San Francisco Bay Chapter Newsletter


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/ s f b c newsletter In this Issue: What is Project Caving California Operations of the Cave Research Foundation. Lilburn Cave Cartography Progress in 1996 Trip Schedule for 1997 Hawaii '96 Trip Report and much much more !!! San Francisco Bay Chapter National Speleological Society Volume 40, Number 1 January 1997 Cover Photo by Bill Frantz

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Page2 San Francisco Bay Chapter Newsletter January 1996 What is "Project Caving" (And Why Should It Matter?) By John Tinsley The Editor invited me to gin an essay describing the Cave Research Foundation (CRF), one of several project caving operations that is active in the California area. As it is important to me, I have chosen to broaden this mission to include a discussion of what project caving is and to urge all cavers to consider becoming seriously involved with one or more caving projects somewhere, whether or not it happens to occur under auspices of CRF. The requested second essay describes CRF and its California operations. "Project Caving" as practiced within the San Francisco Bay Chapter of the NSS and, I suppose, elsewhere in the Western Region and beyond, means that you have chosen to combine your interests, skills, and talents in caving with a goal of achieving something beyond a purely subterranean recreational pursuit. The goal may be to make a map of the cave (the most basic means of defining the geographic extent of the cave resource), or to study some aspect of the cave system such as its hydrology, archeology, paleontology, history, biology or geology in order to advance our scientific knowledge of a cave system or of caves in general. Perhaps the goal is to collect and organize information that wili benefit the owner or manager of the cave by enabling informed decision-making concerning some aspect ofthe cave or land-use above the cave. Perhaps the goal may be to help to erase the damage that cavers inevitably inflict on caves, or to learn to conduct rescues in caves. The list of potential projects is as varied as cavers themselves; the venue may involve caves worldwide. Project caving at best achieves useful and lasting benefits in exchange for the recreational pursuit that otherwise adversely impacts the cave environment or consumes the cave resource. (Pause politely while project cavers everywhere bask in a moment of gloating concerning their intrinsically superior philosophy and attitude). So what projects are out there? As you read this, cavers from the SFBC and the Western Region of the NSS are in Borneo, on an international caving project to locate, explore, and study the caves of Guonong Buda area An International Congress of Speleology convenes in August in Switzerland. Locally, the activities of the Cave Research Foundation (organized in 1957) which, since 1976, has studied caves in Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks and more recently the Lava Beds area (described in a companion essay). CRF has mapped much of the Mammoth Cave System in central Kentucky, now more than 350 miles long and the longest cave in the world. But there's lots more! Other California cave projects (not a comprehensive list, sorry )include: the Church Cave Mapping Project, making sound progress mapping this impressive cave resource on National Forest land near the Kings River (the best local contact for this project is Eric Miles of the SFBC; the project coordinator is Ray Hardcastle, in southern California). The grandfather of active California caving projects is organized as the Klamath Mountains Conservation Task Force which has been exploring and mapping the fabulous karst resource in the Marble Mountains in northwestern California on the order of 25 years (Project Coordinator is Steve Knutsen; a local contact is Cindy Heazlit). The Western Region sponsors projects from time to time; currently, it's organizing and directing a cave rescue group affiliated with the National Cave Rescue Commission of the NSS. Mr. Joel Despain, Cave Management Specialist at Sequoia National Park, frequently organizes projects including the recent mapping and restoration projects at Crystal Cave, a show cave operated by the Sequoia Natural History Association. Diablo Grotto manages Windeler Cave under a special use permit granted by the US Forest Service and seeks participants from time to time. Clearly, project caving is alive and well in the Western Region. Almost all of these activities proceed under the banner of the National Speleological Society. There are activities available for all skill levels; you can grow as a caver. Why not get involved? California Operations of the Cave Research Foundation -an overview By John Tinsley, Project Coordinator The Cave Research Foundation is a nonprofit corporation organized in 1957 in the Commonwealth of Kentucky. Its purpose is to support scientific research related to caves and karst, to aid in the conservation of cave and karst wilderness features, and to assist in the interpretation of caves through education. CRF mounts expeditions year round at Mammoth Cave, Kentucky, at and near Carlsbad Caverns in New Mexico, the Ozarks of Missouri including Ozark National Scenic Riverways, Mark Twain National Forest, Missouri State Park containing caves, and some privately-held caves; in the Arkansas area (Fitton Cave); and in the California area (Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks and Lava Beds National Monument). The Foundation has solicited and invested an endowment that supports an internationally regarded graduate Karst Research Fellowship. The varied activities of the Foundation are chronicled in its Annual Report; copies are available from Tinsley upon request. As a general rule, CRF activities are proposal-driven. This means that Projects are conducted by Principal Investigators who have written proposals describing the work to be done, the goals to be achieved, and products to be delivered; no project proceeds prior to approval of the proposal by the cave's manager. In this way, solid quality is assured and the stout backing of the management agency is achieved. The California Area of CRF presently organizes projects at Lava Beds National Monument (LABE) and in Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks(SEKI) in the Redwood Canyon area, the Mineral King area, and in the Crystal Cave area. These projects are discussed briefly below, . 1

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-. Volume 40, Number lSan Francisco Bay Chapter Newsletter Page3 in the hope and expectation that many of you folks who are interested will find something that catches your interest and eventually your commitment. The Lava Beds CRF projects are coordinated by Janet Sowers (of Diablo Grotto) and Bill Devereaux (Willamette Valley Grotto, in Oregon). At least 4 expeditions are conducted annually (President's Day, Memorial Day, Labor Day, and Thanksgiving); other, smaller expeditions occur as needed. Projects are aimed at developing a cave management data base for the Monument. This includes locating the more than 300 known lava caves, inventorying their contents and potential sensitivity to various impacts, mapping the caves, conducting geological, biological, archeological, and botanical or other research as seems necessary to collect additional information needed to manage the cave resource intelligently, and advising Park Service staff concerning cave management issues. Janet has devised a quantitative cave resource evaluation process that can be conducted by interested cavers (assisted by 1 day of training); Janet's approach is spreading rapidly throughout the US among cave managers and its methodology represents the prevailing standard for volunteer based cave inventory projects today. The SEKI projects are equally diverse, and focus on two of the parks' principal karst areas, one located in Redwood Canyon and one located in Mineral King. Redwood Canyon contains the largest surviving grove of Giant Sequoia trees in the world, and one of California's longest caves. The Redwood Canyon studies focus on Lilburn Cave, which is managed by the National Park Service as an underground research laboratory with entry only to those conducting or assisting with NPS-approved research projects. Present projects include cartography, cave restoration (Bill Frantz), sedimentology, karst development and processes (Tinsley and others), hydrology and aquatic chemistry including a rare ebb and-flow spring (Jack Hess), history (Merrilee Proffitt); subaqueous exploration (Bill Farr), with other studies underdevelopment. The principal focus is on Lilburn Cave; the Cartography project under the direction of Peter Bosted is reported elsewhere in this issue and serves as a principal example of one achievement of CRF in this region. Most projects are aimed at learning how Lilburn Cave operates as a physical system; each project has a principal investigator who is responsible to the National Park Service and to CRF for conducting the study in a responsible manner and for achieving professional results summarized in reports. Three MS theses have been completed on aspects of the Redwood Canyon Karst, and a Ph.D. study is presently being organized under the direction of Dr. John W. Hess of the Desert Research Institute. The Mineral King projects are coordinated by Glen Malliet and include chiefly cave cartography, exploration, and resources inventory. Initial efforts have been directed at the White Chief and Panorama basins (two hanging valleys at about 10,000 feet elevation that are tributary to the east fork of the Kaweah River (the principal drainage of Mineral King valley). This year, surveys of Cirque Cave were essentially completed and the map is being drawn up; interest is shifting to other large karst resources of the valley. A recent study of the hydrology and geology has showed that the geologic maps of the area going back nearly a century are incorrect so far as depicting the karst are concerned. Marble extends from White Chief Valley under a ridge into eastern Eagle Creek Valley and thence to a resurgence not far from the trail head, indicating a potential for several kilometers of new cave system. If you think you may be interested in participating with CRF in helping with or initiating studies of karst areas in California, please contact John Tinsley, Peter Bosted, or one of the other PI's noted above. Joint-venturers are always being sought. The CRF field schedule is published in the SFBC newsletter and is available from Tinsley upon request. Lilburn Cave Cartography Progress in 1996 By: Peter Bosted This was another good year for cartography at Lilburn Cave, in Redwood Canyon, Kings Canyon National Park, California. The CRF fielded six expeditions involving cartography: April 28-29; May 25-27; June 22-24; July 4; August 3-4; and November 9-10, 1996. There were a total of twenty-one trips into Lilburn Cave, with a total of about 4500 feet of new passage being surveyed using about 500 stations. The average shot length of only 10 feet is indicative of the relatively small and tight nature of the new passages being discovered. Another 800 feet of re-survey was done for various reasons (tie-ins to existing survey points, improving sketches, accidental re surveys, etc.). The total length of Lilburn Cave(excluding redundant surveys and tie-ins) is now 15.83 miles (25.48 km), with a total of 7000 stations set. Most of the new discoveries in Lilburn were the result of having newly-available quadrangle maps of the relevant region. Having the cave split into various levels allows better determinations of what leads have been surveyed, compared to the previous map where all levels were put on a single map. At the very upstream end of the cave, several new passages were mapped in the West Stream area, and a new connection was made with the Kleinbottle Complex. An aid climb was made up a dome to reach several hundred feet of new passage that ended in granite boulder chokes. Several passages north of the Hex Room were surveyed, and another aid climb up a 60' chimney was made (unfortunately the passage at the top didn't go very far). Two new passages were found near the Lake Room: one with tantalizing air movement at the small hole at the end. Quite a bit of mop-up survey was done in the South Seas Junction area. The largest number of new stations set was in the southern end of the cave. The upper maze south of Davis exit was re-investigated after many years of no visits, and several connections were found back to the lower level. High level passages near the Yellow

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Page4 San Francisco Bay Chapter Newsletter January 1996 Floored Domes continued to yield quite a bit of virgin passage (as judged by the extremely unstable boulders in some of these areas). A circuitous route was found on the last trip that led to a large room near the top of the Yellow Floored Domes. Many leads remain to be checked out in this area, although aid climbing may be needed to pursue the largest-looking one. One survey trip was made into the I40'-long, newly re-opened, Ellis Dig Cave, with a complementary survey being made of the surface terrain above this cave. The surveyors for 1996 were Peter Bosted (11 trips), Brad Hacker (10 trips), Merrilee Proffit, (5 trips), Jed Mosenfelder (4 trips), Joel Despain (4 trips), B. Frantz (3 trips), Boris Galistky (3 trips),Lynn Jesaitis (3 trips), Robin Beane (2 trips), J. Cherez (2 trips), A. Fortini (1 trip),M. Rarnes (I trip), P. Nelson (1 trip),Bill Farr (I trip), Carol Vesely (1 trip),Cindy Heazlit (1 trip), M. Reeves (1 trip),D. Reeves (1 trip), A. Sevi (1 trip), E. Gnos (1 trip), Greg Cotterman(! trip), C. Plokar (1 trip), L. Wells (1 trip), and Mark Scott (1 trip). The map-drawing effort continued well in 1996, with both Peter and Brad each producing about ten more quadrangles, as well as updating the existing quads with the new surveys. Jed has turned over the quads he was going to draw to Brad. Presently there remain about I 0 quads to be drawn in the Attic area (part of the D series), three in the Curl Passage (F series), the Pandora area quads, and some of the River Pit quads. Thus the quadrangle project is about 75% complete. Plans for 1997 include finishing the quadrangles and making computer generated color plan and profile maps of the entire cave to fit on an 11" by 17" sheet, with the colors indicated depth below entrance (for the plan), or distance from the viewer (for profile).This would be similar to the grey-scale map produced previously, but now using color. Caving Quilt T -shirt Solicitation By Cindy Heazlit Greetings, A few of us have discussed creating a caving quilt to raffle off at the regional. The funds raised by the raffle would be donated to the Western Region rescue training cache. I talked with Pat Garner this last weekend, and she has volunteered herself and her quilting guild for the task of creating the quilt. Based on her past experience, she thinks that we could raise around $1000.00! Now, where everyone comes in ... The quilt would be made out of caving theme T-shirts. So I need donations of as many different caving T-shirts as can be found. A variety of new and old would be best. We need around 20 shirts. If you have any shirts that you have outgrown, etc., please either bring them to the meeting in Fresno, or get them to myself or Frantz's. There is a lot of prep work needed for using T -shirt material, so we need them ASAP. Pat would also like to do a border around the edge of the quilt to make it commemorative. Something like "Western Region NSS, 1997-blah blah blah". Your suggestions in this area would be appreciated. Western Region Cave Rescue We've got you covered. (har har har)Thanks! Hawaii '96 Sept. 24-0ct. 4 By Dave Bunnell Participants: Bill Liebman, Doug and Hazel Medville, Terry and Mercy Raines Day 1 (Tuesday) Our initial goal was to find and drop some pits high on the 1855 flow near Relay Junction, spotted by Doug and Hazel on their last trip. We walked high up but didn't find them. Bill split off and ended up going all the way to the vent, some three miles above the road. We found lots of entrances but few that went. We rigged a handline with the pitons and Doug and I climbed into a puka with a lava falls, which lead into a breakdown floored, low and uninviting passage not what we'd come to Hawaii to push. In some crappy rock we rigged a ladder and dropped a whopping eight feet into a tube going both ways. We mapped some 450' in this one, not very memorable, before heading down. At the bottom we heard from Terry and Hazel that they'd found a line of entrances along the edge of the, the far west edge of the 1855 flow. We hit one high up that we surveyed the next day, some 300' of walkway to stoopway passage with red rillen-pahohoe floors. Further down we came to our main entrance of what would become Redemption Cave, as it rescued the day from being wasted. It had a large, well decorated passage that led to a low squeeze that Doug did but we decided to leave that for later. We did a series of largish passages that had a number of side passages before wrapping things up just before dark. Day 2 (Weds) Bill's folly; orange crust; Redemption 2 Bill was convinced he had a great lead, some huge puka, and we all set off up the 1855 flow to check it out. Well, on the way up I saw an entrance I'd never seen, above Hammer Cave. It was a 3 x 8 fissure ringed with orange crust which dropped some 8' into a down flowing tube. I followed it through abom 300' of stoopway to a junction with a larger passage, with air, before turning around. I exited, saw the others far upflow anc joined them. Turned out Bill couldn't find his puka, thought he was too high, so I led the others over to my find to do some mapping. All but Bill came in and began a survey. The upflow end oJ the main passage choked after a couple of tight squeezes anc downflow proved to only go a couple of hundred feet, but al agreed it was a nice little tube.

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J Volume 40, Number lSan Francisco Bay Chapter Newsletter Page5 We returned to Redemption around 4:00 and began a survey through the main passage and beyond Doug's squeeze. This led to some good-sized passage and a tiny skylight which was above a good lead. I reached out and placed one of Doug's green flags on the chance we might locate this entrance and enlarge it. Day 3 (Friday) thought of the day: shit happens Today we rode west of relay junction to the first left turn which heads to a cinder cone. The topo shows three pukas in a paleo-flow here. Unfortunately it required traversing about 3000 feet of and clinker to reach this flow, which took about half an hour. But upon reaching the flow, Terry, Doug and I quickly located the first large puka. I located a couple of entrances upflow before we headed in. This puka had a huge entrance heading upflow, some 45' wide and 25-30' high. The floor was covered in green moss coated breakdown. We noticed a definite wind even in this large passage. We surveyed in some 400' to what appeared an end, but a 1 0' climb-up led to a low tunnel howling a furious wind. This tunnel was walled in pure white crystal, with brown shark's teeth stals poking through the crusts. A 15' crawl led to a climbdown on some broad aprons with a 20' drop in the middle. We continued on in the main passage, which opened up again to be some 25' tall and wide. After a couple of hundred feet we saw light above a steep breakdown slope, which Doug climbed up. He found himself in the next large puka above the one we'd entered, which was clear to me when he described the 15' high lava falls which poured in on one side. Continuing onward, we soon saw light again pouring in through an unreachable skylight. Here there were some very large shark's teeth stals and something very unexpected in this remote spot: a mummified chicken, perfectly preserved for who knows how long. Terry held it up for a photo. Beyond we crossed some nice red pahoehoe floors before reaching a breakdown termination of this pleasant passage. Back at the spot we'd climbed down to from the wind tunnel, we entered a pleasant tube which continued walking/stooping for several hundred feet, again with the elusive wind. A hundred feet before its end was an upper level passage which we followed through some squeezes to emerge from under the breakdown into the mossy carpet entrance. By now we were cold and hungry and climbed back to the surface for lunch. The clouds around Mauna Kea were dramatic, now obscuring the telescope-riddled summit. After this we climbed to the downflow side of the puka and found a few hundred feet of large passage which soon led to daylight and another large puka (probably the third of those shown on the map). The downflow end of this puka was hopelessly plugged, dashing our hopes of following this pleasant tube line down the mountain. One thing remained to survey, which was the upper entrance I'd found earlier. This began in a little lava lake which had oozed down into a 3x7 foot hole. The smooth pahoehoe crustE here were shattering like egg shells. A short climb droppec into a nicely decorated 15' x 10' passage with considerabl< wind, which we thought would lead us to the upper puka possibly to emerge behind the lava falls. Alas, after only four stations this passage ended. But near the termination wen some crusts of very brilliant yellow crystals, much yellowe1 than those we'd seen in another Mauna Loa cave. This cave had some of the most intensely white walls I've ever seen in z lava tube. On one side was a large stals, a smooth bulbom accretion some 8' high and maybe 5' in diameter. Near the entrance were some very large dangling crusts, some tinted orange. We tried to get some photos before exiting, and I burned most of a roll here myself. By now the weather was looking threatening and we decided to cross the AA before getting fogged in. We'd gotten some 1800' of survey in the wind tunnel system. The only thing left undone was checking the upflow side of the large puka with the lava falls, but this would have required a tricky climbdown or entering again through the lower puka, neither of which we were motivated to do now. After returning to the car we greeted Hazel, who'd sat out tc avoid the AA traverse. We went to start the engine and -nothing. Dead battery. And Bill, who was in the other car was nowhere to be seen. So Terry and Doug decided to see if they could flag down a car leaving the observatory. Doug waited at the road three hours and saw no one. Terry hiked down to the Saddle Road (11 miles) and got a ride back to the cabin. Meanwhile, Bill decided to come searching when we hadn't gotten back by 9, and had missed Terry on the way. We rode back and were eating by 11... Thus ended day 3. Day 4 (Saturday) Barb Schaefer rode up to meet us this morning. Bill and Hazel rode off to Hilo to get gas, and as we found out later, took a flight over Mauna Loa. We piled in to her new Explorer and rode up to Doug's van. After some work we got the thing jumped, and rode out to the west to check a pit that Doug and Hazel had found earlier. This flow was a reddish pale flow, and an easy half hour hike got us to a large puka some 120' long, ringed with lava balls, with a huge entrance taking ofJ downflow. We rigged a cable ladder using two pitons and a backup rope tied around a lava ball. The drop was maybe 20'. The large passage taking off was maybe 50' wide and 40' tall with white walls and red crust near the bottom. The floor was mostly clinkery pahohoe with lots of white frosting. It stayed large for some 200', got low, then dropped some 20' down a lava falls heavily encrusted with white crystal and coral. At the bottom the floor was smooth and several large accreted blocks were cemented. In 100' the passage dropped from it5 maximum 40' tall to a tubular walking passage some 6' high. mostly white. This ended at a lava ball cemented in the middle. Just in front a line of yellow arced across the passage like 2 rainbow. we tried a bunch of photos in this area and a number

