge of the structure and strati~raphy of the region. In 1813, one of Smith's acquaintances, a Reverend Josiah Townsend, who called himself a geologist, took advantage of the new information gained from William Smith (by this time dubbed "Strata" Smith by his contemporaries) to prove a Biblical point. Townsend wrote and published a misleading article entitled "The Character of Moses. Established for Veracity as an Historian, Recording Events from Creation of the Deluge." My researches do not reveal how this was received either by "Strata" Smith or by Townsend's parishioners. In 1815 Smith published an ambitious and popular works in 15 large sheets entitled "Geological Map of England and Wales, With Part of Scotland ... " This was followed by successive 11,.


publications, 1816-1819, of four parts of a series entitled "Strata Identified by Organized Fossils." Then, 1819-1822, he revised and reduced the size of the 15 maps (1815), producing 21 smaller ones in a set entitled "Geological Atlas of England and Wales." Among Smith's accomplishments having a strong hydrogeologic flavor, was his deduction of how to go about developing a permanent ground-water supply for the City of Scarborough. Smith determined that a small spring and seepage discharging near Scarborough had a large upgradient catchment area for ground-water recharge and could be developed into an adequate city supply by digging and damming. He was right! His field work, his deductions, and his correlations changed the whole academic concept of paleontology and established stratigraphy as a basic element in geology --and especially in hydrogeology and engineering geology, of which he was the first successful practicioner. "Strata" Smith is one of geology's early pioneers whose wort~ was recognized during his.lifetime by industry, academe and government alike. Industry honored him with mdre consulting work than he could accept; academe honored him with the bestowal of the first award ever made of the Wollaston Medal, on which occasion Sir Adam Sedgwick, President of the Geological Society of London, bestowed upon him the honorary title of "Father of English Geology" (Adams, 1938, p. 274); and government awarded /j


him financial security in his old age by a 100~ annual stipend for life. Civil War Period to the Founding of the U.S. Geological Survey (1879) Despite the long and at times somewhat obscure hist'ory of the development of geology and hydrology prior to 1776, a story which has been so well described by George White in the paper preceeding this one, hydrogeology was later than many other branches of science in "getting off the ground." In the days prior to the Civil War, the abundantly watered eastern United States had no major water problems that could. not be solved by going some distance away into the unsettled--or little settled--back country where ample surface-water supplies could be developed. Boston was the first (1652) using bored, hollow logs for pipes, a system that failed, and it wasn't until 1846 that a permanent supply from Long Pond, about 20 miles west of town, replaced it. It took New York City nearly as long to obtain their safe, distant water from the Croton Dam and Reservoir. Action began by choice of the site in 1835, but it wasn't until 1842 that the system was operable. In both instances (Boston and New York) the problem_ was not one of engineering, but of politics (Blake, 1956) that created the extended delays in developing new, satisfactory supplies. The close of the Civil War saw the opening of the West, much of which is.arid or semiarid, and containing lands that


could be developed only by the use of irrigation. In those areas not adjacent to ample streamflow sources, this meant irrigation from wells. However, the early settlers soon learned that chance drilling was likely to be non-productive and in order to avoid risk, specialists--hydrogeologists--came into demand. Most such "specialists" came from the U.S. Geological Survey, beginning in 1880. The gro~ing population not only went West, it went South, too. And wherever people sought water supplies, the magic word became artesian. Artesian water that is pure, sparkling, cool and apparently witho~t end; flowing water that could be obtained --if an artesian aquifer is beneath the land --only by drilling a well. By drilling deep wells in the sedimentary rocks underlying the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains, extending from New England into Florida and west to Louisiana, although done more or less haphazardly in these early days, flowing wells were developed in many places. But there were many failures, too, because scientific-understanding of the occurrence of artesian aquifers was n6t available in colonial days, nor for that matter, until after 1885. The first artesian well had been drilled in Artois, France in 1126, and it was from this and other flowing wells in Artois (the Roman Province of Artesium) thatthese flowing wells took their name). t..5


With the opening of the West in the late 1860's and the great need for such artesian.wells, geologists, soil scientists and engineers of the Army, the Agricultural Department, -the . Interior Department, plus some State Geological Surveys, began searching not only for new flowing wells but to ascertain how and why such wells flow, and how long they would continue to supply water. Most lay people ignorantly believed that the artesian water supply was infinite so they wasted artesian flows to such an. extent that some wells either ceased flowing or the flow was greatly reduced. Todd (1900, p. 30) was among the first to warn that "multiplication of wells must tend to exhaustion [of the supply]." He went on to say that, "If, however, the loss by [flowing] wells and leakage does hot exceed the annual supply which enters [recharges] the formation [-Dakota Sandstone] on the west, an equilibrium may be gained which will be as constantas a river. It may be.expected to have some fluctuations. At present the pressure in the area discussed [Southeastern South Dakota] is generally slightly declining." I.e. Russell, Figure 2, discussed artesian conditions in the Snake River Plains of Idaho (1902) and warned (p. 185) that "the present [1901] waste of water is so great and the prevalent ignorance or disregard of the laws of health so general that centralization of control or general education of the people is imperative." The dawn of water-conservation thinking had arrived. lb


Figure 2. Israel C. Russell, one of the U.S. Geological Survey's earliest and most highly r~garded hydrogeologists. U.S.G.S . . Photo Library / 7


The search for artesian supplies in the West included deepwell drilling, some of it ill-advised. Haphazard drilling in the High Plains east of Denver by governmental agricultural agents lacking hydrogeologic understandings ended in "dusters," Lt'l'IC,\e} . or dry wells. s{. F. Emmons, Figure. 3, in hi_ s administrative ~eport to the Director of the Survey (06-30-84) says, (1884, p. 45 ---46): "While the existence of a (Denver) synclinal basin has long been known to us from the hasty observations one makes in simply passing over the country, accurate and reliable maps and profiles are an indispensable bas~ for the observations which shall determine the true source of the water supply [of the Denver Basin], the amount and quality that may be expected from the different horizons and the most favorable points for sinking artesian wells; it is in large degree owing to the absence of this preliminary knowledge that money already appropriated by Congress and paid for the sinking of artesian wells upon the plains of Colorado, has been so barren of practical and definite results." The search for artesian supplies went on. The first major contribution to a better understanding of artesian wells was by T. C. Chamberlain (18_83), Figure 4, of the Wisconsin Geological Survey, who published his earliest report on artesian cond-itions simply entitled "Artesian Wells." Later (1885) Chamberlain, as a W.A.E. (when actually employed) employee of the U.S. Geological Survey, revised and enlarged the earlier report. Called "The Requisite and Qualifying Conditions of i8


