Early stage of hydrogelogy in the United States, 1776 to 1912 - October 1986

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Early stage of hydrogelogy in the United States, 1776 to 1912 - October 1986

Material Information

Early stage of hydrogelogy in the United States, 1776 to 1912 - October 1986
Parker, Garald G. (Garald Gordon), 1905-2000
Publication Date:
Physical Location:
Box 1


Subjects / Keywords:
Aquifers -- Hydrogeology -- Florida ( lcsh )
Hydrology -- Florida -- Biscayne Aquifer (Fla.) ( lcsh )


Hydrogeology is concerned largely with ground water and, as ground water occurs in a geologic environment, an understanding of the geologic fabric and framework is essential to its development and use. But ground-water flow, discharge, recharge, response to pumping and other related matters, including salt-water encroachment, are described by mathematical formulas and tested by engineering techniques. Until both the sciences of geology and engineering hydrology were far enough advanced to be of practical help; in the late 1800's, hydrogeologic progress was stymied. Additionally, an economic need for hydrogeologists wu required before a demand developed for such scientists. With the opening of the West in the late 1860's the demand came. Hydrogeologists were needed to find irrigation water for the arid lands. Concomitantly, in the South, ground water was needed for growing rice, com, and cotton. The rapid growth of cities, especially in the North, required hydrogeoiogists to find safe supplies of clean, pure water to replace polluted surface-water sources. By the early 1900's engineering techniques and equipment needed to drill and pump the deep wells and to evaluate the aquifer pumping tests were available, satisfactory for the times, but clumsy and awkward by modem standards. By 1912, the beginning of the "Meinzer Era," the U.S. Geological Survey had developed into the foremost governmental scientific organization in the world and its small cadre of hydrogeologists were world leaders in their science. A wealth of information concerning the history and development of the science was summarized by Meinzer (1934). Oscar E. Meinzer, regarded as the Father of Hydrogeology in America, was the third Chief of the Ground-Water Branch (1912-1946) (Figure 1). (KEY TERMS: hydrogeology; history; definitions; Meinzer Era; water budget; water crop.)

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of South Florida
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
The University of South Florida Libraries believes that the Item is in the Public Domain under the laws of the United States, but a determination was not made as to its copyright status under the copyright laws of other countries. The Item may not be in the Public Domain under the laws of other countries.
Resource Identifier:
032968560 ( ALEPH )
891343127 ( OCLC )
G16-00668 ( USFLDC DOI )
g16.668 ( USFLDC Handle )

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