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PageS San Francisco Bay Chapter Newsletter January 1996 on the way out. We checked the upflow side of the puka to find it plugged within one station. We climbed out, ate, and hiked down to the cars. Now 4:30, we decided to return to Redemption cave. Doug was keen to find the spot on the surface where I'd reached out of a small opening and placed a green flag, as we had a good lead here. He'd figured out the distance and bearing from the main entrance using Compass, so he began a jiffy surface survey. Sure enough, I spotted the flag just about where it was expected. Doug immediately set about enlarging it with my piton hammer. I walked back to the car to get my forgotten gloves and spotted a couple of overhung entrances along the same line. Meanwhile Barb located another puka with ferns and moss growing in them, a first for the relay junction area. we all climbed in to Doug's newly enlarged opening, a stretch for the ladies. We climbed down to our lead, a lower level passage. This was 5-7' high with smooth walls and pahohoe floor. After some 300-500' it intersected the upper level passage near the overhanging entrance we'd seen on the surface. It continued beyond in a walking height passage and dropped down a couple of small lava falls. The passage had broad overhanging aprons on both sides, some of which were fringed with rill en pahohoe. We found a couple of exitable skylights. We also hit several side passages. A good breeze lured us on to where we decided to exit. Here at this climb-up were some rillen-pahohoe stals on the ceiling, very bizarre. Terry and I continued below the climb-up and in 150' or so walked out an entrance some 300' from the cars, their license plates reflecting from our lights. The passage continued downward across the puka we'd emerged from and we decided to leave this for another day, it now being 7:30 or so and dark. The tube may well have continued right under out cars! Our total for Redemption Cave was now close to half a mile, with numerous leads remaining. Day 5 (Sunday) We got a bit of a later start since we had to check out of the cabins this morning. At relay junction, Doug, Hazel and I spent 20 minutes tying the lower end of Oozing Red (tiny entrance with a natural bridge of orange) into the lower entrance of Redemption. After this we split into two teams, with Doug Hazel and Bill going upflow from the lower entrance to pick up side leads along the way. I teamed with Terry and Mercy to push downflow. This was a questionable proposition since the tube would intersect the road shortly, and Barb had suggested the road crew would have filled the tube had there been any entrances nearby. I went upflow to photograph the unique erosional stalactites, only to find one of the three had been broken by the other crew. Fortunately the largest of them was still there so I did a shot of hem with Mercy modeling. It took me a while to get into the swing of sketching again. We did one side passage then crossed the collapsed puka entrance into the unknown downflow passage. It continued on with large curbs (5' wide or more) on both sides and a pahohoe floor. Large stals were ever-present on the ceiling and even on the walls, where ribbed columns up to a foot long protruded from the walls. We followed good air to an intersection with a large passage 25' wide and 15' high. We continued downflow to a pair of entrances above a climb-up. A short crawl over red pahohoe coated here and there with patches of soft white frothy 'stuff'. We emerged to find ourselves about 50' below the road, right below where Terry had spelled out "Texas" with some red cinders. At Terry's suggestion, we named this the "Eyes of Texas" entrance. We went out to eat and drink and saw the others up above. I went up and conferred with them. They'd finished up all the side leads and were about to work in the upper redemption entrance. I walked over with Doug to the entrance that Barb had found the day before, about 300' east of the Redemption entrance. It had some large ferns and green moss at the bottom, with a red lava falls cascading over the edge. It overhung about 10' , requiring a ladder, and later Doug dropped it and found that it went big time. But this would need to be saved for another day. Meanwhile we went back into the eyes of Texas entrance to continue our survey. Shortly beyond we hit a breakdown section requiring crawling but the passage stayed wide. But beyond it opened up and we had nice walking passage again. This area was very dark, devoid of the white mineralization typical of Mauna Loa tubes. Yet it was similar to the downflow ends of Oozing Red, Sunset, and Hanging Pack. Somehow the flows below the road were different. This was some of the biggest passage and the cave and the most intact tube. After some 1300' of survey, we arrived at a large room with the main passage degenerating into three smaller ones. Straight ahead was a seven foot climb up to a red, clinkery, overhanging, pahohoe shelf. This led into a narrow passage with tubes-within-tubes and to a room with much air coming from a couple of small holes. A side passage over some large coated blocks pinched. Out in the main chamber, Terry followed a small passage with air and found it too tedious to follow over the clinkery floors but said it continued. I wanted to pick up some side leads on the way back but Terry had run out of water for his carbide light so we headed out, finding Dug and Hazel in the car waiting and Biii off again in search of his elusive master puka. We packed up and left for Kona shortly before sunset. Day 6 (Monday) Down in Kona now, we bid adieu to Terry and Mercy who left to tour the island. Hazel, Doug, Bill & I went just north of the airport and went left on Kaiminilani (SP?) drive, then right on to an unnamed but dead-end road. Just above were two puka entrances. We began at the further one. The obvious way on led to nice walkway which died after some 500'. The floor was

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Volume 40, Number lSan Francisco Bay Chapter Newsletter Page7 dusty and showed signs of extensive use fire rings, a wall at the entrance with offerings, and some petroglyphs at the entrance. The walls of this cave had extensive crusting and other white mineralization, and lots of stals, albeit smaller than Mauna Loa. Back in the entrance puka, there was an opening on the side that we followed. Only later did we realize that the entire side of this puka was artificially walled closed, some 20' long and 12' high! We now surveyed into borehole, with several junctions of other good-sized passages. Much of the floor was breakdown. Points of interest included heavily encrusted walls with some stalagmites up to eight inches high, and a loop in a large room up and down through some fissurey passage that seemed more solutional than lava tube in nature. At the end of one passage was the inevitable crawl over some very sharp stuff that no one was happy with, and a surprisingly active concentration of drippiness. This largely ended the survey except for a couple of side leads. Back at the climb down from the puka, the other direction led down even deeper into a 250' segment of large walking passage with very flat floors and much evidence of cultural use. There were piles of macadamia nut shells, some altar-like constructions, and a 3' high circular construction that could have been a fire ring. However, I noted that the ceilings weren't blackened as might be expected had this been the case. There was also a pile of unidentified bones near this. The passage ended in breakdown, apparently quite close to the other puka we'd passed on the way over. We left about 5:30 to cool off in the surf at Disappearing Sands beach. Great body surfing but some of those waves will kick your butt! Day 7(Tuesday) We got a late start this morning after an aborted attempt to arrange a flight. So we ended up about 1 :00 at the puka near the Wall Cave system. Not much to say about this cave -we did several passages that were just plain UGLY -breakdown floors, barely walking height, no formations. Doug and I were keen to wrap it up when Bill pushed one last passage and presto-we connected to the "cultural passage" in Wall Cave, making that cave almost 3,000' long. Around 4:30 we met up with Barb Schaefer and hiked out towards Keohole bay. She led us along an ancient Hawaiian trail, stopping first at a small cave with numerous large op'ee (limpet) and cowrie shells, a midden site. She dug out a little hook carved out of human bone that she'd found here and stashed for safety. Next we visited a 100' segment oftube open at both ends, with tall curb linings over 10' tall. The bridge over this passage contained a couple of skylights and there were numerous bones and some walls. Down a line of pukas we went, stopping at a more delicate bridge that various individuals (myself excluded) were talked into walking across for photos. Shortly beyond we reached a puka with borehole that led to our goal: a lava tube with a lake of blue-green water at its end! It was in a large curving passage with broad aprons on both sides, and the water looked as deep as 15' in spots. It was sufficiently inviting looking that some of us wanted to jump in, but I contented myself with a multiple flash photo, with everyone (4) helping. All the flashes seemed to work and with luck we got some good shots. This done, Barb asked us if we wanted to see another cave we could swim in. We walked down to the coast and along it for half a mile to a water-floored puka only some 50' from the surf. A wooden ladder extended into the water, which was clear and blue tinted, as in the previous cave. Glowing eyes of shrimp beckoned us. Only Barb and I stripped down and jumped in the water. I poked into some roofed-over tube which extended only 50' or so. It was a refreshing way to cool down for the long hike up the hill and back to the cars. After returning we went to Cafe Pesto, a trendy Kamuela restaurant, and then on to Barb's, where we watched shots of tubes in the Hawaii flows. She had some nice shots of pig-tail formations in some caves from the Kona region. We shot home soon after, knowing we had to get up early the next morning. DayS (Weds) We began the day with a two hour flight over the flows to look for entrances or "pukas" as they're called in Hawaiian. We flew over Doug's areas in the 1801 Hualalai flows, spotting more and more leads. We then headed for Relay Junction on Mauna Loa, though we were climbing very slowly due to our weight and a lack of wind. So we headed over to Hualalai and looked at various pit craters, including Na One, which I recognized. Our visibility was excellent. At Relay Junction, I was struck by the multicolored flows and just how long the puka lines extended above and below. We shot lots of pictures and Doug was quite pleased to see all this stuff. After the flight we joined John Rosenfeld from PA. who had looked into a vent on the side of Hualalai called Puhai Pelee. It was a 20 minute walk down from the upper road, 190. It had several deep sinks filled with vegetation and two had deep holes. After some circuitous route finding we were standing at the edge to the pit and throwing rocks. They didn't seem to go all that far. We rigged it with a 300' rope John had brought. Unfortunately the airlines had lost all of his caving gear, but we were able to loan him some. We were able to rig a largely free drop on two trees right at the edge to the pit proper. After some convincing John went down first. After 15 minutes we heard a clear "off rope, come on down!" and down I went. The drop was pretty clean except for some loose rocks near the lip. Large tube extended in either direction. About 70' down the rope rubbed a bit as the pit narrowed into a tall fissure, and here I placed a pad. At -125', I found John on a large, rock strewn bottom. There appeared to be more drop in either direction, but loose rocks and a lack of rigging for a rebelay (should a brought the pitons down) made this problematic. I acted as a re-anchor and John chimneyed out en belay. He shined his light down and estimated it went another 80', but without a means to re-rig the rope to avoid the loose rocks at

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Pages San Francisco Bay Chapter Newsletter January 1996 the lip it seemed most prudent to leave it for another Obviously it would have to await another day. With the pit done for now, we de-rigged and carried all the rope back up. we then went for a brief snorkel down at Kaahulu Beach Park, lots of fish but less coral than I'd remembered. We finished the day with a Hawaiian buffet at the Keauhou Beach Hotel. Day 9 (Thursday) We picked up John in the morning and headed up for one last day of Mauna Loa caving. Our main goal was the fern cave entrance that Barb Schaefer had found. We rigged a cable ladder with a 12' drop and split into two teams, Doug and Hazel going upflow and John, Bill and I going downflow. We progressed slowly as John wasn't used to sketching. After seven stations it was growing noticeably colder on Mauna Loa, generally a sign that the cave will die. And so it did, after some 10 stations, breaking into several smaller passages too small to follow. We backtracked to pick up a side passage and I kept thinking I heard voices. Sure enough, Doug and Hazel had begun a side passage which was connecting into ours. They'd found another entrance which avoided the cable ladder climb. This entrance had an oozy red lava falls coming in and some bizarre stals consisting of rounded balls on stalks with smaller stals dripping from the bottom. This was the end of the survey and we all exited. So despite the proximity of this entrance to 4500' Redemption Cave, there was no connection. Yet Redemption is currently the longest mapped cave on MaunaLoa. To finish off the afternoon we went looking for some caves that had shown up on the air photos as being near the road. First we went to a pair shown just east of the furthest relay tower. These yielded only a 150' walking passage going downflow in the upper one and some 50' in the lower one. Next we drove back towards the Saddle Road and turned west on the unpaved Kona-Hilo Road. At .95 mile we reached an area chock-full of cave entrances. North of the road we followed a passage downflow from a puka for about 600'. It began as a large borehole some 30' wide and 20' high, going through a skylight lighting up the pure white walls before plunging into blackness. Soon the smooth pahohoe floor gave way to breakdown and eventually it died before reaching another entrance. On the other side of the road was a series of large pukas looking some 25' down into a large passage, though it was broken by the proximity of so many entrances. Realizing we had plenty to do for the next trip and many more, we headed down the mountain to get Bill to the airport for his evening flight. Trip motto: Been there, done that, can't remember shit! Training Policy for 1997 By Cindy Heazlit SFBC training sessions and workshops are open to any member of any NSS grotto, or any cave related agency. Unless specifically stated, they are NOT open to the general public. There are numerous reasons for this, including, but not limited to: 1) Quality of Training. There are a limited number of individuals that are available to teach proper caving techniques. Restricting session size means that each individual can receive the attention needed for a good learning experience. 2) The time it takes to train properly. Training safely in caving skills takes several months. It is impossible to learn everything in a single session. Gaining good skills in caving takes a high level of perseverance and commitment. This is partially demonstrated by joining and participating in a grotto. 3) Wear and tear on the equipment. A good deal of equipment is furnished by the SFBC. This is extremely expensive to maintain and replace. It is therefore only available to the people who support the training cache. Members are required to sign a trip waiver, just like on a caving trip. It is the responsibility of the participant to aggressively investigate, understand, and follow safe caving practices. Description of Sessions and Workshops Vertical System Workshop By: Cindy Heazlit This will be geared toward any vertical training need that a member has. It may include discussions of safe vertical practices, different rigging systems, different vertical systems, vertical equipment, and the design of safer vertical systems. Assistance will be provided to members in the selection, design, building, and tuning of their own vertical system. There will be no ropework. It is strongly advised that beginners attend one of these sessions before going to a vertical session. Climbing Skills Workshop Caving in California rarely involves walking down a flat, sandy floored passage. Many times cavers are forced to scramble over unstable or exposed passages. Participation in this workshop will strengthen climbing skills and assist in giving the student confidence in moving through the underground environment. Students will practice climbing, chimneying, stemming, and mantling. Vertical Practice/Pinnacles These sessions are a practical application of techniques learned in the Vertical System Workshops. Students will spend time becoming familiar with their rigs, and increasing and maintaining their vertical skills. Survey and Cartography Workshop California has a lot of exploration going on. This workshop will teach the techniques needed for creating a cave map. Students will learn how to survey inside of a cave, techniques for taking

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Volume 40, Number lSan Francisco Bay Chapter Newsletter Page9 good (error free) data, and how to utilize the data to create an accurate map. There will also be an introduction to computer aided mapping and drawing as time permits. Advanced Vertical This is for the student that has mastered change overs and knots. Topics covered will include: deviations, pendulums, traverses, massive gear failures, pickoffs. European Training This will be a warm up session for the grotto members going to the International Congress in Switzerland. The focus will be on rebelay, frog systems, and cable ladders. There will be some discussion on the subtle differences between the British/French/Swiss vertical systems. Anchors and Rigging This will be a session on how to choose an anchor, how to rig an anchor safely, and how to detect a failing anchor. Students will learn how to rig SRT and rebelay. They will also learn the differences in anchors for each of these rigging systems. Self Rescue California cavers often travel to remote areas, and must take care of their own problems in the event of a rescue. This will be an all day training in one of the modules designed by the Western Region Self Rescue Committee. 1997 Trip Schedule: This is a tentative schedule of the upcoming trips and events for the SFBC this year. Note that the actual dates and leaders may change as the year progresses. If you find you are leading a trip that you were unawares of then that is what you get for not coming to the Trip Planning Meeting!! For all the vertical practices the contact is CiJ?.dy Heazlit (408) 448-8857 and for all CRF trips the contact is John Tinsley (415) 327-2368. January February March April 28th Monthly Meeting 30th Vertical Gear Discussion 1st Vertical Practice 11th Executive Meeting 15-17th CRF Lilburn and Lava Beds 25th Monthly Meeting 11th Executive Meeting 15th Surveying and Cartography Workshop Vertical Practice 22-23rd Lost Soldiers Peter Bosted 25th Monthly Meeting 5-6th Crystal Palace Lynne Jesaitis 8th Executive Meeting ll-13th WRTC Self Rescue Training 12-13th Toppled Table Talus Peter Bosted and M. Proffit IS-21st CRF Lilburn 22nd Monthly Meeting May June July August September Backpacking) October 26th Vertical Practice 29th Lyceum 1 1st Lyceum2 3rd Lyceum 3 10-11 th Medicine Lakes I Lava Tubes Terry Silva 13th Executive Meeting 17th Advanced Vertical Practice 24-26th NW Regional in Idaho CRF Lilburn and Lava Beds 24-lst Eastern Nevada Trip 27th Monthly Meeting 7-8th WRTC Church trip 1Oth Executive Meeting 14-2lst NCRC in Kentucky 14-15th Greenhorn Cave Merrilee Proffit 21st Vertical Practice 22-27th NSS Convention 24th Monthly Meeting 4-6th CRF Lilburn Marbles KMCTF 8th Executive Meeting 12th Vertical Training in Eurorigging 19-20th Millerton Lakes Eric Miles 22nd Monthly Meeting 26-27th CRF Lilburn 2-3rd Crystal 67 John Tinsley 11-15th International in Switzerland 12th Executive Meeting 16th Vertical Practice 23rd Grotto Annual Picnic Richard Fellows 30-1st CRF Lilburn and Lava Beds Marbles: Bonnie Crystal 6th Vertical Training Anchors 9th Executive Meeting 13-14th Church Cave Frantz and Bosted 20-21st Twin Lakes (Gourmet Richard Fellows 23rd Monthly Meeting 27-28th Cave City and King Tut Michelle Richardson 4th Grapevine Gulch or Moaning Dave Herberg 11-13th CRFMineral King