4,,,,.wel . Figure 3. F. Emmons, distinguished Survey mining _geologist, t~cognized the artesian nature of the Denver Basin and the need for hydrogeologic studies in the High Plains (1884). U.S.G.S. Photo Library


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Figure 4. Thomas Chrowder Chamberlain, whose greatest contribution to hydrogeology was the description of the "relevant and qualifying conditions of artesian wells" (1885). Geological Society of America


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Artesian Wells," it was published in the U.S. Geological Survey's 5th Annual Report, p. 125-173. This was the .first hydrogeologic report to be published by the Survey and became an immediate best-seller, achieving not only national but worldwide acclaim. This first .hydrogeologic paper by a Survey author set an exceedingly high standard of excellence and for many years was a standard by which others measured their writing capabilities. In 1897 W. H. Norton, of the Iowa Geological Survey, prepared the most elaborate and complete description of an artesian system ever prepared to date. Entitled "Artesian Wells of Iowa," it is in this report that the first known 1.use of the term "aquifer" is made in United States literature. Norton's report was followed in 1898 by another comprehensive publication, this one written bys. w. Mccallie of the Georgia Geological Survey, and entitled "Preliminary Report on the Artesian Well System of Georgia." In the next few years about a dozen other reports of similar nature followed in rapid succession from the State Surveys of New Jersey, Louisiana, Michigan, Washington, North Dakota, Texas, K~nsas, Missouri, Illinois and Indiana; and, in Mississippi, from the Agricultural Experiment Station. All of these report were qualitative and descriptive; none attempted to assess quanti ties of water available in the artesian systems reported upon, nor were any of them as definitive as T. C. Chamberlain's classic report of 1885,


mentioned above. However, even this famous .report was not quantitativ~. Such reports still lay in the future, awaiting the time when hydrogeologists or hydrologists would build upon the mathematical and physical researches of such workers as Perrault, 1674; Mariette, 1686; Halley, 1687, 1691, 1715; Bernoulli, 1738; De La Methi~re, 1791;. Venturi, 1797; Hagen, 1839; Poiseuille, 1846; Dupuit, 1848; Darcy, 1856; O. E. Meyer, 1866; Reynolds, 1883; and Allen ~azen, 1892. The works of these men are so well known that they will not be elaborated upon in this short paper. De La Methiere clearly enunciated the modern concept of the hydrologic cycle that grew out of the earlier basic works .of Perrault, Mariette, and particularly of Halley, who apparently was the first to clearly grasp the water-budget concept, i.e., P (precipitation) -Et (evapotranspiration) = R (return flow to the sea). But no one put it into practical use until Waldemar Lindgren, in 1903, made a tentative waterbudget study of.Molokai Island, Hawaii. It was Halley and De La Methiere who had. opened the door f6r water-budget studies of large areas, such as river basins or entire aquifer systems, and Darcy who performed a similar service for the quantification of ground-water flow. With these two pioneering steps taken, the groundwork was laid for the systems-analyses studies that were subsequently developed in the U.S. Geological Survey under such pioneers and innovators as the following: Oscar E. Meinzer, David G. Thompson,


Albert G. Fiedler, Charles V. Theis, Arthur M. Piper, Charles E. Jacob, Lee K. Wenzel, Stanley W. Lohman, .Harold T. Stearns, Max Leggette, Harold E. Thomas, Thomas W. Robinson, Henry B. Barksdal~, Victor T. Stringfield, A. Nelson Sayre, Joseph F. Poland, William F. Guyton, Robert R. Bennett, John G. Ferris, C. Lee McGuinness, Hilton H. Cooper, Jr., Russell H. Brown, Robert W. Stallman, A. Ivan Johnson, Garald G. Parker, Sr., and others whose names probably will crowd the following papers by Burke Maxey and Gerald Meyer. 1879 -1910 From the 1880's on, following the establishment of the U.S. Geological Survey under the first Director, Clarence R. King (Figure 5), the history of the advancement of hydrogeology is largely to be found in the accomplishments of the scientists and engineers of the u.s. Geological Survey which, by the time my account ends (operations and reports of 1910), had become recognized worldwide as the foremost governmental scientific organization in the world. How this came about, the names and deeds of the men and women who helped create-this great institution, and the public services which they performed, is a task far beyond the scope of this paper. The story through 1946 is basically told by Robert Follansbee (1947) , and in the following reports by Burke Maxey and by Jerry Meyer. As an aid in gaining an insight into the historical development of the Survey and its Water Resources Division (Divisions we called "Branches" until January, 1949), I developed a "Water


Figure 5. Clarence Rivers King, founder and leader of the King Survey (1867-1872) and first Director of the U.S. Geological Survey (1879-188i). U.S.G.S. Photo Library Z4


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Resources Division Family Tree" for use as a teaching device in the Survey's Ground Water Short Courses. In 1975 George E. Ferguson extended the "tree" from 1947 to 1975 and entitled it "Evolution of the Water Resources Division, U.S. Geological Survey." This succinct history is shown in Figures 6a a nd 6b. In thi brief time remaining I want to pay tribute now to a small group of outstanding hydrogeologists and hydrologists, including some who were mathemiticians, physicists, or civil engineers by academic training --as well as to the majority who were geologists by collegiate training. These ~re the men who bridged the transformation of hydrogeology from a descriptive and non-quantitative, developing science to the beginning phases of a truly quantitative science. This list includes names of men too often overlooked in past reviews or assessments of the advances in refinement and applicability of methods for solving ground-water problems. The listing is by date of first important contributions and, because of limited space, is not nearly as complete as I would like to make it. 1885 -Frederick Haynes Newell In 18~5 Newell (Figure 7) wrote his "Geology of the Bradford Oil Rocks; Some Experiments Pertaining to their Structure and Capacity to Furnish Petroleum." It was an unpublished manuscript prepared as . a Ph.D. dissertation in the Department of Geology at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. This is the first known laboratory testing of the pressurized flow of bil (kerosene) 25