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Page 10 San Francisco Bay Chapter Newsletter January 1996 November December 14th Executive Meeting 18th Vertical Practice 21st Monthly Meeting 25-26th Crystal Consumnes Eric Goodhill 31-2nd CRFLilburn 1st Empire cleanup Michelle Richardson 8-11 th CRF Lilburn 11th Executive Meeting 15th Regional at Avery Ranch 22nd Self Rescue Training Vertical Practice 25th Monthly Meeting 27-30th CRFLavaBeds 27-29th Southern Arizona Leader Wanted 6th Caving 101 Cindy Heazlit 6-7th Rippled and Santa Claus Eric Goodhill 9th Executive Meeting 13th Grotto Christmas Party Bill Frantz SFBC Meeting Minutes There was no meeting in December, instead there was the annual Christmas Party. Notes concerning the Auction, etc. at the party will be printed next month. Date: Time Meeting Location Attendance driver Special topic Notes: Jan 14, 1997 7:30PM to 10:30 PM January Executive meeting Steve Ruble's house, Millbrae CA 11 Grotto members and one AAA tow truck Annual Trip planning meeting. See notices in the upcoming newsletters about future trips planned by interested grotto members. If you would like a particular trip planned, and it isn't, you should have been at this meeting. If you find yourself listed as a trip leader, and this is a surprise to you, you should have been at the meeting. Discussions were also made about upcoming monthly programs. If any member has a special request for an interesting program, or would like to volunteer a good program, please be sure to get in touch with the grotto chairman as soon as possible. All in all, those of us in attendance had a good time. See you all at the next grotto meeting, January 28th at Telegen in Redwood City. Correspondence Received: The grotto received a couple of letters that may be of interest to the members: November 18th, 1996 To: Western Region Grottos of the NSS Re: Moratorium on visiting Bat Cave Dear Cavers, It has come to my attention that Western Region cavers are still visiting Bat Cave (AKA "Half-Mile Cave"). As per my request a the 1995 Joint Regional meeting at the Lava Beds NM on 10/8/95, Bat Cave was not to be visited during 1996. Please honour our mutual agreement to stay out of the cave now and during this coming year as well, in order to minimize disturbance to the bat populations. With your cooperation, and with the help of the soon to-be-installed gate, the Forest Service and us cavers hope to see the return of the bats to their cave! Many thanks! Jim Wolff Vice-Chair Shasta Area Grotto SFBC General Information Newsletter: This newsletter is a monthly publication of the San Francisco Bay chapter (SFBC) of the National Speleological Society (NSS). Any material not specifically copyrighted may be reproduced by other Internal Organizations of the NSS without permission provided credit is given to SFBC and the author. Opinions expressed within this newsletter are not necessarily those of SFBC, its board members, or the NSS. The newsletter editor welcomes material for publishing including, cartoons, trip reports, clippings, drawings, photographs, letters to the editor, accident reports, etc. Hard copy, disks, e-mail, fax and phone calls are acceptable media. Please call to check for possible format problems with machine readable text. Black and white photographs are preferable; color photos are acceptable. Deadline for submission is the Friday after the executive meeting. Dues/Membership: Dues are due January 1. Checks may be made payable to SFBC/NSS, PO Box 2282, Menlo Park, CA 94026 or can be delivered directly to the

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• Volume 40, Number 1San Francisco Bay Chapter Newsletter treasurer at the meeting. Prtce for annual membership is as follows: Regular Membership: $20.00; Family Membership: $8.00; Subscription Only: $12.00 Membership is open to anyone. However, in complying with the NSS rules governing Internal Organizations, only members of the NSS and this Internal Organization. have voting rights. Waivers: Waivers must be signed by all persons participating in SFBC Activities. Waivers are required for each SFBC activity. Forms are available at all chapter meetings and vertical practices-Trip leaders reserve the right to limit participation on their trips based on number of participants or individual qualifications. Executive Meetings: Executive meetings are held on the second Tuesday of each month. The next scheduled executive meeting will be held on the 2nd Tuesday, February 11th, at the "Fresh Choice" restaurant in San Mateo. (We will see if this works out OK for future meetings). Anyone is invited to share a meal and swap stories with us, but only the elected officers can vote on grotto issues. MFresh Choice" is located in a shopping center just South of Hi 92 on the West side of El Camino in San Mateo. From 92, exit south (from either direction) and take the 1 right tum into the shopping center driveway. Can't miss the restaurant. See you there ... Chapter Meetings: Meetings are held on the fourth Tuesday of each month, (Note: This is not necessarily the last Tuesday of the month) at 8:00PM SfiA.Rp. Location: TELEGEN Building, 101 Saginaw, Redwood City, CA. Directions: From Highway 101, Exit Seaport Blvd. (same exit as Woodside Rd) and follow signs to Seaport Blvd. (towards the Bay). Tum left onto Chesapeake (signal light with the blue boat ramp sign). Tum left onto Saginaw (in sight of a big mountain of salt), and left again into the first driveway on Saginaw. Tum immediately right, follow the parking area around the building and park to the west side. The TELEGEN building (1 01-199 Saginaw) is tan with a rust-colored angular facade. Enter the building through the front entrance with "101" above the door. Volunteers Librarian: Jim Lakner 408-738-2939 LAKNERJ@vncpo1.ne.ge.com Equipment Managers/Store Keepers Gail McCoy and Tom Mathey 408-865-1763 Board Members Chair: Merrtlee Proffit 510-339-7483 mproffit@library.berkeley.edu Vice Chair: Cindy Heazlit 408-448-8857 cheazlit@ix.netcom.com Secretary: David Herberg 408-395-3823 Herberg_David@tandem.com Treasurer: Eric Goodhill 415-323-0976 ericg@cisco.com I Newsletter Editor: Mark Scott 415-497-4321 miscott@leland.stanford.edu Page 11

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Page 12 San Francisco Bay Chapter Newsletter January February 28th Monthly Meeting 1st Vertical Practice Cindy Heazlit 30th Vertical Gear Disc. ( 408) 448-8857 Cindy Heazlit ( 408) 448-8857 11th ' Executive Meeting IS-17th CRF Lilburn and Lava Beds Trips John Tinsley (415) 327-2368 25th Monthly Meeting Dues are Due!! January 1996 March 11th Executive Meeting 15th Surveying and Cartography Workshop Vertical Practice Cindy Heazlit ( 408) 448-8857 22-23rd Lost Soldiers Peter Bosted (415) 234-9966 25th Monthly Meeting If you have a red circle on your mailing label you are overdue!! San Francisco Bay Chapter National Speleological Society PO Box2282 Menlo Park. CA 94026 FIRST ClASS Mark Conover 10721 Wunderlich Dr Cupertino. CA 95014

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s f b c newsletter In this Issue: The Return of the Knot of the Month NWCA Regional Announcement Program Announce ment Winding Stair Trip Report Gray Whale Ranch Status and much much more ... • San Francisco Bay Chapter National Speleological Society Volume 40, Number 2 February 1997

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Page2 San Francisco Bay Chapter Newsletter February 1997 Knot of the Month Per popular request the knot of the month has been reinstated. If you have any suggestions or comments please give them to Cindy Heazlit. This month's feature knot is that of the water knot. Tie an Overhand Knot Keep following the knot around Thread the other side through from the opposite direction. Pull it tight. Always tie keeper knots on both ends The Water Knot: Overhand follow through tape knot Good for joining webbing, retains 45% of rope/tape strength. Must be backed up!!

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Volume 40, Number 2 San Francisco Bay Chapter Newsletter .: 1997 Northwest Caving Association Annual Regipnal Meet Sponsored by the Gem State Grotto Memorial Day Weekend: May 24-26, 1997 Lincoln County Faitgrou.nds, Shoshone, Idaho 'IUDY 24-2.6, l997 :S D o s H :o n E , 1 u u H o Page3 Shoshone is located in the heart of Idaho's most impressive flows which makes this an ideal location for the Regional this year. This area is quite unique in that the tubes are multi-level and highly decorated with primary and secondary speleothems. Due to the fragile nature and pristine environment many of these caves possess, most trips will be guided by designated resource monitors. There are several other caves in the area that may be explored by the recreational caver on their own. There are two commercial caves: Shoshone Ice cave and Mammoth cave that are within a half hours drive from the campground and Craters of the Moon National Monument is located about an hours drive from Shoshone. This leaves endless opportunity for exploration during day weekend. The campground is located about 30 miles north of Twin Falls, Idaho at the lincoln County The average temperature in the area during the days are in the 7CJs and the night time temperatures range in the 40's. There will be rooni for RV's although there are no hookups available at the campground. campfires will not be allowed and there ar:e flush toilets on site . All of the caving in the area will consist of lava tubes and the cave temperatures typically run in the lower 50's (Fahrenheit). Knee pads are highly recommended for any of the caves and a dust mask is advisable for one of the cravn ways in . Gypsum cave. of the caves are non-vertical although there are a few pits in the area such as Hole tO Hell that would require vertical gear. Registration fee of $3.00 per person or $5.00 a family includes campground costs. There will be T -shirts available to pun:hase for the occasion and in order to be guaranteed size and quantity they should be pre-ordered. A guidebook will also be available for $5.00 and must also be pre-ordered. A raffle will be held on Saturday night with the tickets being $1.00 each. . Hal and Lu Smith will be preparing dinner an Saturday night for anyone interested. The dinner will include with choice of homemade meat sauce or homemade vegetarjan sauce, salad, garlic bread, and a delicious Dutch oven cobbler for dessert. All of this will be available for $6.00 Der adult and $3.00 Der child alre 12 and under.

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Page4 San Francisco Bay Chapter Newsletter February 1997 DIREC'I10NS:: Sho$hone is located 3Q miles north of Twin Falls. By looking at an Idaho roadtnaP, it is accesmble from Twin Falls or Gooding. If coming from Twin Falls, traveling north on Blue Lakes Blvd. (Hwy. 75) leads directly to Shoshone. If traveling from the Boise area, take the Gooding exit and travel east on Hwy. 26 Wliich will lead you directly to Shoshone. See map for location of Fairgrounds once in Shoshone. . For further information contact: Jennifer Doiman 2215 N. Raymond Boise, Idaho 83704 208-331-0279 _ ldahoCaver@aol.com or access. the Regional Meet Home Page at:h :1/members,aol.com/regional97 Name Address ,. Return Registration Fonn To: Cern State Grotto ----PG-Box-HJS-4-----Boise, Idaho 83701 Quantity Amount S_M_ L_XL._XXL_ . . TOTAL Make checks oavable to: Gem State Grotto .:.

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Volume 40, Number 2 San Francisco Bay Chapter Newsletter PageS Program Announcement: By Peter Bosted The February slide show will be on "Caves of Arizona". Although there are no caves to speak of in Arizona, there are many to take photos in, and we will show slides from some of the more well-known caves. We will feature Onyx and Cave of the Bells, known to many grotto members from the Thanksgiving trips that have often been organized by SFBC and/or Diablo Grotto. There will be some slides of 300' deep Dante's Descent, a pit in basalt which many cavers stop at on the way to Phoenix. Further north, there is a nice lava tube called Lava River Cave, and finally we will have some pictures of the two best known caves in the Grand Canyon: Tapeatz and Thunder River. These are both resurgence caves that can be quite sporting. Winding Stair Cave Trip Report By Lynne Jesaitis Winding Stair proved to be the perfect post-holiday caving trip. On the weekend of January 4th, 7 of us (Vivian Loftin and Mark, Dave Herberg, Lysa DeThomas, Merrilee Proffitt, and Rick of the Diablo Grotto) made the 8 hour journey from the bay area to the Mohave desert. Anne and Peter Bosted joined us on their way back from holiday travels and caving in Arizona. Despite arriving well after 3 AM Friday night and camping out on Visitor Center asphalt, quite a few were up already at the crack of dawn. Others of us were a bit more leisurely so we didn't actually arrive at the cave until late morning, almost noon. Winding Stair Cave is located in the Providence Mountains, a short 4X4 drive from the Mohave Visitor's Center. A thirty minute uphill hike leads to the cave entrance, from which there is a splendid view of the desert. Vivian, our leader for this adventure, realized at the entrance she had forgotten gear in Mark's vehicle and had to make a quick jog back to get it. Winding Stair is essentially a vertical cave. A narrow winding canyon leads to the first drop, which begins as a narrow squeeze into lower levels of the canyon and then eases up after passing several ledges on either side. At the bottom of the first drop is a downward sloping passage that doesn't extend far horizontally, but which is capped by a 30-40 ft. dome. Most of Winding Stair is dry today, but the spectacular flowstone, stalagtites, and popcorn speak to a wetter time in history. It was beautiful to see ceiling and walls completely covered in formations. The second drop was rigged in two parts. Only natural anchors are supposed to be used in Winding Stair and admittedly it is not even tempting to use most of the rusted, weak looking bolts at the top of drops. The first part of the second drop ends on a rather wide ledge, where the rope was then redirected down a hole in the ledge. At some point along the way Vivian forgot her pack at the top of a drop and had to climb back up the rope to retrieve it. She was slowly establishing a pattern... The second part of the second drop was a really fun free rappel of about a hundred feet. I think Winding Stair is about 300 feet deep, ifl remember correctly. At the bottom of the cave is a big room with two "doorways" leading to other rooms. The room to the left had a few magnificent stalagmites and an upper level with a climb that allowed one to look down on yet another pit that didn't seem to go anywhere. In the floor of the lower level was a hole that led down to a room with a low ceiling which was covered in sloughing formations. You could actually see the rings of mammilaries that had been there at one time. We found a rather full register in this room to which we managed to add a few names. The other "doorway" from the main room led up into an area filled with flowstone and draperies hanging from a very high dome. I think this was the most dramatic space in the cave with the formations it contained. At one end of this room there was a narrow squeeze down to a tiny room filled with popcorn. Sitting in there felt like being suspended in a collection of tiny bubbles. Back up in the central room, Peter and Anne were continuing to shoot photos, which naturally, they'd been doing all along. I had been given a red sweat suit to wear for modeling purposes and actually enjoyed wearing it for the whole trip. Winding Stair is about 65F, so very warm in addition to being dry. Sweats were definately the most comfortable attire for this cave. For the return trip Merrilee and Vivian also donned Bosted outfits, Merrilee in blue and Vivian in green. Peter and Anne got shots of all of us on the ascent up the rope, so we'll soon find out the best color attire for that particular drop! Needless to say exit from Winding Stair was very slow and seemingly

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Page6 San Francisco Bay Chapter Newsletter February 1997 lazy for those of us sacked out on the floor waiting our turn to get on rope. It was quite beautiful to watch each ascent and see different parts of the formation covered walls lit up in turn. It was also perfect after all the holiday feasting to be able to take things slow and enjoy the trip without great exertion. Pajama caving is what I liked to call it. Relaxed, totally comfortable, and the sweats had that cozy feel of "jammies" worn before the age of 5. Only the feet were missing. Gray Whale Ranch Update: By Lysa DeThomas Gray Whale Ranch is a large parcel of land in the Santa Cruz mountains. After years of private ownership it was bought a few months ago by the Save the Redwoods League with the intention that it would become part of Wilder Ranch State Park. This acquisition is expected to be complete within the next few months. Environmentally Gray Whale is important not only because it is home to many plant and animal species, but also because it will connect Big Basin State Park, Fall Creek Preserve, Wilder Ranch State Park, Henry Cowell Forest, Bonnie Dune Ecological Preserve, and the UCSC Preserve. Thus adding to the attempt to create a Green Belt throughout Santa Cruz County. To cavers the acquisition of the property offers us the opportunity to be part of the formation of a cave management plan and to oversee an educational docent program. At the moment there are 5 known marble caves on the property. Although all have been impacted by humans, all do contain at least one listed arachnid not to mention other animals. The SFBC is forming a committee to work with the Santa Cruz County Park system in forming a management plan for all the known caves in the park and any that may open up in the future. If you are interested in helping out, even if you don't have a lot of experience, please contact Lysa DeThomas at (408) 954-9881 (before Sam or after 9pm) or leave a message on voice-mail at ( 408) 479-4023. Stupidity knows no Bounds: These are questions that people actually asked of Park Rangers around the country. Excerpted from Outside Magazine, May 1995, pp. 120-121. Grand Canyon National Park Was this man-made? Do you light it up at night? I bought tickets for the elevator to the bottom where is it? Is the mule train air conditioned? So where are the faces of the presidents? Everglades National Park Are the alligators real? Are the baby alligators for sale? Where are all the rides? What time does the two o'clock bus leave? Denali National Park (Alaska) What time do you feed the bears? Can you show me where the yeti lives? How often do you mow the tundra? How much does Mount McKinley weigh? Mesa Verde National Park Did people build this, or did Indians? Why did they build the ruins so close to the road? What did they worship in the kivas -their own made up religion? Do you know of any undiscovered ruins? Why did the Indians decide to live in Colorado? Carlsbad Caverns National Park How much of the cave is underground? So whafs in the unexplored part of the cave? Does it ever rain in here? How many Ping-Pong balls would it take to fill this up? So what is this --just a hole in the ground? Yosemite National Park Where are the cages for the animals? What time do you turn on Yosemite Falls? Can I get my picture taken with the carving of President Clinton?