>-w > c:: V, -' u 0 ....J C w (!) ::, I.L C V, c:: N 0 O'\ a: 0 f 7/17 ~ ;: VJJ C H ~ ! i5 ~1 >-a: .. 0 s:. I ID t :r e :..J u u, 6/13 t I < a: fD V, w 0 I 7/ ,/06 WATER R v, ' BRANCH ' ESO U RCES J/0.f~:li I 0 <.) : V -. Q.. 13/81 Becomes c: CONSERVATION ;:• DIVISION 7/25 0 lNote. Orgon,zot,on units i in this chart given ., by unit name now In use 5112 2 -"" : jl/11 7/101 ~--(.)0 fD . ~i ~ : a: -I--V, . -..c fD CD ct CD u,,r o ft) -•a:: I 5!!: w I.L . (.) > z cg => C> o ::::E o E ffi 1/08~ : ai. j _ =t4 _; .; -; = 0 .c. . ; N DIVISION HYDROGRAPHIC BRANCH (New~II _J.-HYDRAULI BRANCH i (N,-,iu SURVEY IRRIGATION SURVEY ( Dutton) U . S GEOLOGICAL SURVEY CREATED BY ACT OF MARCH 3 , 1879 . r ------------==~,---;~-:o-:--<,-------;-~~~~~-=--=-~~: 3/79 I I:.: ~179 3/79 'o~ Gr . GSRMR, 0.1. 7411 '-ll~v_\...l"'US . Gr . S . W . of 100th Mer. MIN ING GEOL. Field work compl eted 11/72 6 USGE, 40th Par. 67 Neb. 67 • ,r:-_ 10 Wor Dept . 68 .<'\Colo. R. Sm . Inst. 71 . Colo. R . 709 8] I llinois Norma l Un1vers 1ty and Green 8 Co l o . Rs . lll, no,s State Industria l Un,vers,ty Colo. 68 -69 9 EVOLUTION OF THE WATER RESOURCES DIVISION, I U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY Data for 1867-1947 -compiled by Garald G. Parker, 1163. Data for 1948-1975 compiled by George Ferguaon, 1176 I Wheel er 1868 2 Hoyden 1867 3 Hayden 1868 4 Hayden 1869 5 Hoyden 1870 6 Ki ng 1867 THE U .S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY FAMILY TREE U . S . G-eograph 1cal Surveys West of 100th Meri d ian. A military top ographi c survey . Geo logi ca l . Survey o f Nebraska Contro lled by General L and Offi ce . Geol ag , ca l Survey o f Wyomi ng . C o ntrolled by General Land Offi ce . U . S . G eo lag,cal Survey al t he Territories . Controlled by U . S . Dept. of Interior. U . S . Geo l og i ca l ond Geog.raph ,cal S u rveys of the Territories. U . S . Gea l og ,cal Survey of the Forti e t h Parallel. Supported by War Department, c hiefly to mop a route for the" Pac i f i c Railroad" between the Rocky Mounta ins and t h e S ,err0 Nevada . K ing' s t i t l e : U nited S ta tes Geolog i st . 7 Powell I867-B Col orado River Explorot,on. Supported by Illinoi s Normal Uni v . and Il li no i s Industri a l State Uni v .Clater, Univ . of lll1na1s) 8 Powell 1868-9 Explarot, on of Green and Colorado R ivers. Supported by Illinois Normal Univ. and Illinois lndustr,al State Uni v ( later, Un i v . of Illi no i s) 9 Powe l l 1870 Colorado River, North Arizona and Sou t h Nevada Geo l. E,plorot,an Supported by Cong_ress,onal F u nds . 1 0 Powell 187 1 Colorado R iver Geo l. Explorati on . S upporfed by Smithsoni an lnstftuti on . 1 _ 1 Powell 1874 Colorado River Geol. E,plorotion. S u pported by the U . S . Dept _ of Interior. All surveys were oboli s _ hed coincident w ith estobli snmen t of U . S Geolog ,cal Survey on Mo r ch 3 , 1879. The eQuipment, data, and key p~rsonnel of the. K ,ng, Hoyoen, and Powe l l Surveys were merged into the new USGS under .Clarence R . K ing, the first Director. For complete account see Fol lansbee, Robert, 1947," History of Water Resources Branch, USG S, ta Ju ne 30, 1 919 " . Figure 6a. The U.S. Geological Family interrupted in July, 1917. Tree with Continued roots beginning growth shown on in the Figure 1860's 6b, to and growth 1975.


1975 1974 1973 1972 1971 1970 i969 1968 1967 1966 1965 1964 1963 1962 1961 1960 1959 1958 1957 1956 1955 1954 1953 1952 1951 1950 1949 1948 1947 i e t 0 0 ., . 0.. t C: 0 0 z C, .c. 0 Cl) C) Cl) ::, w _ ~] ::, C: (I') i _J. ••o• ::o]~l ~C/)~'ti:1 .,u -...:(.)~ =i::er te i .. ~il~j 67 w~ .... ;1 l"~ ;-"V>j3 ]~ i1l ~w "rI~ -'~~ I~.! l~~i rir" oc: c: er o ........ ., z:, -; 0 oi: II i 114/4 • o z 2/46 0 in > 0 Cl)~ W 0 o _o.. 5/~3 er _j ::, . 0 (!) en en WW <.) er er ::, er ow en 1-w -(!) er "' 0 0 ~flu i c::E.-z c;-. -' 0 ..-:~ > &; g~ -~g_J_ ....L ~T z i5 -0 C: 0 _J 0 -i i 3 C) -t-1 I [~ ::i: . :, 0 I-0 f-_J ., >-0 en -i-11/46 . ~ ; a1 5 5 lz zla ~~;. "'o Q .. 5 I _i-:: ~c ~ ht 1: I -~= .! z er a w ;; rz t~ en~ ~u~tJ& t!~ 1 I ~-0 -E 0 _J o cr a: -.... "' C ~, -::, 0 0 0 9/46 5/2 0 K idwell 7/19 I Chamber, r 1 J ..l2;1e I I Mid 163 to mid 167 -Branch level districts being reorganized into Division level districts. 1955 -District level bookkeeping taken over by central facility in Washington . 19.53 -Secretory of Interior appointed a committee to investigate the organ i zation and operation of U.S.G . S . 1951 thru 1953 -WRD Councils under deve l opment to coordinate interstate activities of districts. June 150 to July 153 -U . S : part1 c 1 pat 1on in Korean Confl ict brought about severe shortages i n critical materials and personnel needed in WRD. Jan '49 -First Organization and Personnel Directory issued . July I, 1949 -CHE asked district chiefs to establish WRD Councils i n all states by this date, following successful tests in Nebraska and Utah. April 1948-Reorganization of WRD1s Wash i ngton Office announced . Based on needs of a rapidly growing program. June 1947 -Follansbee's WRD History recorded events to June 1947. Dec '41 lo Aug '45 -U .S. in World War 11. 246 WRD memb~rs served in Armed Forces and as specialists Balance of staff on 48 hour week and no holidays from '43 to 'VJ Day' . 1944-WRD begins active participation in Missouri Basin Program. 1942 -WRD conducted 1pig iron survey' for War Production Board . 1929-50: 50 cooperation establi shed 1n princi ple by Congress in 1929 appropriation language. 1927-GS. authorized to perform work for other Federal agencies. 1920-First retirement system e'nacted for Federal employees. Figure 6b . U.S. Geological Family Tree, July 1917 through 1975. Earlier phase shown on Figure 6a.


Figure 7. Frederick Haynes Newell, first Chief of the U.S. Geological Survey's Hydrologic Branch, and later .founder of the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, a splitoff from the Survey. U.S.G.S~ Photo Library


through reservoir sandstones and established a sound base for the subsequent experimental and theoretical work by King, Schlichter, and others. Newell later became Chief of the U.S. Geological Survey's Hydraulic Survey, established in October, 1888 _(Figure 6a). He .set up the Hydrographic and Engineering Branches to carry on the Irrigation Surveys of the West. Later, through many vississitudes of Survey fortunes and:misfortunes, Newell became Chief 6f the Hydrologic Branch (May, 1894) and remained with the Branch until March, 1907, when the U.S. Reclamation Service (later the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation) separated from the U.S. Geological Survey. Newe11was a highly respected scientist and an administrator, one of whose most noteworthy achievements was the selection, training, and assignment ofyoung people. who later became prominent water-resources scientists and engineers in their own rights. 1887 -Adolph Thiem and, 1906, Gunther Thiem The Thiems, Adolph and.his son, Gunther, were noted German wat~r consultants specializing in ground-water development. Among Adolph's notable publications is one that came out in 1887 and was entitled "A Method for Measuring Natural Groundwater Velocity." The method involved the drilling of two wells, one downgradient from the other. A charge 6f salt water is placed in the upper well and periodically taken water samples from the downgradient well are titrated for detection of chloride in a "wave" of salty grourij. water_ passing the downgradient well. This results in a time-of-Jravel or the velocity of ground-water flow.


In 1906 Gunthr Thiem published his "Hydrologische Methoden." In it he described his test-pumping method for determing the coefficient of permeability, based on Darcy1s Law. This became known as the "equilibrium" formula which was the only hydrogeologic "tool" available for the analysis of aquifer puinpingtest data until c. V. Theis, 1935, developed his "non-equilibrium" formula. The Thiem method was still in wide use in.the U.S. Geological Survey when I became a Junior Geologist in February, 1940. Earlier forms of Thiem's formula had been developed by Dupuit (1848), Schlichter (1899), Forscheimer (1886.and 1901), and by •Turneaure and Russell (1901). 1896 -Grove Karl Gilbert Gilbert (Figure 8) had been a member of the U.S. Geological Survey since its founding in March 1879 and became one .of the world's most renowned economic geologists. He performed one of his usual outstanding jobs in hi~ hydrogeologic inv~stigation of the ground water in the.Arkansas River Valley of eastern Colorado (Gilbert, 1896, p. 561-601). Gilbert described the topography, geology, artesian conditions, the ground-wate. r intake areas of recharge to the Dakota Sandstone, and gives other useful information, including a description of water-table aquifer conditions (he does not use the term "aquifer") in the terrace deposits and dune sands. A semi-quantitative report, it was an advance over previous.such reports, particularly with respect to the eloquent simplicity of his writing.


Figure a . G. K. Gilbert, one of the world's most renowned economic geologists accomplished outstanding hydrogeologic work of a pioneering nature in the Arkansas River Basin. U.S.G.S. Photo Library 3/


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1899 -Franklin H. King King, a professor of hydraulic.engineering at the University of Wisconsin and a WAE employee of the U.S. Geological Survey, published his "Principles and Conditionsof the Movements of Ground Water" in U.S. Geological Survey 19th Annual Report, p. 61-384. This basic study describes laboratory and field results of his studies relating to ground-water storage; calculations of total quantity of ground w~ter in storage in the earth's crust; depth of possible ground-water penetration (10,000 ft.);. ground-water movements under gravity; flow and water-level changes due to barometric effects and ,soil temperature; the groundwater movement in capillary tubes; he also discusses the shape and shows the configuration of the water table by use of waterlevel contours (Gustave Dumont, 1856, may have been the first to publish such a map); and indicates directions of ground-water flow by using short arrows crossing the ground-water contours at right angles. This is, to my knowledge, the first such ground-water flow map and has proven to be a very useful concept to use in teaching students or explaining to laymen why regional ground water flows in the directions it takes from places of recharge to places of discharge. He discussed Newell's Ph.D. dissertation, thus making these formerly unpublished results available in print to the lay public. 1899 -Charles -S. Schlichter Schlichter was an outstanding mathematician and physicist -whose greatest contributions to hydrogeology came from his studies


of ground-water motion and the development of his "electrical" method of determining velocity of ground-water underflow in river valleys. He used an electrolyte, ammonium chloride (NH4 Cl), placed in an upstream (upgradient) well arid an arrangement of three observation wells a short distance downgradient. These observation wells were fitted with electric sensors that would show on an ammeter the time of arrival and passage'of electrolyte. He developed clock-driven, battery-ictuated recorders which were hooked to the ammeters so as to maintain continous records. Schlichter's 1899 report "Theoretical Investigations of the Motions of Ground Waters" was published in U.S. Geological Survey 19th Annual Report, p. 295-384, and was a large and clear advance-~ ment in the explanation of such fluid movements. He says, p. 303: "I find that the problem is capable of mathematical treatment, and I . ~how that the question is analagous to the conduction of heat or electricity, or to any other problem involving a transfer of energy. I show that there exists in the case of ground-water movements what is known as a potential function, from which we may derive, in any determinant problem, the velocity and deviation of flow_ , and the pressure at every point in the saturated soil or rock. The existence of the potential function is made the basis of much of the work that follows." This is essentially the formula developed by Dupuit (1848) and later by G. Thiem (1906), Forchemer (1901), and Turneaure and Russell (1901). In his ~emark regarding the flow of electricity through conductors he was, in a sense, anticipating Theis' future formula that was


to be announced in 1935. Schlichter also developed flow nets and other neat things. It is a report every hydrogeologist should read. Schlichter was a profilic writer; and his writings are easy to read ... For lack of space and time I shall call attention only to three of his subsequent reports, all significant contributions to the advancement of hydrogeology as a quantLtative science: Schlichtei, 1902; 1905; and Schlichter and Wolff, 1906. 1901 -Noah Horatio Darton Darton's "Preliminary.Description of the Geology and WaterResources of th~ Southern Half of the Black Hills and Adjoining Regions of South Dakota and Wyoming" was-published in U.S. Geological Survey 21st Annual Report, Pt. 4, p. 489-599. It was a fairly typical reconnaissance report of_the times, but distinguished by the comprehensiveness and thoroughness of his field work. H~ covered by horseback and buggy some 5,500 square miles and in the report described the topography, geology, ground-water horizons (aquifers, really, but he.does not use the term), the kinds and_ numbers of wells, the irrigation, mineral resources, climate1 and timber resources. Maps showing the geology and depths to the principal artesian aquifer (the Dakota Sandstone) are included among others. Another similar report is his comprehensive report (1905) "Preliminary Report on the Geology and Underground Water Resourc~s of the Central Great Plains," U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 32, comprising 433 pages.