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Volume 40, Number 2 San Francisco Bay Chapter Newsletter Page7 Yellowstone National Park Does Old Faithful erupt at night? How do you turn it on? When does the guy who turns it on get to sleep? We had no trouble fmding the park entrances, but where are the exits Tentative Church Project Survey Dates: By Dave Engel Hello Everyone, I am hoping to pick dates for the Church Project survey trips over the next couple of weeks. The goal will be to get the dates printed in the next Cal Caver, and to let everyone plan ahead. I would also hope that the rescue people could plan around our dates. Here is a tentative list: May 17-18 June 7-8 (avoids NSS Convention 23-27th) July 12-13 August 2-3 (avoids International Congress to-17th) September 6-7 September 27-28 October 11-12 November 1-2 SFBC Meeting Minutes January Monthly meeting Date: Jan 28, 1997 Time: 8:00PM to 10:00 PM Location: Telegen Co. Headquarters Redwood City Attendance: 3 Grotto Officers, and 25 members or guests Noted for the 1st time was the new audio system recently installed by Telegen. Congratulations to Bonnie and Jessica for a job well done. (Now if we can only see their flying saucer.) Dave Bunnell did a wonderful slide show on various California and Hawaii caving. Extremely well done show, thanks. Introductions were followed by a couple of "commercials" for books, calendars etc. A short break was due, and member dues were collected for the new year. Please pay attention to your dues status. We collected just over $7.00 in the hard hat fund for future vertical equipment funding. There were the usual trips reports, (CRF and rescue training meetings) and discussions about the future of the Gray Whale ranch properties in Santa Cruz. The upcoming regional was discussed as well as a review of the upcoming trip calendar. The next grotto meeting will be the Exec Meeting, on the 2nd Tuesday, with the next monthly meeting on the 4th Tuesday. It was discussed that some people might meet before the monthly meeting at Sizzler on Veterans Blvd. in Redwood City anytime between 6:30 to 7:00 PM. Submitted by acting secretary: Steve Ruble Executive Meeting Minutes The meeting convened at 7:00pm at the Fresh Choice Restaurant, San Mateo CA, on 2/11197 Attendance: Cindy Heazlit (Vice Chair) Eric Goodill (Treasurer) Mark Scott (Editor) JimLakner Peri Frantz Correspondence: Mark Abbot (REI Request on membership) Scott Gabriel (Request on membership) Gem State Grotto (NCA regional/Memorial Day) Several Dues letters Finances: -Eric has decoded the treasurers disk! He promises that all fmancial reports will be available for the February meeting. -There was some discussion on how fmances should be reported at the grotto meeting. Consensus was to do a brief report at the meeting, with full detail available to the newsletter. Old Business: Gray Whale Ranch -Cindy needs to get out a letter to George Gray informing him of the grotto's willingness to help with cave management. George is the Resource Ecologist with the California State Park system. The grotto committee will be led by Lysa DeThomas.

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PageS San Francisco Bay Chapter Newsletter February 1997 Thankyou's Cindy will write a letter to the Pioneer Montessori school thanking them for their clean up effort with Empire Cave. Regional Jim Lakner suggested contacting other grottos in the Avery area to make sure we're not stepping on anyone's toes. Do we want to come up with a theme for the regional? Peri suggested something on the work the Region is doing abroad. -Jim Stearns can do any of the 3 weekends we requested (October 18, 25, Nov 15) October 25 was selected as first choice. -Heater and Crystal Stan may be closed due to new landowners. -Cindy requested that the registration people also sell raffle tickets for the rescue quilt. New Business We received a letter from the IRS asking about taxes. Somehow the right forms didn't get filled out. We will fill it out promptly. -It was suggested that we start a grotto notebook for all business that occurs during the year. This can function as our legal record. It can contain: Copies ofNewsletters (mandatory) Members List (mandatory) Correspondence ( esp legal) Audit results/Inventories of equipment. A new notebook will be generated every year, and passed on to the grotto secretary. This should help us conform as a 501-c3 organization. -It was suggested that we write a "User's Manual" for the grotto officers. This will include their duties, what equipment is available to them, how things work, and what they need to do during their term of office. -Equipment Cache 1) Cindy requested & received permission to buy some "yuckky", cheap rope to be used as practice rope for "knot ofthe month". 2) Cindy requested & received permission to buy a mini rack for the equipment cache. 3) Cindy requested & was approved to spend money to upgrade the grotto ascending systems so they are fully adjustable. The amount shall not exceed $40.00. -Info sheets on the cave trips need to be upgraded. Need to seek out volunteers for this effort. -We need to get out the new members list. -It was requested that all mail be brought to the Executive committee meeting. The meeting adjourned at approximately 9:15pm. Respectfully submitted by: Cindy Heazlit Vice Chair, SFBC, NSS. Christmas Party I Auction Minutes: The 1996 Annual SFBC Christmas Party Auction (made up title) raised a total of$341.50. Most items were purchased at a pretty good clip, and there were some fierce bidding wars with steely-eyed determination. Jed Mosenfelder donated several items to this year's auction as he's now out of the country. Boris bid on and purchased Jed's "Harness of Death.". Nearly everything of Jed's went save the "Mulu boots" from last year's Borneo expedition. Though auctioneer John Tinsely valiantly tried to push these onto some unsuspecting caver, they just didn't go. As a spurious "donation," one of Ann Bosted's smoothies was auctioned (without her knowledge) by the playful-minded Tinsley. A few of you still owe your aution amounts. If you do, I've listed your name below. Please don't make me come hunt you down to collect your money. Dave Bunnell Bill & Peri Frantz Lysa DeThomas Richard Fellows Respectfully submitted by: Eric Goodill, Treasurer

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Volume 40, Number 2 San Francisco Bay Chapter Newsletter Page9 SFBC General Information Newsletter: This newsletter is a monthly publication of the San Francisco Bay chapter (SFBC) of the National Speleological Society (NSS). Any material not specifically copyrighted may be reproduced by other Internal Organizations of the NSS without permission provided credit is given to SFBC and the author. Opinions expressed within this newsletter are not necessarily those of SFBC, its board members, or theNSS. The newsletter editor welcomes material for publishing including, cartoons, trip reports, clippings, drawings, photographs, letters to the editor, accident reports, etc. Hard copy, disks, e-mail, fax and phone calls are acceptable media. Please call to check for possible format problems with machine readable text. Black and white photographs are preferable; color photos are acceptable. Deadline for submission is the Friday after the executive meeting. For contact information please see below. Dues/Membership: Dues are due January 1. Checks may be made payable to SFBC/NSS, PO Box 2282, Menlo Park, CA 94026 or can be delivered directly to the treasurer at the meeting. Price for annual membership is as follows: Regular Membership: $20.00; Family Membership: $8.00; Subscription Only: $12.00 Membership is open to anyone. However, in complying with the NSS rules governing Internal Organizations, only members of the NSS and this Internal Organization. have voting rights. Waivers: Waivers must be signed by all persons participating in SFBC Activities. Waivers are required for each SFBC activity. Forms are available at all chapter meetings and vertical practicesTrip leaders reserve the right to limit participation on their trips based on number of participants or individual qualifications. Executive Meetings: Executive meetings are held on the second Tuesday of each month at 7pm at the "Fresh Choice" restaurant in San Mateo. Anyone is invited to share a meal and swap stories with us, but only the elected officers can vote on grotto issues. "Fresh Choice" is located in a shopping center just South of Hi 92 on the West side of El Camino in San Mateo. From 92, exit south (from either direction) and take the 1 right turn into the shopping center driveway. Can't miss the restaurant. Chapter Meetings: Meetings are held on the fourth Tuesday of each month, (Note: This is not necessarily the last Tuesday of the month) at 8:00 PM SHARP. Location: TELEGEN Building, 101 Saginaw, Redwood City, CA. Directions: From Highway 101, Exit Seaport Blvd. (same exit as Woodside Rd) and follow signs to Seaport Blvd. (towards the Bay). Tum left onto Chesapeake (signal light with the blue boat ramp sign). Tum left onto Saginaw (in sight of a big mountain of salt), and left again into the first driveway on Saginaw. Tum immediately right, follow the parking area around the building and park to the west side. The TELEGEN building (101-199 Saginaw) is tan with a rust-colored angular facade. Enter the building through the front entrance with "1 01" above the door. Volunteers: Librarian: Jim Lakner (408) 738-2939 LAKNERJ@vncpo l.ne.ge.com Equipment Managers/Store Keepers Gail McCoy and Tom Mathey (408) 865-1763 Board Members: Chair: Merrilee Proffitt (510) 339-7483 mproffit@library. berkeley .edu Vice Chair: Cindy Heazlit (408) 448-8857 cheazlit@ix.netcom.com (home) cindy.heazlit@lmco.com (work) Secretary: Steve Ruble (415) 692-0477 sruble@ix.netcom.com Treasurer: Eric Goodhill (415) 323-0976 ericg@cisco.com Newsletter Editor: Mark Scott (415) 497-4321 (home) (415) 725-3318 (work) (415) 725-3377 (fax) miscott@leland.stanford.edu

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Page 10 San Francisco Bay Chapter Newsletter February 1997 February (415) 234-9966 ( 408) 356-8506 hosted@ slac.stanford.edu peri_frantz@quickmail.apple.com 25th Monthly Meeting 25th Monthly Meeting 8pm at Telegen Note the changed Date below! 8pm at Telegen 12-13th Toppled Table Talus March Peter Bosted & Merrilee Proffitt April (see earlier for Peter's #' s) 11th Executive Meeting (510) 339-7483 7pm at Fresh Choice 5-6th Crystal Palace mproffit@ library .berkeley .edu Contact: Lynne Jesaitis 15th Surveying and Cartograhy (510) 848-7407 18-2151 CRF Lilburn Workshop ljesaiti @nature. berkeley .edu Contact: John Tinsley 11am at the Frantz's House (415) 327-2368 Contact: Cindy Heazlit 8th Executive Meeting jtinsley @isdmnl. wr.usgs.gov ( 408) 448-8857 7pm at Fresh Choice cheazlit@ix.netcom.com 22nd Monthly Meeting ll-13th WRTC Self Rescue 8pm at Telegen 29-30th Lost Soldiers Training Contact: Peter Bosted Contact: Peri Frantz Dues are Due!!! If you have a red circle on your mailing label you are overdue! San Francisco Bay Chapter National Speleological Society PO Box2282 Menlo Park, CA 94026 FIRST CLASS Mark Conover 10721 Wunderlich Dr Cupertino, CA 95014 R97

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f s f b c newsletter In this Issue The Knot of the Month Program Announce ment Gray Whale Ranch and other letters. Church Cave Project Update Norman Cave Law suit Update Speleo Restaurant Guide and much much more ... San Francisco Bay Chapter National Speleological Society Volume 40, Number 3 March 1997 Photo by: Peter and Ann Bosted featuring Julie Hansen in Cave City Cave.

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Page2 San Francisco Bay Chapter Newsletter March 1997 Knot of the Month If_YOU have su?gestions or comments concerning the Knot of the Month please give them to Cmdy Heazht. This month's feature knot is that of the Figure Eight on a Bight. Program Announcement: The March slide show will be by Vivian Loftin and is on New Zealand and Mother Lode Caves, Compare and Contrast. Cavers Won, Lawyers Zero by Dave Cowan A jury of six unanimously determined that defendent Danny Gillespie was only 30% negligent and plaintiff Susan Hanley was 70% negligent in the proximate cause of a fall she took in Nonnan Cave, Greenbrier Co., WV, on May 4, 1994. Under West Virginia law, a plaintiffs portion of comparative negligents must be less than 50% in order to sustain *any* claim for Figure Eight on a Bight General Purpose Rigging Knot Retains 55% of rope strength damages. Therefore, no award was made to the plaintiffs in the $1.2 million personal injury lawsuit against defendents Danny Gillespie and the owners of Lost World Caverns. The lawsuit stemed from an accident on a for-pay wild cave tour conducted by independent cave guide Danny Gillespie in Nonnan Cave. The caving party of7 was made up of family and friends of a 66 yr. old local woman, Susan Hanley, who was added to the party at the last minute. Susan's injurys were sustained when she landed in a shallow pool at the base of a 15' high waterfall-300' from the entrance. Where she fell from was never clearly established. Her injurys consisted of crushed heels and several crushed vertebrae and a broken leg. After the accident she was moved to a dry location some I 0' or

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Volume 40, Number 3 San Francisco Bay Chapter Newsletter Page3 15' above the streambed. Danny went for help and some others in the party went to their vehicles for dry clothes and blankets. There was some delay before a rescue insued, which included cutting edges off a backboard, widening a crawlway to permit passage of a litter, but her removal from the cave preceded without incident and was concluded about 9 hours after the accident. I will produce a detailed blow by blow description of the trial from my 23 pages of notes taken during the 8 day long trial at sometime in the future. There were several major issues in this case which could have had a severe affect on the relationship between caveowners, cavers and the burgeoning caver-for-pay industry. This was a very expensive case for the plaintiff taking place over a 3 year period. The plaintiffs thought that they would just get a bunch of cavers up on the stand to testify that Danny was at fault. What the attorneys found was that the caving community stuck together (almost) and would not cooperate in anyway with the plaintiffs. The plaintiffs attorneys did eventually fmd a hired gun named Rick Lambert that owns some cave-for-pay operation in I believe Highlands Co., VA, called Highland Adventures that they payed to testify for them. In any case the jury saw through it all and came to the right conclusion. Dave Cowan Lytewood Preserve Friars Hill, WV 24938 (304) 497-3553 omaOOO 19@mail. wvnet.edu Church Cave Project Update By Dave Engel This is a quick run down of the progress that the project made lastyear. This came from a yearly report that had to be filed to the NSSfor the Sequoia Caves Conservation Task Force. Please note the schedule of trips that are attached. Many of the dates have been changed to make everyones participation possible. We have picked these dates far ahead of time to help everyone plan to attend. One further note, when switching over from Smaps to Compass, some of the caves statistics have changed. At the present time, I am not sure if this is a result of different algorithms being used in the programs, or if there is some continuing problems with the data. I will be reviewing this over the next couple of months. The year of mapping and conservation in the caves of Sequoia National Forest again developed a deeper understanding of Church Caveour current surveying objective. However, in addition to our work in Church Cave, another nearby caveBoyden Cavern was surveyed and completed. The map of Boyden Cavern has largely been drafted, and the remaining portions are in progress. It should be highlighted that Church Cave, one of California's ,most significant caves has now been surveyed to a length of over 3 miles and a depth of over 510 feet. Here is a breakdown of our progress: CartographyIn 1996, the data obtained in our surveys, and in a few previous surveys were converted from SMAPS to COMPASS. This involved many hours of computer work. In addition, drafting was nearly completed on Boyden Cavern. Number of tripsThis year 9 weekend survey trips were conducted in Church Cave. In addition, twelve days of surveying was conducted in Boyden Cavern on two separate trips. Number of participantsA total of 25 cavers participated in this years project. These cavers logged over 337 man hours of surveying in Church Cave and approximately 300 man hours in Boyden Cavern. Amount of passage surveyedA total of 6736.70 feet was surveyed underground and on the surface in both caves in 1996. This can be broken down as such: Church Cave 1824.26 ft (0.35 mi) Boyden Cavern 3215.70 ft (0.60 mi) Total In Cave 5039.96 ft (0.95 mi) Surface survey 1696.74 ft (0.32 mi) Project Total6736.70 ft (1.28 mi) Anticipated involvement next yearPlanning for 1997 has progressed further than ever before. We have picked dates for weekend survey trips for the entire season. These dates will be: May24-25th June 14-14th July l9-20th August 2-3th September 6-7th September 27-28th October ll-12'h November 1-2d

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Page4 San Francisco Bay Chapter Newsletter March 1997 At this time, drafting is progressing on the Boyden Cavern map. It will be published prior to our first field weekend in May. On other fronts, a greater emphasis has been placed on coordination with the Western Region to involve cavers from all qver. It is our desire, to have participation from as many qualified cave surveyors as possible. We look forward to another season of expanding our understanding of the caves of the Sequoia National Forest. Thank you, David Engel NSS 13057 dengel@earthlink.net Speleo Restaurant Guide: By Merrilee Proffitt This tidbit appeared in the June 1979 California Caver: "Are you tired of closed mouth caving groups? Are you impatient with knowing no more than name, state, and latitude and longitude numbers? Cavers! Take heart! Now is the time to blab." No, it was not cave locations that were befug ::olicited. Tche request for restaurants-suitable for inclusion in the Speleo Restaurant Guide, and the request was made by my parents, Jim and Kristen Proffitt. Now, 20 years after the first Speleo Restaurant Guide was issued, I would like to revive this lost tradition. Contributors will receive a free copy of the Guide, and copies will be available for purchase by others. Restaurants submitted should meet the following requirements: 1) Near or en route to caves 2) Reasonably priced 3)Casual atmosphere to accommodate grubby cavers Please do not restrict yourself to California! Those of us driving to the Guads, the Missouri convention, and future NSS conventions and caving events around the country would be blessed if you would send your , endorsements for more eastern locations. The submitted information should include the name of the restaurant, telephone number, address, directions, hours of operation, price range, type of food offered and any other pertinent information. Please note: if you do not have some of the above information, please submit anyway and I will try to follow up. There is a form provided on the last page of this newsletter to help you submit this info. Please send submissions to the following address: Merrilee Proffitt 6503 Valley View Road Oakland, CA 94611 mproffit@library. berkeley .edu SFBC Meeting Minutes Submitted by acting secretary, Steve Ruble February Monthly meeting Date: Feb 25th, 1997 Time 8:00PM to 10:00 PM Location: Telegen Co. Headquarters Redwood City, CA Attendance: 3 Grotto Officers, 36 members or guests, and I watch dog. Noted again is the very fme facilities with audio and video capabilities, for our monthly meetings. Thanks again to Bonnie and Jessica for use of their conference room. Peter and Ann Bosted did an outstanding slide show on various California and Arizona caves that they have visited recently. . Introductions were as usual, with the noted return of Carl Reuter, who had been on a rather long sail around the central Americas. There was a treasurer's report, and discussions about ite';DS brought up at the latest executive meeting. We presented a recently completed quilt made with lots of old caving related tee shirts. Many thanks go to Pat Gamer who made this quilt. The idea is to raffle this to interested cavers and use the proceeds for the Western Region training fund. The fmal drawing will be at the upcoming regional in October later this year.