Darton (Figure 9) was an accomplished, prodigious, meticulous, and very rapid worker. How he did, or ever found time to do all the research and field study that he accomplished, while at the same time directing the work of the other hydrogeologists in the Western Division, and prepare all of the top-notch reports that he wrote, is difficult to comprehend. Much of the original geology that Darton described back at the turn of the century still stands unchanged by subse.quent workers, although ideas concerning the Dakota Sandstone have undergone considerable revision. He set a marvelous. example of_ accomplishment for all subsequent Surveyhydrogeologists to ~mulate, and many have risen to -the challenge, in particular, Myron L. Fuller, wa . l ter C. Mendenhall and C. E. Siebenthal. 1904 -Myron L. Fuller Fuller (Figure 10) was a prodigious and competent worker. Two of his many published reports, mentioned following, give one a feeling of the "state-of-the-art" at the turn of the century, of the problems to be solved and of the people working to solve them. His report entitled "Hydrology of the Eastern United States" (1903) was published as U.S. Geological Survey WaterSupply Paper 102, 52 pages. A follow-up paper entitled "Hydrologic Work of the U.S. Geological Survey in the Eastern United States" (1904) was published in the Proceedings of the 8th International Geographical Congress, p. 509-514. 35


Figure 9. Noah H. Darton, Chief of the Western Section of the Hydrogeologic Branch, a trail-blazer in the hydrogeology of the West.


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Figure 10. Myron L. Fuller, Chief of the U.S. Geological Survey's• Eastern Section, Hydrologic Branch, and concomitantly responsible for U.S.G.S ground-water geology operations in the United States. His most notable hydrogeologic work was accomplished in the southeastern States and especially in the Atlantic Coastal Plain (1902-1908).


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In these two reports Fuller describes the work of the Survey under the following headings" (1) Bibliographic, (2) Statistical, (3) Technical, (4) Legal, (5) Scientific, and (6) Economic. Fuller was not only Chief of the Eastern Section of the Hydrology (or Hydrogeology) Branch, but also was a sort of administrative super-chief of all the ground-water studies in the United States. He also found time to make numerous field studies of the regional or county type bearing such titles as "A Ground-Water Problem in Southeastern Michigan." Such studies were what might be termed high-level reconnaissance investigations . ., ..... ~s Theje/were qualitative and descriptive and generally carried quality-of-water information. Fuller was one of those Darton types who somehow found time to be a field hydrogeologist, a report writer and reviewer, a supervisor and adminstrator on the Washington Office level, and to top it off, a scientist admired and respected by his peers. When I began my first professional hydrogeologic work in Florida, M. L. Fuller became one of my idols -a man to pattern after. He was also the first man, to my knowledge, to use the term "aquifer" in a Survey report (1905). This term did not come into common usage in the U.S. Geological Survey or anyplace else, until the writer used it in U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 1255 (1955) in which the Floridan Aquifer, Floridan Aquiclude, and Biscayne Aquifer names were erected. These terms were first used in the 1946_draft of Water-Supply Paper 1255, but were first published by Parker (1951).


1903 -Waldemar Lindgren •Lindgren's "Water Resources of Molokai, Hawaiian Islands," published as U.S. -Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 77, 62 p., was a first of its kind. In this study --one of the fe_ w water studies that ~indgren (Figure 11) made --he made the first Suivey use of the water-budget method in an attempt to determine the quantity of water available for development in a fa1rly large area. Molokai is a mountainous island of 259 square miles in area; it is about 37 miies long and 7 to 10 miles wide. Lindgren recognized that P (precipitation) minus Et . (evapotranspiration) equals R ,(return flow to the sea) as measured in stream and ground-water discharge around the periphery ofthe island of Molokai. His data were faulty, but he derived the following estimates 0 water available from the Meyers Creek Basin of 54 mi2. I use it only as an example; Lindgren prepared suc6 water-budget estimates for each of the several river basins of the island: Av. annual precipitation = 48 in. = 195 .cfs. = 125.9 mgd Av. annual evaporation = 11.8 in, = 48 cfs. = 31 mgd Av. annual runoff in Meyers Creek = 9.8 in. = 40 cfs = 25.8 mgd Av. annual ground-water discharge = 25.4 in. = 107 cfs = 69.1 mgd From this analysis he suggests that a mimimurn of 30 mgd might be taken for co_nsurnptive use, or about 1/2 of the minimum groundwater discharge. Although he did not use.the term, Lindgren was trying to determine the water crop (Parker,et al., 1964, p. 25).


Figure 11. Waldemar Lindgren, first U.S. Geological Survey hyqrogeologist to use-the water-budget method to dalculate the water crop of a large area, Molokai Island, Hawaii (1903). U.S.G.S. Photo Library


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This is, to my knowledge, the first basin-wide water-budget study made by a Survey hydrogeologist and is reminiscent of the elemental work of Perrault (1674), Mariette (1686), and Halley (1691) in their early studies of the relationship of precipitation, evaporation and runoff in certain stream basins of France and England. If ihe correct data had been available instead of incorrect information supplied by local people, or that he himself estimated, he would.have come up with a very useful value of the perennial s-upply safely available for -consumptive use (approximately the equivalent of the.modern term "water crop"). His methodology was correct, but his data ,were faulty. Nonetheless, he inspired later workers in other areas to utilize the waterbudget method in making evaluations of water supplies available for development. 1904 -Willis T. Lee Lee prepared, among many other fine reports, two excellent quantitative reports under the following titles: "Underground Waters of Gi_la Valley, Arizona," published in 1904 in U.S. Geological Survey Witer-Supply Paper 104, 71 p.; and the other in 1905, "Underground Waters of Salt River Valley, Arizona," in U.S. _Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 136, 196 p. In the 1904 paper Lee (p. 42) derived an equation which is equivalent to that of Darcy's (1856). He alsodeveloped a rational relationship between precipitation and underflow, then estimated the amount of irr~gation water available be means of primitive drawdown tests in shallow wells tapping the valley 41