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Volume 40, Number 3 San Francisco Bay Chapter Newsletter Page5 Old Business discussions were the progress with the gray whale ranch properties in Santa Cruz, and some more details on the upcoming regional. No particular new business. There were the usual trips reports, Lava beds, vertical practice, a report on discoveries in Borneo (trip still in progress), and an up date from Carl Reuter on his adventures in the Caribbean and Guatemala. The schedule of upcoming trips from the calendar was discussed. The next meeting will be the Exec Meeting, on the znd Tuesday, with the next monthly meeting on the 4th Tuesday. It was noted that some people are getting together for diner before the monthly meeting at the Sizzler restaurant on Veterans Blvd. in Redwood City anytime between 6:30 to 7:00 PM. This has been working well for the last couple of months. March Executive meeting Date: March 11, 1997 Time 7:30PM to 9:30PM Location: Fresh Choice restaurant (in San Mateo) all you can eat salads etc. Attendance:Merrilee Proffitt and Bill Frantz Gust back from Borneo), Cindy Heazlit, Eric Goodill, Steve Ruble, Peri Frantz Special topic Western Regional. Old Business As noted, the primary discussions were about plans for the upcoming regional, currently scheduled for OCtober 25/26. It appears that the regional will be held at Avery ranch in the motherload area of the state. Exact pricing and details will be finalized in the next month or so. We will be looking for a really good design for this years tee shirts for this regional. If you have ideas, please contact the exec committee. There was some good discussion about the progress that Lysa De Thomas is making with the responsible people at the new gray whale ranch park proposals. It was discussed as to how the grotto secretary should keep a detailed notebook on the activities of the grotto in a separate file, labeled as a specific yearly record. Attempts will be made to complete this. The executive committee also discussed that the newsletters that we receive as exchange or file copies from other grotto's or regions, should be brought to the monthly meetings for possible review by any member present during the meeting. They can then be filed after the regular monthly meetings. We will endeavor to bring this about as soon as possible. New business As we didn't get to the mail box in time, there was no incoming correspondence. We had discussions about how to obtain more newsletter material, and Merrillee discussed some ideas on future meeting programs. Cindy talked a bit about the issue of sport caving on Forest Service lands, and the future impact it could have on all of us. Jan-Feb Financial Summary At February's SFBC meeting, I read out all kinds of figures and included a rather large sum for membership dues. It turns out I didn't actually get them all deposited until just into March, so it'll all show up in next month's summary. I just didn't want to leave anybody wondering in case any of you were listening. Total Balance Through Dec 1996 Operating Hardhat Equipment Reserve Total INCOME Dues Auction Donations Equipment Interest Misc. Total EXPENSES Newsletter Print Postage $1,739.80 $413.38 $268.52 $806.88 $3,228.58 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $46.22 $64.00

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Page6 San Francisco Bay Chapter Newsletter March 1997 Rent Equipment/Training Equipment Purchase West. Reg. Dues Misc. Total $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $110.22 Balance Through Feb I 997 Operating $1,629.58 Hardhat $413 .3 8 Equipment $268.52 Reserve $806.88 Total $3,118.58 Other Correspondence: A letter from the Ukrainian American Youth Caver Exchange Foundation was received that is too long to reprint here but it describes a student exchange program for those cavers who have not yet reached the age of 18 and who might be interested in caving in the Ukraine. If you are interested in this program or wish to find out more about it please contact the Newsletter Editor (Mark Scott) and I will be happy to show you the correspondance. If any grotto member is the owner of a MSR Dromedary bag then the following notice may be of interest. There was a general recall on the MSR product due to problems involving a chemical substance contained within the lining of the bag leaching into the water within. MSR has offered to exchange all such Dromedary bags free of charge, this can be done either by taking them to REI where they will exchange it for a new one or it can be done through the mail. If you want details of how to exchange it via mail or more info on the stated problem please contact Mark Scott. As noted in the minutes a letter was sent to the California State Parks concerning Gray Whale Ranch and to Lysa DeThomas' class. Because these are of interest art! reproduced below. ,':;":>'''''l'''::>m::::n::''''"

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Volume 40, Number 3 San Francisco Bay Chapter Newsletter Page? Just for the fun of it!

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.. -PageS San Francisco Bay Chapter Newsletter March 1997 SFBC General Information Newsletter: This newsletter is a monthly publication of the San Francisco Bay chapter (SFBC) of the National Speleological Society (NSS). Any material not specifically copyrighted may be reproduced by other Internal Organizations of the NSS without permission provided credit is given to SFBC and the author. Opinions expressed within this newsletter are not necessarily those of SFBC, its board members, or the NSS. The newsletter editor welcomes material for publishing including, cartoons, trip reports, clippings, drawings, photographs, letters to the editor, accident reports, etc. Hard copy, disks, e-mail, fax and phone calls are acceptable media. Please call to check for possible format problems with machine readable text. Black and white photographs are preferable; color photos are acceptable. Deadline for submission is the Friday after the executive meeting. Dues/Membership: Dues are due January I. Checks may be made payable to SFBC/NSS, PO Box 2282, Menlo Park, CA 94026 or can be delivered directly to the treasurer at the meeting. Price for annual membership is as follows: Regular Membership: $20.00; Family Membership: $8.00; Subscription Only: $12.00 Membership is open to anyone. However, in complying with the NSS rules governing Internal Organizations, only members of the NSS and this Internal Organization. have voting rights. Waivers: Waivers must be signed by all persons participating in SFBC Activities. Waivers are required for each SFBC activity. Forms are available at all chapter meetings and vertical practicesTrip leaders reserve the right to limit participation on their trips based on number of participants or individual qualifications. Executive Meetings: Executive meetings are held on the second Tuesday of each month at 7pm at the "Fresh Choice" restaurant in San Mateo. Anyone is invited to share a meal and swap stories with us, but only the elected officers can vote on grotto issues. "Fresh Choice" is located in a shopping center just South of Hi 92 on the West side of El Camino in San Mateo. From 92, exit south (from either direction) and take the 1 right turn into the shopping center driveway. Can't miss the restaurant. Chapter Meetings: Meetings are held on the fourth Tuesday of each month, (Note: This is not necessarily the last Tuesday of the month) at 8:00 PM SHARP. Location: TELEGEN Building, 101 Saginaw, Redwood City, CA. Directions: From Highway 101, Exit Seaport Blvd. (same exit as Woodside Rd) and follow signs to Seaport Blvd. (towards the Bay). Tum left onto Chesapeake (signal light with the blue boat ramp sign). Tum left onto Saginaw (in sight of a big mountain of salt), and left again into the first driveway on Saginaw. Tum immediately right, follow the parking area around the building and park to the west side. The TELEGEN building (101-199 Saginaw) is tan with a rust-colored angular facade. Enter the building through the front entrance with "I 0 I" above the door. Volunteers: Librarian: Jim Lakner (408) 738-2939 LAKNERJ@vncpo1.ne.ge.com Equipment Managers/Store Keepers Gail McCoy and Tom Mathey ( 408) 865-1763 Board Members: Chair: Merrilee Proffitt (510) 339-7483 mproffit@library.berkeley.edu Vice Chair: Cindy Heazlit ( 408) 448-8857 cheazlit@ix.netcom.com (home) cindy.heazlit@lmco.com (work) Secretary: Steve Ruble (415) 692-0477 sruble@ix.netcom.com Treasurer: Eric Goodill (415) 323-0976 erit:g@cisco.com Newsletter Editor: Mark Scott (415) 497-4321 (home) (415) 725-3318 (work) (415) 725-3377 (fax) miscott@leland.stanford.edu

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Volume 40, Number 3 San Francisco Bay Chapter Newsletter Page9 Membership Renewal/ Information Update Form If you are overdue with your dues (as noted by the red circle on the mailing label overleaf) or if you have moved, changed jobs, changed email address or any other personal information in the past year or so please complete the following form and send it (with any appropriate dues) to SFBC/NSS, PO Box 2282, Menlo Park CA 94206 or give this directly to the treasurer at the monthly meeting. Name(s): ---------------------------------Address: __________________________________________________________________ ___ Telephone Number: (home)---------------------(work) -----------------------------Email Address: -------------------------------'--------------------------------Checks may be made payable to SFBC/NSS. Price for annual membership is as follows: Regular Membership: $20.00 Family Membership: $8.00 Subscription Only: $12.00 Speleo Restaurant Guide Submission Form As per the article earlier in this newsletter please feel free to submit restaurants that would be appropriate for cavers and or convenient for caving. Please send submissions to : Merrilee Proffitt 6503 Valley View Rd Oakland CA 94611 or mproffit@library.berkeley.edu Name of restaurant: ------------------------------------------------------------Street Address: ----------------------------------------------------------------Directions: ---------------------------------------------------------------Telephone number:----------------------------------------------Hours of operation:-------------------------------------Price range: _________________________________________ _ Typeoffood: ______________________________________ _ Comments:---------------------------------------

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•'r.._,_ • . Page 10 San Francisco Bay Newl!letter March 25th Monthly Meeting 8pm at ,, . Note Date below! , 29-30th Lost Soldiers : Contact: Bosted (415) 234-9966 .. hosted@ slac.stanford.edu April . 5-6th Crystal Contact: (510) 848-7407\:: .. , :z ljesaiti @nature. berkeley :edu . ' i 8th Executive Meeting . . )7pm at Fresh Choice 11-13th WRTC Self Training Contact: Peri Frantz ( 408) 356-8506 12-13th Toppled Table Talus Contact: Merrilee Proffitt (510) 339-7483 mproffit@ library .berkeley .edu 18-21"1 CRF Lilburn Contact: John Tip.sley (415) 327-2368 jtinsley @isdmnl. wr.usgs.gov 22nd Monthly Meeting 8pm at Telegen 24th Vertical Workshop Contact: Cindy Heazlit ( 408) 448-8857 cheazlit@ ix.netcom.com 26th Vertical Practice at Pinnaeles Contact: Cindy Heazlit (as above) 29th Lyceum 1 : .. Contact: Cindy Heazlit (as above) this contact information is the same for all other Lyceum activities peri_frantz@quickmail.apple.coi)l . •• . . .i" . .""" . --. San :ay Chapter National Society PO Box 2282 ._, 7:1' Menlo ,park, 94026 FIRST ClASS Mark Conover 10721 Wunderlich Dr Cupertino, CA 95014 March 1997 1"1 Lyceum 2 (see above) 3rd Lyceum 3.(see above) 10-11 th Medicine Lakes I Lava Tubes Contact: Terry Silva (408) 629-0821 13th Executive Meeting 7pm at Fresh Choice 17th Advanced Vertical Practice Contact: Cindy Heazlit (as above) 24-25th Church Ca've Project Contact Dave Engel dengel@earthlink.net 24-26t!l NW Regional in Idaho See last month's newsletter for details 24-1 st Eastern Nevada Trip Details to be announced later. 27th8pm at Telegen. . :':: .,.' R97

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s f b c newsletter In this Issue: Crystal Palace Trip Report Forest Service Caving Fee controversy Eastern Nevada Trip Announcement 1996 SFBC Financial Summary and much much more ... San Francisco Bay Chapter National Speleological Society Volume 40, Number 4 April1997 Cover photo by Dave Bunnel, featuring Lynne Jesaitis and Glenn Butcher in Natural Bridges cave (see the trip report inside).

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Page2 San Francisco Bay Chapter Newsletter April1997 Program Announcement This month's program will be a video called "Video Clips from Borneo" by Bonnie Crystal. It will be a cleaned up version of a video previewed at Peri & Bill's plus more stuff not shown then. Crystal Palace Trip Report By: Glenn Butcher. Fourteen ambitious souls ventured to the CRYSTAL PALACE cave, located within the Stanislaus National Forest, on Saturday 5 April 1997. Our fearless leader on this trip was the knowledgeable Dr. Lynne Jesaitis. After meeting in the historic gold rush town of Columbia, CA, we caravaned, careened is more like it, down the Italian Bar road, across the Stanislaus river, and up a moderately rutted dirt road. This was a particularly splendid spring afternoon, with sweet pollen and bird songs filling the air, and the climate calm and sunny. Scenic glimpses of the quite full New Melones Reservoir, complemented the beautiful canyon views. The abundance of colorful spring wildflowers was only exceeded by the proliferation of Poison Oak. It is everywhere. After a brief and quite steep walk downhill we encountered the cave entrance above a small dry creek bed. A fairly nondescript rocky entrance betrays this rather large marble cave, but remember I'm new at this. Specifically the elevation of the old entrance is 1600 feet, its depth is 80 feet, and its length is 21 00 feet, however it is much larger on the inside! Fourteen is a sizable group for narrow passages, consequently we took differing paths. About half of these hardy explorers had not been to this crystalline cave before, including myself. Near the entrance we encountered the slippery stone steps, with strategic root hand holds and a large millipede greeting us. Many characterized this cave as being wetter than usual. I observed this cave to be somewhat muddy. Funny thing about this cave mud, being quite fine this mud has the tenacity to cling to everything. The only time this muck wasn't clinging and sticking was when it was transferring to the face, in the beard, the camera, and food .. .it is a hogs' heaven. I was awestruck by the many formations. I have not seen flowstone, shields, brimstone dams and soda straws like this before. Although many formations near logical pathways have been heavily broken, the more remote structures are relatively pristine. Some of the shields are particularly white, and pure, nearly translucent. My favorite ones have the thin drapery appearance, full of fluid motion but rock like. Some helectite formations were seen growing in apparently random and chaotic directions. Many boxed structures were observed, as I understand, being the leftover hardened formations, the result of erosion of the softer surrounding material. Our journey winded along the inch deep creek bed, on through Big Shield Room. Here I noticed a strange pattern on the ceiling, perhaps the underside of flowstone, then exposed through erosion or collapse. Sliding through The Tridents the tricky decent took us to the Lower Stream Passage. Most of the group made it to just above the Coathanger Room, for a break, photos and lunch. Many formations to marvel at can be found in this section the back part of the cave. We then backtracked the tricky part to return and explore the Lake Passage, and a quick peek inside Babes' Shield room. I don't mind pushing my pack through, but when my helmet won't fit, that's small! Exiting through Blister Passage I am sure glad I lost those extra ten pounds. While resting I heard this tremendous KER-SPLASH [that was me, Ed] from the Lake Passage, guess some experienced caver decided to go for a swim! That's one way to beat the mud. Sadly, I wimped out when faced with flowing creek bed on the path to Bleeding Stalactites and dug entrance, hope to save that one for next time. The journey wrapped up after investigating the Giant Gour Room. Total time underground, around 4 or 5 hours, what a great time. A special tribute to cavers Eric and Shannon Mathey, 9 and 12. Their energy and enthusiasm is a tribute to the resilience of youth, sigh. Some confusion existed concerning the nose count while exiting the cave. (While only a beginner, even I realize the importance of this basic safety lesson). I respect Lynne for her professional concern and some anxiety. The grueling hike back up the steep hill was somewhat tempered by the pleasant cool temperatures and gorgeous sunset. Back at the trail head, half our party departed for the Bay Area while half remained to camp out in the National Forest. A huge 10' bonfire warmed bones and hearts alike, and for those not warm enough, several bottles of fine wine warmed the rest. Our truely fascinating campfire discussions can best be characterized as six Phd's and a hillbilly!

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.. Volume 40, Number 4 San Francisco Bay Chapter Newsletter Page3 Topics varied from neurotransmitters, sleep clinics and sleep disorders, hot springs, international caving (of course), strain gages and reflectometers, acoustics, serotonin, and Russian vodka! Special Moscow guest Dr. Boris Galitsky , visiting Stanford researcher, had great tales of the mother country. He shared old Russian saying ... "A true caver should be happy with only some mashed potato mixed with snow". How profound. Crystal clarity and a new moon made for spectacular star gazing. The extraordinarily bright Hale-Bopp comet with two tails was quite visible, alas no UFO sighted though. This was a very big day followed by a great evening. Being thoroughly exhausted, I had no trouble sleeping soundly but somehow I lost an hour? After waking to the delightful smell of hangers and crumpets, yes we were roughing it, we caravaned on Sunday to the beautiful Natural Bridges State Park. This fascinating formation is a river cave created by the Coyote Creek just above the New Melones Reservoir (which has flooded and forever ruined several caves). In the Natural Bridges Caves great quantities of water protruded forming countless waterfalls. A raining cave, comes to mind. In addition to swimming and enjoying the cave, we had great fun with an inflatable canoe. This canoe became a platform for several choreographed photos. I admire Dr. Dave Bunnell for his photographic genius and very much look forward to his slide show later this season! Short hikes along Coyote Creek offered several formations and other caves for climbing and exploring. Sheer exhaustion from exhilaration, and disorientation resulted in a wrong trail and the end of this fantastic trip, but I will always remember Crystal Palace, Natural Bridges, and the friends I met there. Eastern Nevada Trip Announcement By: Daniel Snyder Activities are planned from the evening of Friday May 23nl through Friday May 30th, although some people will stay longer (we've left the last weekend unplanned both for flexibility and because several of us have to leave Friday). A SFBC members attended last year's trip. This year will be somewhat more civilized, as most campsites will be near hot showers ($5 apiece). However, we expect to do less sitting around and more caving and hiking than in 1996. The two base camps will be Cave Lake State Park (there's at least one cave there) south of Ely and later Baker Creek Campground in Great Basin Nat. Park; trips will radiate outward from these. Planned activities include: Cave Creek Cave (a 500+ foot long resurgence cave, requiring a swim or raft ride), Whipple Cave (a vertical cave with lots of pretty stuff), Cave Valley Cave (over 3,000 feet long, 2,000 of it in a mud crawl), Wheeler's Deep Cave and Ice Cave (mazy sections of Nevada's longest cave system), Crystal Ball and Gandy Mountain Caves (hopefully including a pit barbecue if we have enough interest), ridgewalking in the southern Ruby range and the Egan range, and long soaks at Spencer Hot Springs and Gandy Warm Springs (which feature a pretty little travertine cave into which you swim). Other outstanding caves in the area which some participants might wish to visit include Goshute, Snake Creek and Indian Burial Caves. Much of the caving this year has a common theme: water --very cold and lots of it. With that in mind, participants should bring wetsuits or whatever gear and clothing they feel appropriate. Even our ridgewalking trips will focus on large springs in limestone areas, and caves found will likely be quite wet. Alternative activities for non-cavers who'd like to come along include steam train rides in Ely, fishing on Cave Lake, lots of hiking, ghost town exploring, a wild horse range (50-1 00 in the herd) in the Southern Rubies, Lehman Cave commercial tours, and other possibilities. Interested persons should contact me by e-mail or phone. I'm putting together a flyer with more information, inc. meeting times and places, which I can mail to those interested. Daniel Snyder snydhaye@scruznet.com 408-421-0430 Church Cave Reminder By : Dave Engel Remember to keep your calanders free for the weekend of May 23ro and 24th the first Church Cave survey trip for the year. I hope everyone is excited about getting back. The road through Kings Canyon was washed out by the winters floods, and the parking area for Boyden Cavern was also greatly