Figure 12 • . Willis T. Lee, U.S. Geological Survey hydrogeologist, most noted for his quantitative studies of western. alluvial valleys. U.S.G.S. Photo Library


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underflow. Lee also described the canal system used by the Indians in prehistoric times in the Gila River Valley. This is a basic and useful study and is indicative of what an imaginative arid resourceful hydrogeologist can do.i~ a very short study using a minimum of.help and money. 1905 -Walter C. Mendenhall Mendenhall' s report, "Development o f the Underground Waters in the Eastern Coastal Plain Region of Southern California," was published as U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 137, 140 p. This is the first of a set of four precedent-breaking, ground-water quantitative reports, all published in 1905, and discussed briefly below. The others are: "Development of Underground ~aters in the Central Coastal Plain of Southern California," Water-Supply Paper 138, 162 p.; "Development of Underground Waters in the Western Coastal Plain Region of Southern California," Water...,.Supply Paper 139, 105 p. , . and "The Hydrology of .San Bernardino Valley, California," Water-Supply Paper 142, 124 p. These four papers represent a tremendous outpouring of work ~fort, sort of out-Dartoning Darton. Each report is of a quantitative study of an area covering two continguous 15-minute U.S. Geological Survey topo-sheets. The area covered in these four reports was undergoing both a 10-year drought and rapid population develop~ent, coupled with gre~tly increasing uses of grciund water, chiefly fo~ irrigatidn. Mendenhall (Figure 13) studied a total of nearly 10,000 wells, well records and waterlevel hydrographs. He concluded that water is being "mined," 4-3


Figure 13. Walter C. Mendenhall, outstanding U.S. Geological Survey hydrogeologist n9ted for his quantit~tive studies in southern California; second Chief of the .U.S. Geological Survey's Ground Water Branch (1908-1911)-and later Director of the U.S. Geological Survey (1930-1943). U.S.G.S. Photo Library


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i.e.j more water is being taken out of aquifer storage than nature puts in. He correlated the flows of three rlvers (Los Angeles, _Santa Anna and San Gabriel) with ground-water recharge and found that th~re is a greatly reduced flow compared with that of former years, due not only to the drought but to headwaters abstraction of flow, thus reducing flows to the coastal basins. He studied the precipitation and evaporation records, plotted well locations, made maps of the water table, and of current (1904) areas of-artesian flow and compared it with area of preirrigation, pre-development flows. These four quantitative reports, alike in method and procedure, using wat~r-budget methodology, are the most modernlooking of any Survey reports prepared hitherto. The basic data on precipitation, runoff, ground-waterrecharge and evaporation plus transpiration losses are reliable. Thus, unlike Lindgren on Molokai, Mendenhall had good values to plug into his equation of continuity and thus came up with remarkably fine hydrogeologic results. In any event, Mendenhall's work convinced the Los Angeles planners that, if Los Angeles were to grow to meet their expectations, another source (and a large one) would have to be sought, secured and developed. They could not depend, as they had previously been thinking, on an undiminishable supply of ground water in the Los Angeles Basin. It may have been this excellent example of an application of water-budget methodology that led O. E. Meinzer (Figure 14) and Norah Dowell Stearns to make their excellent water-budget study 45


Figure 14. Oscar E. Meinzer, third Ground-Water Branch Chief (1911-1946) and architedt of modern hydrogeology. His professional career spanned 41 years, extending from his employment as a Junior Geologist (1907) until his death (1948), during which time he reached international recognition as pre-eminent in ground-water science. U.S.G.S. Photo Library


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of the 89-square mile Pomperaug Basin, Connecticut, as reported in U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 597-B, 1929, p . . 73-146. It also was the basis for my selection, in 1956, of how to make the water-resouces evaluation of the 12,765 square-mile Delaware River Basin (Parker, et a1., 1956, U.S. Geologipal Survey Professional Paper 381), and probably was the beacon that led Rasmussen and Andreasen (1959) to use the same methodology in their excellent int~nsive study of the 19.5-square mile Beaverdam Creek Basin, Maryland. Dr. Mendenhall became the second Chief of the Ground-Water Bra~ch, ,succeeding M. L. Fuller on Ja~uary 1, 1908 (Figure 6). He remained Chief until January 1, 1911, at which time he was elevated to position of Chief Geologist of the U.S. Geological Survey. Later, when George Otis Smith (1901; 1903; 1905) retired, Dr. Mendenhall became Director and served until May, 1943, when he retired. Dr. o. E. Meinzer (Figure 14), who had entered the Survey as a Junior Geologist in 1907, succeeded Mendenhall as Chief of the Ground Water Branch and under his direction the moderan era of hydrogeology developed. 1910 -Clarence E. Siebenthal Siebenthal's report on 11Geology and Water Resources of the San Luis Valley, Colorado," published as U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 240, 128 p~, and the very competent, intensiv~ field work that it represents, ranks very high in my estimation of the kind of hydrogeologic work that helped give the U.S . . 4-7


... , ... Geological Survey its well-deserved national and international reputation for excellence. His quantitative study of the San Luis artesian basin in Colorado is another Darton-type investigation. Siebenthal (Figure 15) had only one field season of work in the valley, yet he recorded 3,234 wells in operation ~n the basin at the end of the 1904 field season. Among other duties, Siebenthal had scheduled, measured, and estimated the flow of more than 1,000 of these flowing wells, most of which were 2 to 3 inches in diameter; the average flow was 40 gpm. At this rate, the 3,234 wells were producing 186.3 mgd or 286 cfs. Siebenthal calculated an irrigation service of 70 acres per cfs, therefore, the 286 cfs would service more than 20,000 acres; he believed that actually it would be nearer 2~,000. The report not only estimates water yield on an annual basis, but includes ati accurate topograhic map, describes the geology, geography, source of water supply, springs, flowing and non-flowing wells, the temperature, chemical quality, and uses being made of the basin's waters. 1912 -Charles H. Lee Lee's report entitled "Water Resources of a Part of Owens Valley, California," written in 1910, was published as WaterSupply Paper 294, 135 pages, and was followed in 1914 by his expanded report on "The Determination of the Safe Yield of Underground Reservoirs of the Closed-Basin Type," which was published in American Society of Civil Engineers Proceedings, Volume 40, pages 817-887.


Figure 15. C. E. Siebenthal, noted U.S. Geological Survey hydrogeologist, best known for his outstanding work_ in -Colorado: San Luis Basin (1910).


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These two papers, like the four Mendenhall previously mentioned, are as alike as peas in a pod. All are fine examples •Of water-budget studies, used to determine the water crop. With the Owens Valley aquifer remaining full to overflowing, seasonin and season-out, Lee equates ground-water discharge from the aquifer with ground-water recharge to the aquifer. All other elements in the budget remaining relatively equal, this is a correct app~oach and Lee could thus derive the water crop figure he gives of 155 cfs or 180 mgd. This is the amount that could be extracted from the valley fill without depleting groundwater basin storage.: Lee's 1914 paper uses the same kinds of data and conclusions are similar to those reached in his 1912 re~ort, but here he applies the water-budget approach to all desert-type closed basins. Conclusions I conclude that the.period 1776-1910 saw marked advances in hydrogeology, in all aspects of the science; also in its supporting engineering hydrologic concepts and in the.mechanical developments of pumps, tools and machinery for investigating the aquifers, aquicludes and, over all, the means of determining the framework and fabric of the ground-water reservoirs. Although the non-equilibrium formula was not published until V. 1935 by c.Jr. Theis, a workable equilibrium formula had been developed independently by several workers and was being successfully used. And, additionally, the quantitative waterbudget method was being developed and also successfully used,


especially in some of the arid-lands studies of the West. Truly, the stage had been set for the ensuing phase of hydrogeologic development that has been called the "Modern Era" under .the inspired and inspiring guidance of O. E .. Meinzer. S/


REFERENCES Adams, Frank D., 1938, Birth and Development of the Geological Sciences: Baltimore, Williams and Wilkins, 506 p. (reprinted 1954, Dover Puhl. Go., 506 p.) Bernoulli, Daniel, 1738, Hydrodynamica, Sive de Viribus et Motibus Fluoridum Commentarii: Strassburg Blake, N. M., 1956, Water for the Cities: Syracuse, New York, Syracuse University Press, 3~1 p. Carroll, Lewis, 1871, Through the Looking Glass and What Alice Found There: New York, Avenal Books, (reprint) Crown Publishers, Inc., 224 p. Chamberlain,-T. c., 1883, Artesian Wells: Wisconsin Geological Survey, v. 1, p. 689-701. ---1885, The Requisite and Qualifyirig Conditions of Artesi~n Wells: U.S. Geological Survey 5th Annual Report, p. 125-173. Darcy, H.P. G., 1856, Les Fontaines Publiques de la Ville de Dijon: Paris, Victor Dalmont. Darton, N. H., 1901, Preliminary Description of the Geology artd Water Resources of the Southern Half of the Black Hills and Adjoining Regions of South Dakota and Wyoming: U.S. Geological Survey 21st Annual Report, pt. IV, p. 489-599. ---1905, Preliminary Report on the Geological and Underground Water Resources of the Central Great Plains: U.S. Geological Survey Prof. Paper 32, 433 p. Daubree, A., 1887, Les Eaux Souterraines, Aux Epoques Anciennes et a l'epoque Actuelle: Paris, Dunod, 3 vols. De La Methiere, J. c., 1791, Theorie de la Terre: Paris, Chez Maradna. Dumont, Gustave, 1856, Les Eaux Alimentaires de la Ville de Liege. Dupuit, A. J.E. J., 1848, Etudes Theoriques et Practiques sur Le Mouvement des Eaux Courantes: Paris, Dunod, 275 p. ---1854, Traite Theorique et Practique de la Conduite et de la Distribution des Eaux: Paris, Carilian-Goeury. ---1863, Etudes Theoriques et Pratiques sur le Mouvement des Mouvement des Eaux dans les Canaux Decouverts et a Travers les Terrains Permeables: Paris. 5z.


Emmons, S. F., 1884, Administrative Report of Heads of Divisions (to the Director, USGS) on Progress of Work by the Mining Geology Division, Rocky Mountains: USGS 4th Annual Report, p. 45-46. Encyclopedia Britannica, 1972a, Bored Wells: Vol. 10, p. 391. Encyclopedia Britannica7 1972b, Jetted Wells: Vol. 10, p. 391. Follansbee, Robert, 1947, History of the Water Resources Branch, U.S. Geological Survey: Washington,.D.C., 459 p. Forchheimer, Philipp, 1886, Uber die Ergiebigkeit von Brunnen~ Anlagen und Sickerschlitzen: Verein, Hannover, Zeitschrift der Architekten und Ingeni~ur, v. 32, No. 7, p. 539-564. 1901, Wasserbewegung durch Boden: Ver Deutscher Ing. ---Zeitschr., Berlin, v. 45, p. 1736-1741 --1781-1788. Fuller, M. L., 1904, Hydrology of the Eastern United States (1903): U.S. Geological Survey, Water-Supply and Irrigation Paper No. 102, 522 p. 1905, Hydrologic Work of the USGS in the Eastern United ---States, 1904: 8th International Geographic Congress Proceedings, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., p. 509-514. . 1908, Summary of the Controlling Factors of Artesian Flows: ---U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin No. 319, 44 p. Fuller, M. L., Clapp, F. G., and Johnson, Bertrand L., 1906, Bibliographic Review and Index of Underground Water Literature Published in the United States in 1905: U.S. Geological Survey water-Supply and Irrigation Paper No. 163, 130 p. Gilbert, G. K., 1896, The Underground Wat~r of the Arkansas Valley in Eastern Colorado: U.S. Geological Survey, 17th Annual Report, Pt. II, p. 561-601. Hagen, G. H. L., 1839, Uber die Bewegung.des Wassers engen Cylindrischen Rohren: Leipzig, Annalen Physik und Chemie, v. 46, p. 423-442. 1869, Hanbuch der Wasserbaukunde, Berlin. ---Halley, Edmund, 1687, An Estimate of the Quantity of Vapor ---Rais~d out of the Sea by Warmth of the Sun: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Nb. 189,. v . 16, p . 366-370. 1691, On the Circulation of the Vapors of the Sea and the Origin of Springs: Philosophical Transactions of the Roy~l Society", No. 192, v. 17, p. 468-473. 53