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Page4 San Francisco Bay Chapter Newsletter Apri11997 damaged. However, it appears that the road will reopen on the 23'd of May. I still have plenty of leads. in the Bridge Room and the Malebolge .. Of course there are plenty of leads in other areas too. Where would you like to survey this year? Forest Service Caving Fees By: Jim and Val Hildreth Werker CAVER ALERT! WRITE TO CONGRESS Cave fees have been proposed by National Forests in New Mexico and in Arizona. No binding decisions have been made. The Forest Service is asking for caver input. At this stage, charging fees for caves is up for debate. We need your assistance to battle this very real threat to cave resources. Collection of recreational fees for caves will lead to marketing strategies and overuse of fragile, non renewable cave resources. The NSS strongly opposes cave fees. WRITE LETTERS! Send e-mail. Ask questions. (Addresses available from the SFBC EXEC committee) Cavers, we can impact the decision through a huge letter writing campaign. Ask your US Senators and Representatives for answers. Make your questions specific. Important: Voice fundamental opposition to price-tagging and marketing access to non-renewable underground resources. Cave softly ... and leave no trace, Jim Werker & Val Hildreth-Werker (505) 286-0148 werk@gnn.com or werks@worldnet.att.net Bogus things are afoot in the forest By: Ray Keeler It appears the following scenario will occur in the next few years to some unlucky NSS cavers: A ridge walking trip will go out on Forest Service managed land and the cavers will discover something most excellent pristine virgin passage. After exploring, several high-fives, and basically grinning from ear-to-ear the happy explorers will start discussing several aspects about the cave as they bask in the warm glow of accomplishment ... Is the entrance stable? Will the cave flood? Who do they need to help? Who should they tell? Is the cave safe from vandals? Where should they walk (and not walk)? .AJe there bats? The questions and answers are thought about and discussed with the concentration that this is for real and the cave's future relies on them. And lo, they come to the conclusion that the Forest Service should be notified to help protect the cave. Pick a reason, like the cave is right off the roadway, vandals. The Forest Service are the land managers, they care and thus also responsible for well being of this pristine, fragile environment. After much discussion a reasonable consensus is reached; the cave should have a gate for protection and the cavers tell the Forest Service. More trips, the gate is placed and the cave is protected. Now the cave may be . accessed and enjoyed with little damage. Then come Federal budget cuts and the need to generate revenue. A fee is required for access to the cave. The discovers are charged for the right to see what they discovered along with everyone else who wants to see the wonder. The Forest Service starts using a non-renewable resource for a revenue generating activity. Fees for caving. End of fairy tale. Beginning of sweeping reality of recreational destruction. Say No!, Not Maybe By: NSS Ad Hoc Committee Volume of response through Congress is essential. WRITE LETTERS!! Cavers can have an active role in whether fees will be charged for cave access. Piles of letters stacked on government desks will demand attention. Just say NO. Maybe becomes a vote of yes and support in government tally systems. Write to your Congressional Representatives across the country. Write to the USDA Forest Service in Washington. Below is a listing of points that can be covered in your letters. Use these points to make specific questions. Addresses are available from the SFBC EXEC committee. Letters to US Senators and Representatives may be our only real voice. We can build support for protecting cave resources. Stacks of letters about caves can impact the outcome. Work the system. Stand up and say what you think. It is worth our effort. Letters that ask for answers to specific questions will be answered. Congressional staffs receive the letters and request information from the Forest Service.

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Volume 40, Number 4 San Francisco Bay Chapter Newsletter Page5 Both Congress and the Forest are obligated to come up with answers. Ultimately, the Forest Districts causing the conflict are required to answer these questions. The Districts are required to answer Congressionals in a brief time span (about three days). Congressionals do demand attention. THE BIG ISSUE This is not a mere political battle. It is a battle to save caves from recreational destruction. The outcome in the Southwest will effect cave fees all over the country. Cave resources should be protected, not prostituted to recreational marketing schemes. Caves should not be subject to the goals and trends of recreation management. Caves should be under separate management codes. QUESTIONABLE MANDATE Congress has asked the USDA Forest Service to implement fees for developed recreational sites. Caves are undeveloped and should not be treated as recreational sites. Caves cannot withstand increased visitation pressures that would result from parking lots, paved roads, developed trails, restrooms or ANY of the amenities of other developed recreational sites. Congress has not suggested that fees be charged for caves; personnel came up with that idea. If implemented, cave fees will spread across public lands. The outcome of this proposal will effect caves throughout the nation. NON-RENEWABLE RECREATION RESOURCES, NOT Caves should be viewed as undeveloped, non renewable natural resources. Cave resources are often destroyed by overuse. Caves should NOT be categorized as recreational resources. Most caves should be protected for the wealth of resources they contain; geologic, biologic, archeologic, paleontologic, hydrologic ... even rare microbial communities used in the fight against cancer are being found in caves. Scientists are currently investigating a cure for breast cancer using microbes discovered in isolated cave pools. Why charge fees and invite rapid destruction of cave resources that, if protected, may deliver future solutions for human health. Caves need to be moved out from under recreational management categories. CONTRARY TO FEDERAL CAVE RESOURCES PROTECTION ACT Selling cave visits to raise funds is contrary to the spirit of the Federal Cave Resources Protection Act of 1988. The public nominated thousands of 'Significant Caves" for their protection--and now the USFS proposes to market these caves to raise funds. FEAR OF FEE ESCALATION If fees are implemented, the door is open. More fees will follow. Higher fees will come. Regardless of cost effectiveness, if caves bring in money, then caves will be advertised. Numbers of visitors will increase. Limits on cave trips will be lifted. Impact will be relentless. Promise of the almighty dollar will override protective management strategies. FRAGILE IRREPLACABLE RESOURCE Caves in the Southwest are among America's most fragile, most easily damaged. Caves on the Lincoln National Forest of southeastern New Mexico (the Guadalupe caves), and the Coronado National Forest of southern Arizona are targeted as fee sites in a USDA Forest Service Recreational Fee Demonstration Project. These two regions contain world-class cave resources. Sometimes foresters overlook the irreplaceable nature of southwestern caves. Fragile, nonrenewable cave resources will be traded in for recreational revenue. Caves will be destroyed to line federal coffers. Caves are not like trees. Caves do not grow back. Once destroyed, the resources are gone .. Every fvotStep results in lasting impact. LIABILITY The NSS has documented to the Forest Service that charging cave entry fees takes them to the highest level of liability, and will most likely result in millions of dollars of lawsuits over the next 20 years. The Forest Service has admitted, in writing, that cave entry fees WILL increase their liability. One successful lawsuit against the Forest Service would wipe out many years of collecting fees from cavers. POISONS VOLUNTEERISM The Forest Service will lose as much as $100,000 in volunteer value per year while attempting to collect $10,000 or $20,000 in fees per year. Taking into account the lose of volunteerism, the proposed Cave Fee Demo can never be cost effective. It is interesting to note that in 1995, the BLM Cave program had $112,575 of value from the volunteers. During 1996, when the BLM was considering charging cave fees, the value dropped to $48,491--a 57% drop in volunteer value from cavers! Cavers are the largest single volunteer group in Lincoln National Forest and in Coronado National Forest, and they are also the most skilled--in terms of mapping, inventorying, photographing, and evaluating the dangerous

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Page 6 San Francisco Bay Chapter Newsletter April1997 environments of these caves. We request that the USFS more closely track volunteer hours for the specific volunteer groups (similar to the BLM programs). Only by closely tracking these skilled volunteers can you determine if the Forest Service program is poisoning volunteerism. To reiterate: Make your letter count by saying NO to fees, not Maybe. 1. First, state the issue and clearly identify that you are opposed to cave fees. 2. Emphasize that caves should NOT be managed as recreational resources. 3. Ask specific questions. Request that they answer your questions.(See suggestions below.) Even one page will add to the stack. Copy to several Congressional and Forest Service names, as things can get lost. SAMPLE QUESTIONS FOR LETTERS & EXAMPLE PARAGRAPHS Feel free to copy and use. Individual letters will receive better attention than blanket copies. Send letters from all over the country. Letters from individuals. Letters from organizations. Write the US Senators and Representatives from your District. Below find access to more addresses and further information. Dear Representative or Senator _______ : The Forest Service, Southwest Region, has proposed to charge fees for entering caves. I am completely opposed to the idea of charging cave fees in any form. Caves offer a wealth of fragile underground resources that have not yet been investigated. (Scientists are currently seeking a cure for cancer using rare microbes that are found only in cave pools.) Caves are easily damaged and often harbor non-renewable features. If carefully managed, cave ecosystems will reveal future answers for human health concerns. Caves are currently managed as recreational resources. A new management category for cave resources should be created in the USDA Forest Service. Caves not be advertised as recreational resources. Fees will not serve to protect cave resources, but will lead to business marketing of caves and will increase impact. Following, I have listed several questions for your office to research. Your reply is requested. As a constituent, I appreciate your attention in this matter of conserving America's natural underground resources. We are told that the USDA Forest Service has been mandated by Congress to collect fees. QUESTION: What is the Congressional mandate? Please define and describe. QUESTION: Please find and send a copy of the legislative mandate that specifically requires the Forest Service to charge fees for caves. Please highlight and explain the passages that require cave fees. QUESTION: Please outline in detail steps we can take to question and promote change in the protection of cave resources. Please include protocol, names, addresses, and suggested procedures. QUESTION: How can we facilitate the creation of a new management category for caves? Specifically, what is the protocol? Please define the process. Respectfully, Name, Address, email Include your mailing address, even in email or fax, to identify your district and to facilitate a reply. Email messages will probably receive only an acknowledgment by email. Answers to your questions will likely be sent via snail mail. We have been advised that use of Washington addresses will facilitate responses on this issue. Office numbers can change, thus simple Washington addresses work best. COPY LEITERS TO ARCHIVE Please send copies of letters to this archiving resource. Sometimes things can get lost m bureaucracy. We will keep copies on file for upcoming negotiations. Send to CAVES, PO Box 1018, Tijeras, NM 89059 or email to werks@ worldnet.att.net More information is available on this matter, including all the addresses mentioned in the article which unfortunately won't fit here due to space limitations. Please ask one of the Exec committee if you would like additional information. Cave Fee Background By: Ray Keeler The caves intended for fees are in "THE GUADs", the caves of southeastern New Mexico. The caves of the Guadalupe Mountains in Lincoln National Forest legendary for beautiful rooms, delicate formations, excellent vertical extent, massive formations. They are awesome. Then to compound matters, add caves on the Coronado National Forest in southern Arizona, land of no caves to speak of.

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Volume 40, Number 4 San Francisco Bay Chapter Newsletter Page7 Forest Service Region 3 includes New Mexico and Arizona. Region 3 is planning a Fee Demonstration Project with the intent of charging fees for gated caves to help offset costs for managing the caves. The three year demonstration project is planned to begin on June 30, 1997. If the demonstration project is determined a success, the intent is to expand fees for caving to other National Forests. Forest Service meetings were held on January 25th, and March 13th, 1997 to discuss concepts of implementation. A "White Paper" or concept/proposal paper has been written. However, the FEE DEMONSTRATION IS NOT REQUIRED TO START AT ALL. A better offer to the Forest Service for the caves' preservation, the Forest Service, and the cavers has been made and is currently being worked by the Southwest Caves Conservation Task Force (SWCCTF), a group of NSS leaders in the Southwest. A meeting was held on March 7th, 1997 in Albuquerque, NM. Region 3 representatives were Roger Deaver (Director of Recreation) Jose Martinez (Lincoln Forest Supervisor) and Brent Botts (Asst. Director of Recreation) and Johnny Wilson (Lincoln NF). NSS representatives of the SWCCTF included: Ray Keeler (NSS Board of Governors), Dave Jagnow (NSS Conservation Chairman), Steve Fleming (Southwest Region Chairman), Bruce Thompson (Arizona Region Vice Chairman), Val Hildreth Werker and Jim Werker (Co-Directors NSS Resource Preservation), Steve Peerman (Mesilla Valley Grotto), Jeff Forbes (Sandia Grotto), Jim Evatt (Sandia Grotto) and William Wadsworth (Sandia Grotto). Others on the committee (Dave Belski, Jay Jorden, Chris Lee, John Lyles) were unable to take time off work to attend. If you know any of these people and respect their opinion, please call one of them to find out more. We made the following offer: The goal of the SWCCTF is to provide the USFS Region 3 with a minimum of $100,000 per year of volunteer labor (expertise), monetary contributions, and supplies, in cooperative effort to help accomplish the cave management goals of the Forest Service in New Mexico and Arizona (combined). Areas included for the volunteer effort would include areas like surveying, restoration, gate maintenance, science projects, bat counts and several others. Our goal is to provide a minimum of $100,000 per year for the next three years (in place of the cave fee demo) but it is likely to this program will continue for the foreseeable future. We sat down before the meeting and worked out the numbers. We can do this. The vote was unanimous. Even at a minimal $10/hour plus expenses it comes to about 800 hours per month of volunteer time working on caving projects over two states. It will take caver committment to achieve the goal. Fees appear to be a reasonable method for helping to protect the resource until the responsibility of generating replacement dollars for decreasing budgets enters the equation. There were 3.5 million user days on the Lincoln National Forest last year. 2300 of those days were spent at a cave or 0.066 percent of visitor time. A very small percentage of total use of the forest. The estimated revenue to be generated at say $5.00 per person per cave trip would be a mere $11,500. If just 50% of the trips are uncharged as specified in the White Paper, due to being volunteer project trips like surveying and restoration, less than $6000 in revenue would be generated. This is less than the money already spent by Forest Service personnel to attend grotto meetings across the Southwest where they tried to sell their plan. For comparison, the average revenue from the other 46 fee project proposals in the Forest Service Recreation Fee Demonstration Project document is $300,000 per project. However, at the March 13th closed meeting the Forest Service decided to press ahead and not wait for the SWCCTF's Memorandum Of Understanding (MOU) to arrive. And here is where the tale becomes really scary. The Forest Service Recreation Fee Demonstration Project document states "As previously noted, a marketing analysis will be completed that will be used to determine the fee structure. However, the anticipated fees collected are as follows: 1997: $12,200$15,700 1998: $15,200$19,500 1999: $18,000$23,100" (end quote) The Forest Service is intending to INCREASE TRAFFIC ON FRAGILE CAVES BY 47.5% IN JUST TWO YEARS. THIS IS WRONG, WRONG, WRONG! Not even the Forest Service would suggest increasing traffic to archeology sights for example, another non-renewable resource, by 47.5% in twenty years, let alone two years. Cavers have contributed a huge amount of volunteer effort in cooperation with the Forest Service helping to discover, protect, learn about and define methods to keep the caves as part of the American Heritage.

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Page8 San Francisco Bay Chapter Newsletter April1997 This partnership can be elevated to an even higher status of understanding and effort, or be crushed for pennies on the dollar with those who have contributed most to being demoted to "user" status. Please, take a moment and write a short, clear note stating your position and asking one or two of your own questions. The SWCCTF have offered more value in volunteer time than the dollars that can be generated from fees. If implemented, this cave fee thing will spread across the country enabling recreational destruction of more caves on federal lands. Now is time to write letters to Congress and to the USDA Forest Service. Addresses are listed in article on NSS Cave Fee Position and are available from the SFBC EXEC committee. SFBC Meeting Minutes Submitted by practicing secretary, Steve Ruble March Monthly meeting Date: March 25, 1997 Time: 8:00PM to 10:00 PM Location: Telegen Co. Headquarters Redwood City Attendance: 4 Grotto Officers, 31 members or guests, The Donald, and 1 watch dog. Special topic None Noted again is the very fine facilities with audio and video capabilities, for our monthly meetings. Thanks again to Bonnie and Jessica for use of their conference room. • Vivian Loftin presented a slide show of caves in the motherload and New Zealand, with some interesting comparisons between the two regions. Very nice Vivian, thanks. • Introductions were as usual, with the noted presence of "The Donald" who was visiting the Bay Area for a few weeks. • Announcements; David Herberg was awarded for his design on the latest grotto tee shirts. It was Peri Frantz's birthday, (no cake this year). Someone ( opps I forgot who) had a mountaineering book for sale, and Ann B. offered copies of the new Cave Atlas of the World, and an "extreme" calendar for sale at substantial discount off the usual retail pricing ... • Upcoming Trips were discussed in great length, (for details see the monthly newsletter). After the break, we all grabbed pieces of rope for Cindy's "Knot of the Month". Lots of fun. • The only old business was discussions about the upcoming regional, and Cindy talked about various forest service items. • No particular new business. • There were the usual trips reports, Borneo, more Borneo, Heater, Cave Gulch, Pinnacles, Empire and IXL. The quote of the month was "Never give a kid his own light, they will only get away from you that way!". It was noted that some people are getting together for diner before the monthly meeting at the Sizzler restaurant on Veterans Blvd. in Redwood City anytime between 6:30 to 7:00 PM. Any other suggestions for a possible dinner location need only be brought up. Give us your ideas ... April Executive meeting Date: Time April 8, 1997 7:30PM to 9:00PM Location: Fresh Choice restaurant (in San Mateo) all you can eat salads etc. Attendance: Merrilee Proffitt (hair getting longer) Cindy Heazlit Steve Ruble Mark Scott Jim Lakner Special topic Western Regional. Old Business As noted, the primary discussions were about plans for the upcoming regional, currently scheduled for October 25/26. The regional will be held at A very ranch in the motherload area of the state. Exact pricing and details should be printed in the next monthly newsletter. We are still looking for volunteers for various functions and activities, so if you can help out, please contact anyone on the exec committee. Correspondence We received a flier form the NCRC, and a BCI catalog. Both will be available at the next meeting if anyone is interested. The forest service also sent us a notice about upcoming burn areas in the Mt. Moriah wilderness area.