1715, A Short Account of the Cause of the Saltness of the ---Ocean and of the Several Lakes that Emit no Rivers; With a Proposal by Help Thereof to Discover the Age of the World: Trans. Phil. Royal Society, ~o. 344, v. 29, p. 296-300. Hazen, Allen, 1892, Some Physical Properties of Sands and Gravels: Mass. State Board of Health 24th Annual Report, p. 541. Hoover, H. C. and Hoover, L. H., 1912, De Re Metallica:. London, England, The Mining Magazine, (Reprinted, 1950, Dover Publications, New York, 637 p.) Hutton, James, 1795, Theory of the Earth with Proofs and Illustrations, 2 Vols., Edinburgh. King, F. H., 1899, Principles and Conditions of the Movements of Ground Waters: U.S. Geological Survey, 19th Annual Report, Pt. 2, p. 59-384. Lamarck, J.B., 1802, Hydrogeologie: Paris, (Translated by A. V. Carozzi, 1964, Illinois Press, Urbana, 152 p.) Lee, Charles H., 1912, Water Resources of a Part of Owens Valley California: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper No. 294, 135 p. ---1914, The Determination of the Safe Yield of Underground Reservoirs of the Closed-Basin Type: American Soc. Civil Eningeer Proceedings, V. 40, No. 4, p. 817-887. Lee, Willis T., 1904, Underground Waters of Gila Valley, Arizona: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply and Irrigation Paper No. 104, 71 p. 1905, Underground Waters of Salt River Valley, Arizona: ---U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper No. 136, 196 p. Lindgren, Waldemar, 1903, Water Resources of Molokai, Hawaiian Islands: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply and Irrigation Paper No. 77, 62 p. Lucasi J., 1880, The Hydrogerilogy of the Lower Greensands of Surrey and Hampshire: London~ England, Institute of Civil Engineers Min. of Proc., v. 61, p. 200-227. Mariette, Edme, 1686, Traites du Mouvement des Eaux et des Autres Corps Fluides: Paris (English Translation, 1718) ,Mccallie, S. W ., 1898, Preliminary Report on the Artesian .Well System of Georgia: Georgia Geological Survey Bull. No. 7, 214 p~ Mead, D. W., 1919, Hyd~ology: New York, McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., 626 p.


Meinzer, O. E., 1934, Hydrology --The History and Development of Ground-Water Hydrology: Jour. Washington Acad~ Sciences, v. 24, No. 1, p. 6-32. 1942, Hydrology: Physics of the Earth -IX: New York, ---McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., 712 p. M~inzer, 0. E., and Stearns, N. D., 1929, A Study of Ground Water in the Pomperaug Basin, Connecticut: U.S. Geologicql Survey Water-Supply Paper 597-B, p. 73-146. Mendenhall, w . C. , 19 0 Sa, Development of the Underground Waters in the Eastern Coastal Plain Region of Southern California: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 137, 140 p. 1905b, Development of Underground Waters in the Central ---Coastal Plain of Southern California: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 138, 162 p. 1905c, De~elopment of Underground Waters in the We~tern ---Coastal Plain Region o f Southern California: U.S. Geological Water-Supply Paper 139, 105 p. 1905d; The Hydrology of San Bernadine Valley, California: ---U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply and Irrigation Paper 142, . 124 p. ---1909, Underground Waters: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 234, p~ 68-77. Meyer, 0. E., 1866, Uber die Innere Riebung der Gase: Poggendorff's Annalen, Band 127, p. 253-281. Norton, W. H., 1897, Artesian Wells of Iowa: Iowa Geological Survey, v. 6. Parker, Garald G., 1951, Geologic and Hydrologic Factors in the Perennial Yield of the Biscayne Aquifer: Am. Water Works Assoc. Jour., v. 43, No. 10, p. 817-843. Parker, Garald G.; Ferguson, G. E., Lovej S. K., and Others, 1955, Water Resources of Southeastern Florida, with Special Reference to the Geology and Ground Water of the Miami Area: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 1255, 965 p. Parker, Garald G., Hely, A.G., Keighton, W. B., and Olmsted, F. H., 1964, Water Resources of the Delaware River Basin: U.S. Ge6logical Survey Prof. Paper 381, .200 p. Perrault, Pierre, 1974, De l'Origine des Fontaines (Treatiseon the Origin of Springs): Paris, Pierre le Petit, 353 p. Playfair, John, 1802, Illustrations of the Huttonian Theory: Edinburg, 528 p.


Poiseuille, J. L. M., 1846, Recherches Experiment.ales sur le Mouvement des Liquides dans les Tubes de Tres-Petits Diametres: Acad. Sciences, Savants Estr~ngers, v. 9, p. 433-545 (English Translation by W. H. Herschel, Rheol. Mero., v. 1, No. 1, January, 1940). Powell, J. w., 1885, Report of the Director (1883-1884): U.S. Geological Survey, 5th Annual Report, p. xvii-xxxvi, Washington, D.C. Reynolds, Osborne, 1883, The Motion of Water and the Law of Resistance in Parallel Channels: (An experimental investigation of the circumstances which determine whether the motion of water shall be direct or sinuous and the law of resistance in parallel channels): Phil. Trans. Royal Society, v. A 174, p. 935-982. Russell, I. C., 1902, Geology and Water Resources of the Snake River Plaines of Idaho: U.S. Geological Survey Bull. 199, 192 p. Rasmussen, W. C., and Andreasen, G. E.' , 1959, A Hydrologic Budget of the Beaverdam Creek Basin, Maryland: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 1472, 106 p. Schlichter, C. S., 1899, Theoretical Investigation of the Motion of Ground Waters: U.S. Geological Survey, 19th Annual Report, pt; 2, p. 295-384. 1902, The Motions of Underground Waters: U.S. Geological ---Survey Water-Supply and Irrigation Paper 67, 106 p. 1095, The Rate of Movement of Underground Waters: U.S. ---Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 140, 122 p. Schlichter, Charles Sumner, and Wolff, H. C., 1906, The Underflow of South Platte Valley: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 184, 42 p. Siebenthal, C. E., 1910, Geology and Water Resources of the San Luis Valley, Colorado: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 240, 128 p. Smith, G. O., 1901, Geology and Water Resources a Portion of Yakima County, Washington: U.S. Geological Survey WaterSupply Paper 55, 68 p. 1903, Ellensburg, Washington Folio: U.S. Geological Survey ---Geological Folio 86. 1905, Artesian Water in Crystalline Rocks: Science, New Ser., ---v. 21, No. 528, Lancaster, Pa., p. 224-225.


Theim, Adolph, 1887, Verfarhen fur Naturlicher Grundwassergeschwindeg Kiten: Polyt. Notizblatt v. 42, p. 229. Thiem, Gunther, 1906, Hydrologische Methoden, J.M. Gephardt, Leipzig. Todd, J.E., 1900, Geology and Water Resources of a Portion of Southeastern South Dakota: U.S. Geological Survey WaterSupply Paper 34, 34 p. Turneaure, F. E., and Russell, H. L., 1901, Public Water Supplies: New York, John Wiley & Sons, 258 p. Venturi, G. B., 1797, Racherches Experime-ntales sur la Principe de la Communication Laterale du Movement dans les Fluides: Paris.


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