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Volume 40, Number 4 San Francisco Bay Chapter Newsletter Page9 We had discussions about upcoming meeting programs, (always open for ideas from the members). We also discussed overall grotto finances and how it may relate to future annual dues. More fiscal information is needed in this area before decisions can be made. New business None to speak of ... but, the question was raised; Do we want to host a future BOG? Meeting adjourned, and Merrilee had "strawberries" for desert, in spite of all our warnings ... March Financial Summary By: Eric Goodill March Open Income: Auction Dues Hardhat Equipment Interest Miscellaneaous Total Expenses: Equipment Hardhat Misc. Newsletter postage Newsletter print Rent WRDues Total Income Expenses March Close Hardhat 413.38 6.76 6.76 5.99 5.99 0.77 414.15 Operating 1562.56 192.50 988.00 1180.50 40.00 40.00 1140.50 2703.06 Knot of the Month The Knot of the Month is taking a vacation this month due to circumstances beyond our control. If you have any suggestions for a knot you would like to see featured please send them to Cindy Heazlit. Regional Information Unfortunately the promised detailed information concerning the price, etc. for the upcoming regional are unavailable as this goes to press. Look for full detailed information concerning sign up costs, room availability, T-shirts, etc. etc. next month. Reserve 806.88 0.00 0.00 0.00 806.88 Equipment 268.52 0.00 0.00 0.00 268.52 Total 3051.34 192.50 988.00 6.76 0.00 0.00 0.00 1187.26 0.00 5.99 40.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 45.99 1141.27 4192.61

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Page 10 San Francisco Bay Chapter Newsletter 1996 SFBC Annual Financial Summary Report By Eric Goodill Aprill997 For those who are gluttons for punishment, here is a copy of SFBC's 1996 annual report that we filed with the National Speleological Society office as we are required to do each year. SFBC maintains four separate logical funds which are currently all combined into a single checking account. The four funds are operating, hardhat, equipment, and reserve. The operating fund is for the day-to-day stuff like newsletter printing, rent, etc. The hardhat fund is where we put the money we collect at the grotto meetings into the hardhat. It is used to purchase equipment used at the grotto training sessions. Just to confuse you, the equipment fund is really the grotto store run by Gail McCoy and Tom Mathey. It's not called "store" because we didn't want SFBC to look like it was running a retail outlet. (Say "thanks" to Tom and Gail next time you see them for the work they put in to running the store and renting hardhats and lights (and keeping it all in working order). The reserve fund is for "just in case." Fund Balance Operating Dec311995 $1,666.70 Income Dues $1,796.00 Auction $10.00 Donations $5.00 Equipment Interest Miscellaneous $135.00 Total $1,946.00 Expenses: Newsletter Print $352.88 Newsletter Postage $491.52 Rent $412.50 Training/Equipment Equipment Purchase Western Regional Dues $486.00 Miscellaneous $130.00 Total $1,872.90 Income over Expenses: $73.10 Interfund Transfers: $0.00 Fund Balance Dec 311996 $1,739.80 Assets Cash Checking Dec 31 1995 $0.00 $3,024.49 Transfers $0.00 $0.00 Dec 31 1996 $0.00 $3,228.58 Hardhat $299.39 $113.99 $113.99 $0.00 $113.99 $0.00 $413.38 Savings $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 Equipment $251.52 $17.00 $17.00 $0.00 $17.00 $0.00 $268.52 Total $3,024.49 $3,228.58 Reserve $806.88 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $806.88 Total $3,024.49 $1,796.00 $10.00 $118.99 $17.00 $0.00 $135.00 $2,076.99 $352.88 $491.52 $412.50 $0.00 $0.00 $486.00 $130.00 $1,872.90 $204.09 $3,228.58

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Volume 40, Number 4 San Francisco Bay Chapter Newsletter Page 11 SFBC General Information Newsletter: This newsletter is a monthly publication of the San Francisco Bay chapter (SFBC) of the National Speleological Society (NSS). Any material not specifically copyrighted may be reproduced by other Internal Organizations of the NSS without permission provided credit is given to SFBC and the author. Opinions expressed within this newsletter are not necessarily those of SFBC, its board members, or theNSS. The newsletter editor welcomes material for publishing including, cartoons, trip reports, clippings, drawings, photographs, letters to the editor, accident reports, etc. Hard copy, disks, e-mail, fax and phone calls are acceptable media. Please call to check for possible format problems with machine readable text. Black and white photographs are preferable; color photos are acceptable. Deadline for submission is the Friday after the executive meeting. Dues/Membership: Dues are due January 1. Checks may be made payable to SFBC/NSS, PO Box 2282, Menlo Park, CA 94026 or can be delivered directly to the treasurer at the meeting. Price for annual membership is as follows: Regular Me!Jlbership: $20.00; Family Membership: $8.00; Subscription Only: $12.00 Membership is open to anyone. However, in complying with the NSS rules governing Internal Organizations, only members of the NSS and this Internal Organization. have voting rights. Waivers: Waivers must be signed by all persons participating in SFBC Activities. Waivers are required for each SFBC activity. Forms are available at all chapter meetings and vertical practicesTrip leaders reserve the right to limit participation on their trips based on number of participants or individual qualifications. Executive Meetings: Executive meetings are held on the second Tuesday of each month at 7pm at the "Fresh Choice" restaurant in San Mateo. Anyone is invited to share a meal and swap stories with us, but only the elected officers can vote on grotto issues. "Fresh Choice" is located in a shopping center just South of Hi 92 on the West side of El Camino in San Mateo. From 92, exit South (from either direction) and take the 1 right turn into the shopping center driveway. Can't miss the restaurant. Chapter Meetings: Meetings are held on the fourth Tuesday of each month, (Note: This is not necessarily the last Tuesday of the month) at 8:00 PM SHARP. Location: TELEGEN Building, 101 Saginaw, Redwood City, CA. Directions: From Highway 101, Exit Seaport Blvd. (same exit as Woodside Rd) and follow signs to Seaport Blvd. (towards the Bay). Turn left onto Chesapeake (signal light with the blue boat ramp sign). Turn left onto Saginaw (in sight of a big mountain of salt), and left again into the first driveway on Saginaw. Turn immediately right, follow the parking area around the building and park to the west side. The TELEGEN building (101-199 Saginaw) is tan with a rust-colored angular facade. Enter the building through the front entrance with "10 1" above the door. Volunteers: Librarian: Jim Lakner ( 408) 738-2939 LAKNERJ @vncpo 1.ne.ge.com Equipment Managers/Store Keepers Gail McCoy and Tom Mathey ( 408) 865-1763 Board Members: Chair: Merrilee Proffitt (510) 339-7483 mproffit@ library. berkeley .edu Vice Chair: Cindy Heazlit (408) 448-8857 cheazlit@ix.netcom.com (home) cindy.heazlit@lmco.com (work) Secretary: Steve Ruble (415) 692-0477 sruble@ix.netcom.com Treasurer: Eric Goodill (415) 323-0976 ericg@cisco.com Newsletter Editor: Mark Scott (415) 497-4321 (home) (415) 725-3318 (work) (415) 725-3377 (fax) miscott@ leland.stanford.edu /

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Page 12 April 18-21" CRF Lilburn Contact: John Tinsley (415) 327-2368 jtinsley@isdrnnl.wr.usgs.gov 22"d Monthly Meeting 8pm at Telegen 24th Vertical Workshop Contact: Cindy Heazlit (408) 448-8857 cheazlit@ix.netcom.com 26th Vertical Practice at Pinnacles eontact: Cindy Heazlit (as above) 29th and 1" and 3"' of May Lyceum 1, 2 and 3 Contact: Peri Frantz (408) 359-8506 peri_frantz@quickmail.apple.com San Fnmcisco Bay Chapter National Speleological Society PO Bdx.2282 . . ",;;Menlo 94026 San Francis<:o Bay Chapter Newsletter May 10I 1th Medicine Lakes I Lava Tubes Terry Silva (408) 629-0821 13th Executive Meeting 7pm at Fresh Choice 17th Advanced Vertical Practice Contact: Cindy Heazlit (as above) 24-25th Church Cave Project Contact: Dave Engel (714) 637-3171 dengel @earthlink.net 24-26th NW Regional in Idaho See last month's newsletter for details 23-1" Eastern Nevada Trip Contact: Daniel Snyder snydhaye@ scruznet.com ( 408)-421-0430 27th Monthly Meeting 8pm at ,; FIRST CLASS .. ;;.'?: u0.,'' 'Mafk conover ..... .. .nr. • 95014 ':: \ ::. April1997 June 7-8th WRTC Church Trip Contact: Peri Frantz (as above) lOth Executive Meeting 7prn at Fresh Choice 14-21" NCRC in Kentucky Contact: Peri Frantz (as above) 14-15th Greenhorn Cave Contact: Merrilee Proffitt (510) 339-7483 mproffit@ library .berkeley .edu 14-15th Church Cave Contact: Dave Engel (as above) 21 "Vertical Practice Contact: Cindy Heazlit (as above) 22-27th NSS Convention See your NSS News for details 24th Monthly Meeting 8pm at Telegen .. R97

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s f b c newsletter In this Issue: Forest Service Caving Fee Letter Writing Initiative Toppled Table Talus Trip Report Knot of the Month LEARN Lechuguilla Expedition report Folia in Hurricane Crawl Cave \ SerVice.,i ... .. ': '. _, . MerrUee 'Ht>'rise .<:: .. ... / . .. ,. .. . ,. ' Each:lettet:you•write .•. e11ter;y91iin a .titarongifor; •prizes . ; San Francisco Bay Chapter National Speleological Society Volume 40, Number 5 May 1997 Cover Photo by: Ann and Peter Bosted, featuring Glen Malliet in the boat and John Fairchild on rope in Cave City Cave

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Page2 San Francisco Bay Chattter Newsletter May 1997 Program Announcement This month's program will be on the recent expedition to Borneo and will feature slides by several photographers including Dave Bunnell and Bill Frantz and others (as this newsletter went to press it had not been confirmed who the other mystery photographers might be). Regional Information The date and location for the regional has been confirmed as the weekend of the 25tb-26tb of October and Avery Ranch respectively. The catering is to be done by A very Ranch (which means it ought to be really good!) and is expected to be around about $30 including food $5 for camping only. These prices are subject to change as all the details have not been confirmed. Any suggestions for guest speakers, format of the meetings etc. would be greatly appreciated as would volunteers to assist in organizing and running the event. More detailed information will follow next month (hopefully). Regional Volunteers Needed There are many positions left in the organizational group for the upcoming Regional. If you want to help and/or have a say in how the regional is run please contact an Executive committee member ASAP. If no-one volunteers you may just end up getting "volunteered"!!! (see the minutes for an example or two) Toppled Table Talus Trip Report By: Tracie Slottenback Attendees were: Merrilee, Mark, David, Glenn, Peter, Aimee, Tracie, Tim As most members know, Toppled Table Talus is not a large cave, but kind of a fun one. We did not locate the cave immediately, but after hiking around on the rocks (and through the poison oak) we eventually discovered it. I do not recall that we observed many critters in the cave. Certainly no new species were to be discovered on our little trip, but there were a few interesting spots in the cave. The entrance for one. This was mine, and a few others, first experience on a cable ladder. Just a bit awkward, but no casualties. There are a few squeezes to go through, including a faily challenging spot way in the back of the cave which Peter found and Merrilee, Mark, Aimee and I managed to squeeze into. ' Formations are not one of TIT's strong points. However, it is a great place to practice new spelunking techniques. All in all, we managed to remain in the cave for about 3 hours. We then exited the cave, had a little picnic, and moved on to a second, even smaller cave. After which, Peter and David split off to repel and climb the cliff. (For being so new at this, you're a brave sole David!) For the rest of us, it was getting a bit late, and time to start heading home. This trip_ was a first for Tim, Aimee and I. It was our virgin adventure with SFBC. It is hard to know, when meeting new people, whether to be oneself, or to tone it down to a more conservative version. Immediately upon meeting the trip attendees, we felt right at home. Thanks all! See ya cavin! Forest Service Caving Fee Controversy By: Ami Bosted Write a letter and save most of the country's BEST caves Last month's SFBC newsletter had several articles by NSS leaders urging members to write letters to object to the Forest Service imposing a fee on the issuance of cave permits. The NSS leaders had several reasons, but the main panic stemmed from the USFS's plans to raise money by marketing tripr. to caves on public lands and expanding the number of permits issued by 4 7.5% in only 2 years! !. This deliberate plan to raise revenue by increasing the traffic in caves can only harm the fragile resource especially as the country's most scenic caves those of New Mexico and Arizona are in the front line for being commercialized When I spoke to Ransom Turner recently, he said they were thinking of charging $60.00 per permit. If there are 6 cavers on the permit, that's $10 for each caver. However, if there are only 3 in the party, that's $20 each. So smaller parties pay more. Last May, 3 of us went to the Guads and did 8 caves in 8 days. If we had to pay, it would have been a real nuisance. It cost us that much to replace the tires we trashed on those roads!! Once the fee system is in place, who knows how long before the costs escalate? To justify selling cave trips they want to classify caves as developed recreational sites (bad idea as caves are undeveloped and should remain so). If we are to stop this really bad idea, we need to write letters. Consider the ranchers who graze their livestock on USFS land for a fraction of what they would pay privately. Each time there is a whisper about making them pay more, they get organized and protest and that's the end of the matter. We need to guard our country's very beautiful and fragile caves as zealously as they look out for their profits. At the last grotto meeting some serious concerns were expressed and most agreed that a strong letter-writing campaign should be undertaken. When

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Volume 40, Number 5 San Francisco Bay Chapter Newsletter Page3 Lechuguilla was threatened with gas drilling, we Western cavers wrote over 100 letters and they were effective in getting some safeguards written into the permit. The letters were written at a Regional Speleo-ed seminar. Just for fun, Peter Bosted and I offered some prizes to the first few letters drawn from a hat. This meant that the more letters a caver wrote, the better his/her chances of getting a letter drawn and winning a prize!! At Cindy's suggestion, we are willing to do it again. Since we will be out of town at the next meeting, Merrilee Proffitt will be collecting the letters and run the drawing. We will give her two fine caving posters for prizes. Each one measure 27 x 19. Each one is dry-mounted on foam board which is again mounted on a wooden frame so that it can be hung on two press pins and look like its floating on the wall. If y'ou are interested in joining the campaign, please refresh your memory by rereading the articles on pages 4 thru 8 of the April SFBC newsletter. Also the May NSS News has more information on pages 131 & 132. To make the letter writing campaign work, we have a few guidelines. To enter your letter(s} in the drawing, please bring it to the May grotto meeting, or mail it to Merrilee in time to reach her before the meeting or come to the letter writing party this month and write them with fellow cavers. Your letter should be given to Merrilee in an unsealed envelope. The envelope should be addressed to any of the eight representatives or officials listed below. There should be a 32c stamp on the outside of the envelope and your return address should be on the front. The reason for leaving the envelope open is so that we can make a copy of your letter for the NSS. You may not write more than one letter to each j:>erson below, but you are encouraged to write to all of them!!. You should date yourletter for June 1997, using your birthday day for the day of your letter. For example, suppose you were born on the lOth of November, then date your letter 10 June, 1997. After xeroxing them, Merrilee or I will mail them close to the date of the letter. To jog your writers' block, a sample letter is on page 6 of the April SFBC newsletter. The addresses are: The Honorable Pete Domenici United States Senate Washington, DC 20510 Mr. Mike Cartwright Regional Forester US Forest Service Regional Office 517 Gold SW, Albuquerque, NM 87102 Mr. Brent Botts Assistant Director of Recreation US Forest Service Regional Office 517 Gold SW, Albuquerque, NM 87102 The Honorable Barbara Boxer 112 Hart Building, Washington, DC 20510 The Honorable Dianne Feinstein 331 Hart Building, Washington, DC 20510 President Bill Clinton The White House 1600 Pennsylvania Ave., NW Washington, DC 20500 Congressman Tom Campbell 2442 Rayburn Building, Washington, DC 20515 (Tom Campbell represents Santa Clara, Saratoga and points South as well as Santa Cruz Co.) Congresswoman Anna Eshoo 308 Cannon Building Washington, DC 20515 (Anna Eshoo represents Cupertino and Sunnyvale north to Belmont and most of San Mateo Co. except San Mateo) For a map of congressional districts, look at the blue-edged community pages in the front of your phone book Folia in Hurricane Crawl Cave and Crystal Sequoia Cave By: Donald Davis SUMMARY Folia are unusual speleothems that form contoured fields of interleaved, downward-sloping ribs along vertical or overhanging cave walls. Calcite folia occur in at least 5 locations in Hurricane Crawl Cave. Structures that are probably an aberrant form of folia also occur in Crystal Sequoia Cave. The Hurricane Crawl folia are particularly informative because (1) they illustrate relationship between folia and shelfstone better than previously-reported sites; and (2} they support a strong relationship between carbon dioxide degassing and folia growth, which can be observed in action in one location. INTRODUCTION Joel Despain (Cave Specialist for these Parks) offered me the opportunity to observe folia locations in these caves on April 5th and 6th, 1997. The trips were led and supported by Greg Stock and Steve Bumgardner (geology students and seasonal Park employees) and by Mark Rosbrook

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Page4 San Francisco Bay Chapter Newsletter May 1997 (California caver who knows the cave). Observations were made but no photographs were taken. The occurrence of folia in these caves is particularly interesting because the caves are largely vadose systems in which free-flowing, often sediment-laden streams have been dominant agents of cave development. All previous folia locations known to me are in caves of phreatic origin, and are closely associated with existing or former water-table levels. (For a general discussion of folia, see Hill & Forti, 1986. For a map and descriptive articles on Hurricane Crawl Cave, see California Caver, 42(1), Winter, 1993.) PREVIOUS WORK Two prior visits involving folia observation are reported in the Park files. The first was by Dale Green on September 7'\ 1995. His hypothesis as stated in his report to the Park (Green, 1996, p. 1) is as follows: The origin of folia: I believe that folia are created when ascending water charged with calcium bicarbonate passes through an orifice and profusely degasses with the decrease in pressure upon expansion into a larger chamber. Calcite nuclei are created with the release of the carbon dioxide gas. The calcite is carried upward by the water,. which may be heated, or by the gas, and is deposited on the underside of downward-facing walls and ceilings. At first only tiny, sub-parallel ribs are formed which interleave with each other. As the ribs get larger, they protrude enough to entrap gas beneath them. More calcite is deposited to the protrusions whenever enough gas accumulates to bubble up from underneath because the disturbance causes release of more carbon dioxide. Eventually, upside-down cups are formed. Folia may be pictured as upside-down rimstone dams except that gas fills the volume behind the dam, rather than water. Green was able to view only the main Pumpkin Palace folia locality, which was the only one yet recognized (Greg Stock, oral comm.) The next visit was by Arthur & Margaret Palmer on July 31 ", 1996. Their report commented (Palmer & Palmer, 1996): Hurricane Crawl also contains many examples of a very rare speleothem called folia. We examined two of the several sites in which they occur. These features have often been attributed to deposition of calcite by rising thermal waters. However, in this cave there is no evidence for water of anything higher than the low sub alpine temperatures of the region. The enormous rate of calcite precipitation nearby shows that water entering the cave is losing C02 , and such field evidence suggests that this, rather than temperature, is the only significant factor in their development. The folia in Hurricane Crawl are the best we have seen outside of Lechuguilla Cave, New Mexico. OBSERVATIONS Hurricane Crawl Cave -Schist Canyon section On April 5'\ the gate to the main Hurricane Crawl entrance was jam:tned, and we were unable to enter there as intended. We instead entered via the Schist Canyon gate and proceeded through breakdown and descending vadose slots to the Carousel Room, a chamber about 20 feet in diameter, highly decorated with white dripstone and flowstone. Beneath this chamber, a small stream has undermined the floor by removing about three feet of sand and gravel, creating a sub-chamber roofed by a flowstone canopy. This stream, flowing at this time an estimated several gallons per minute, rises from beneath a bedrock wall at the upstream end of the room. On the bedrock at the water's edge is a horizontal zone about two inches high (apparently representing the range between season low and high water positions), from which grow a series of several thin, sloping tiers of white calcite, attached along a distance of about two feet and extending up to two inches from the wall. These resemble shelfstone in their strongly-horizontal, elongate attachments, but are tilted and interleaved in the way typical of folia. The water, which was relatively low for the season, was submerging the lower margin of the growth zone. Calcite rafts, which are invariably associated with calcite folia at other sites, were not floating on the upwelling stream here, but old ones were present in a small chamber to one side, and rafts are reported to appear intermittently when higher flow causes water to back up in a room about 40 feet downstream (Greg Stock, oral comm.) An extremely interesting observation here was three gas bubbles (the most easily visible one about 3/8 inch in diameter) trapped and partially visible beneath small folia shelves along the right (looking upstream) edge of the upwelling sump. Since the water was not splashing or rippling, these must have come out of solution from the water itself, and their presence is consistent with the C02 degassing invoked in the mechanisms proposed by both Green and the Palmers. These folia are the most clearly active of any I have seen (parts of the folia zones in Lechuguilla Cave, NM, and Agua Caliente Cave, AZ, are also underwater, but the degree of growth presently occurring is uncertain there). It would be informative to analyze the gas in the bubbles.

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Volume 40, Number 5 San Francisco Bay Chapter Newsletter Page5 Hurricane Crawl Cave--main section: Star Chamber. The folia displays in the main section of Hurricane Crawl Cave are much larger and more impressive than in the Schist Canyon section, but none of them are presently active. On April 6m, we succeeded in entering via the main gate, and proceeded through the entrance breakdown fissures and then upstream along Carotene Canyon, a strongly meandering vadose slot in which an active stream was flowing an estimated cubic foot per second. From this canyon we chimneyed about 70 feet up into the Star Chamber, a segment of older, wider passage long abandoned by streamflow, and now highly decorated with flowstone and dripstone including well-developed shields. A few yards up and to the right from the entry point, the west wall preserves a folia display several feet wide and occupying a narrow horizontal band about two feet high. Shelves have extended up to a foot or more from the wall. Some of the shelves here more closely resemble shelfstone, while others have typical folia patterns. This display is similar to the more extensive one at Pumpkin Palace, which is described below. The folia/shelfstone display in the Star Chamber dates from a time when slow-moving, supersaturated water stood nearly at the ceiling of the Star Chamber level. . This probably took place at a time after the caves of Sequoia National Park were extensively invaded bydebris-loaded glacial meltwaters from higher elevations. Many of their lower passages were choked with sand and gravel, then encrusted with calcite during episodes of restricted flow. Much of this sediment has subsequently been removed, leaving the upper levels high above the present base level, but old floor levels--some of them near this folia zone--are marked by overhanging calcite canopies. Another upper-level folia deposit is reported (Greg Stock, oral comm.) in the Pleiades, described as a partly disconnected segment of the Star Chamber level. This was said to be a quite delicate section, and the folia very similar to those in the Star Chamber; we did not attempt to visit there. Hurricane Crawl Cave--main section: lower Pumpkin Palace. Several hundred feet upstream along Carotene Canyon from the climb up to Star Chamber, the cave abruptly enlarges into Pumpkin Palace, a roughlytriangular room, about 90 feet in diameter, with the stream running along the south side. The Palace is floored by a silt mound partly overlain by massive, mostly-dry white crystalline flowstone/rimstone deposits, which were fed by masses of large draperies coming down from the north. Beyond the Palace, the cave continues upstream in two chambers, each about 20 feet long, 15 feet wide, and up to 15 or more feet high. The stream wells up from beneath the back wall of the inner of these chambers. Beginning about 10 feet above the floor, a horizontal zone of she1fs_tone/folia ribs, about two feet from top to bottom, encircles these chambers and the adjacent walls of Pumpkin Palace. Details of this zone are somewhat difficult to view, because there is no place where one can step up close to it, but the dominant feature is a horizontal shelf, apparently gently sloping on top, extending out as much as one to two feet from the wall. The bottom of this shelf is virtually flat, but with intricate folia contours embossed on its underside. Above and below are lesser shelves, some shelfstone-like, others consisting of complexes of classic, contoured folia up to several inches across. This is the most extensive folia deposit in the cave. On a ledge above the stream source is a deposit of calcite rafts partly coated with silt. Where the shelfstone/folia level extends out into Pumpkin Palace, the deposits gradually narrow until, about 30 feet out into the room, they fade away to bedrock. My interpretation of the sequence of events recorded in these deposits is considerably different from that suggested by Green (1996). He stated that "folia are deposited subaqueously by rising thermal? waters," and considered that the shelfstone was formed later after the folia-growing water had drained and been replaced by a lake. He proposed that folia and shelfstone originally extended below the existing limit, but were completely dissolved away below this line by an invading, aggressive stream, and partially dissolved above it. That scenario seems unnecessarily complicated. I have recognized no evidence that folia here or elsewhere formed at any substantial depth in the water. Furthermore, I concur with Palmer & Palmer (1996) that there is no evidence for thermal involvement in this cave: in particular, I saw no pronounced cupolas suggestive of convective solution anywhere, nor is there any hint of the iron and manganese mineralization that is typically the first deposit where rising hypogenic water mixes with near-surface groundwater in many such caves in the western United States. The high carbon dioxide content of some water entering the cave probably reflects the position of the cave beneath a nearly virgin montane forest in the zone of transition between oak and incense cedar and other conifers; the soil is undoubtedly C02-rich.

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Page6 San Francisco Bay Chapter Newsletter May 1997 In my opinion, the folia-like and shelfstone-like elements in the Hurricane Crawl deposition zones were not formed at two different times by substantially different mechanisms; they are simply variant but intergrading expressions of essentially the same process involving calcite precipitation at or near a somewhat fluctuating water level. I saw no sign that significant deposits were laid down and then redissolved below the present lower limit of the deposition zone; rather, it is more likely that this limit marks a transition from supersaturated to undersaturated conditions in essentially the same body of water as its level lowered, and that minimal deposits, if any, were ever laid down below the surviving ones. (The aggressiveness seems to have reached a maximum at a level about four feet below the deposit zone, where a horizontal notch an inch deep is dissolved into the bedrock. The stream--which is not the same as the one observed in the Schist Canyon section--is dissolving, not depositing, calcite at the present level.) An overhanging silt bank atop folia at one point in the Pumpkin Palace does suggest at least a brief burial of the folia level in sediment. However, I do not believe there could have been much re-solution of the folia/shelfstone: the bottom of the most prominent shelf has numerous thin flakes--apparently attached or embedded calcite raftsprotruding from it; these would have been readily destroyed by a return to solutional conditions at that level. Hurricane Crawl Cave--main section: upper Pumpkin Palace. We were unable to get close enough to view this occurrence well; it is high in the ceiling and is small with respect to the lower deposit. Elevation relations between folia locations (feet above Hurricane entrance) (Data from Joel Despain, pers. comm., April1997) Area, Station, Elevation, Folia location from station Pleiades, LB26, 122.8, At the station Star Chamber, KA4, 125.8, Same elev., 3m away at 20x Lower Pumpkin Palace, SB24, 80.9, 2m above and 4m N (general) Upper Pumpkin Palace, I5, 139.9, Same elev., 5m at 200x Schist Canyon, SCC22, 134.8, .5m above, 2.5m at 30x The Pleiades and Star Chamber locations are in an essentially continuous paleolevel of the cave, and probably represent the same episode of folia development. The Upper Pumpkin Palace deposit may be related to those, but less clearly so. The Lower Pumpkin Palace deposit is clearly not from the same time as those above, and is probably younger. The Schist Canyon occurrence, although relatively close in elevation to three of those in Hurricane proper, is associated with modem streamflow having a higher gradient than the Star Chamber paleolevel, and is younger than any of the other occurrences. A proposal for the origin of folia In previous cases, it has been difficult to assess the relationship between folia and shelfstone because there was little overlap between either the morphologies of the two forms, or the circumstances of occurrence. Folia, with few exceptiO!J.S, were associated with present or former water table zones in hypogenic caves; shelfstone was associated with perched pools having stable levels established by fixed overflow points. In Hurricane Crawl Cave, we see an intermediate situation in which upwelling, calcite-rich streams have acted in some respects like water-table windows, but with less variability in level over short periods. The results have been deposits with properties intergrading between folia and shelfstone, confirming the close relationship between these speleothems. These deposits manifest as simple shelfstone when the controlling water surface is stable and when C02 degassing is insufficient to cause a surface scum, and/or rafts to develop. If the water surface is variable and a higher degassing rate generates scum, folia morphology results. I suggest the following scenario for folia growth. Folia begin as rudimentary welt-like shelves accreting along a fluctuating water margin (like depositional analogues of the series of faint waterlines that show where floodwaters have dropped). Soft scum attaches to these shelves, and as water level falls, a combination of gravity and surface tension causes downward deformation of the shelves. Rising water does not reverse this deformation, and an overhang develops that is able to trap bubbles, either of air or of degassed COr These bubbles remain trapped during at least part of the higher-water phase, preventing deposition on the underside of the gas-trapping rib, whereas deposition continues on the upper side and along the outer margins. This process, repeated with every up-and-down cycle of the water surface, accentuates development of the cupped, concentric folia forms. My proposal follows Green (1996) in recogmzmg the importance of degassing, and a role for gas trappfng, in calcite folia growth. However, I interpret folia as essentially a water-level phenomenon, not a profoundly subaqueous or phreatic one, and I consider thermal association unnecessary (though a high temperature gradient, where present, could enhance degassing). The Hurricane Crawl folia exemplify all of these points particularly well.

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Volume 40, Number 5 San Francisco Bay Chapter Newsletter Page 7 This mechanism is consistent with my own observations, and those of Green (1996), that folia may extend preferentially in particular directions. These rhythmic asymmetries suggest that currents of either air or water may concentrate accreting particles in certain areas, causing preferential growth. The SB survey folia zone, as noted above, fades out as it extends into Pumpkin Palace. This suggests that, at least in a well-ventilated cave, degassing is most intense immediately on first exposure of the C02-rich water to cave air, and decreases as the flow moves through the air-filled cave. This is confirmed by the occurrence of the active, small folia in the Schist Canyon section only at the precise point of stream emergence. In the case of calcite folia, chemical precipitation of CaC03 contributes to growth and solidifies the ribs. However, folia morphology can develop exclusively from accretion of particulate matter. This is shown by the occurrence in Cave of the Winds and the Orient Mine Caves (both in Colorado) of folia of soft clay on ceilings of mud-lined rooms (Davis, 1984). These evidently developed by accretion of clay suspended in muddy floodwater. Calcite crystallization could not have played any role in mud folia growth. Mud folia thus far observed are about an order of magnitude smaller than most calcite ones, suggesting that the scale may be determined by the size of accreting particles (suspended clay particles being presumably smaller than calcite scum particles and raft flakes). Green (1997) has stated that "what have been described as folia composed of mud have a different origin and appearance," but does not justify this conclusion. Except in scale (which is also quite variable in calcite folia), the calcite folia and mud folia I have seen are morphologically identical. Crystal Sequoia Cave: counter examples? I was also shown on April 5tb a small area on the ceiling near the back of Crystal Sequoia Cave where a few square feet are occupied by anomalous growths in patterns strongly suggesting folia. These include frondose coralloidal growths and a radiating spray of calcite crystals up to about an inch long. The site is apparently a remnant of deposition occurring when sedimentation had filled the lower levels of the cave, leaving the upper level flooded with calcite saturated water. The sediments have since been largely re excavated, leaving the calcite deposits in the ceiling. The context is reminiscent of the Star Chamber location in Hurricane Crawl. The crystalline growths in the pattern of folia are particularly puzzling, because well-formed crystals do not accrete from suspended particulate matter. They are the only such case I have seen, and the display (less than a foot across) is small enough that the resemblance to folia might be coincidental. It is also possible that earlier frondose folia were overgrown by later subaqueous crystal growth. This occurrence merits re-examination with this problem in mind. REFERENCES Davis, Donald G. (1984). Mysteries in mud: ancient frost crystal i.mpressions and other curiosities in Cave of the Winds, Colorado. Rocky Mtn. Caving, 1(3), pp. 26-29. Green, Dale J. (1996). The occurrence of folia in Hurricane Crawl Cave, Sequoia National Park, Tulare County, California. Unpublished report, March 3, 1996. 5 pp. Green, Dale J. (1997). The origin of folia (abs.) Journal of Cave and Karst Studies, 59(1), p. 60. Hill, Carol A. and Forti, Paolo (1986). Cave Minerals of the World. National Speleological Society, Huntsville, AL, 238 pp. Palmer, Arthur N., and Palmer, Margaret V. (1996). Geologic observations in Crystal Cave and Hurricane Crawl, July 30-31, 1996. Unpublished memorandum, August 22, 1996. 3 pp. LEARN Lechuguilla Expedition By: Donald Davis The expedition was successful, with about 5,978 feet surveyed, bringing Lechuguilla Cave to more than 90 miles. The mapping, however, was essentially mop-up of breakdown and maze in known areas, with no significant breakaway from the existing pattern. Some interesting geological and speleogenetic observations were made. Ron DeLano acted as camp manager, and Steve Koehler provided line plots for in-cave use. The expedition had been authorized to have 12 people, but four had cancelled, and only two replacements were found in time, so there were ten cavers divided into three teams. These and their survey results were as follows: Steve Koehler, Ron DeLano, Eirik Fowler: SW Branch, 2732' Tom Livingstone, Rob Mauceli, James Lawton, Chuck Cummings: SW Branch, 996' Dave Jones, Peter Basted, Donald Davis: Far West, 2250' The Southwestern teams worked in several areas including the Void complex, Land of Awes, High Hopes, and Deliverance Passage (finding no unsurveyed passage in the latter). I lack details of the activities in the SW Branch. The Land of Awes team noted that the Bitter Water Pool is now only about two feet long and two inches deep-down

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Page8 San Francisco Bay Chapter Newsletter May 1997 from 6 by 4 feet and 6 inches deep when it was discovered. At this rate it will disappear before long. The Far West team first (Apr. 271h) surveyed breakdown/ boneyard almost beneath the camp at EY95. Apr. 281h we devoted to doing climbing leads off EKC in the Beard Room area of the passage running W from the second pit in the Northwest Passage. The more easterly went only 30 feet; the more westerly went up more than 100 feet but eventually pinched. Apr. 291h we pushed theN boundary of the complex below the Jackpot area in the EMC survey vicinity, but found no significant new passage. Apr. 301h Dave Jones led a climb into a fissure directly above directional aragonite in the entrance to the Mirage Room. This turned out to connect to an earlier survey done by Jones, Lyle Moss et al. from an approach further into the room; fissure passage continues above but is tight and unpleasant. May 1" we ascended into Southern Climes and surveyed some boneyard below the Rock 'n Rillen Room, extending the EYKH survey, then rechecked Wahoo Pit/Romper Room without finding new extensions, and finally surveyed the unsurveyed segments of the Southern Climes rope route. May 200 we searched unsuccessfully along the N side of the Keel Haul/Long Haul branch, then mapped a minor maze underneath large rocks beneath the S side of the Long Haul near its rise into the Rainbow Room. Mll'ffiRALOGICAL OBSERVATIONS Several interesting mineralogical features were observed in and below the Rock 'n Rillen Room in Southern Climes. Near station EYKH14A is an overhang beneath which grows a display of apparent hydromagnesite trees up to two or more inches long. These resemble aragonite bushes in growth pattern, but are. thickened (up to 1/8 inch), chalky, nodular, and often twisted. Somewhat similar trees have been seen in the Far East in Boundary Waters. They are associated with krinkle blisters in both cases. They are interesting because hydromagnesite very rarely assumes tree-like forms. These new ones may shed light on the origin: this display also includes very fine aragonite needles, some of which are partly overgrown by hydromagnesite. The ones which appear to be pure hydromagnesite may have developed originally as aragonite needles which have been entirely overgrown by hydromagnesite. The nodular, curvy, twisting effect may result from irregular interstitial accumulation of fine-grained hydromagnesite deforming the original straight aragonite core. Dave Jones had earlier seen a very fine needle, several inches long, which he believes to be a selenite hair also partly overgrown by hydromagnesite. This is somewhere lower in the maze beneath the Rock 'n Rillen Room, and was not relocated on this trip. Since both minerals are evaporitic, this association, though unusual, seems feasible. A few yards in front of this display is a breakdown piece on the right end of which is a radiating two-inch hydromagnesite tree. At the base of this, and on the tree itself, are tiny lemon-yellow crystals, presumably tyuyamunite. Peter Bosted took photos to document all of these features. We also flagged them with red-and-white tape. Two feet from EYKH29 (mismarked EYKG29), in the maze below, is a floor patch about an inch wide of bright green material on gypsum. This may be another example of fluorapatite, the phosphate mineral originally seen in the Blanca Navidad Room. It could also be an unidentified chromium-rich substance identified by Harvey DuChene elsewhere in the cave--or something different. Our team also undertook to measure the actual length of the soda straw stalactite near the N wall of Huapache Highway at the top of the decorated area above the Oasis Pool. I had originally estimated that this might be more than 20 feet long. The measured length (by triangulation with Suunto compass) is almost exactly 17 feet. SPELEOGENETIC FEATURES In an alcove along the north side of the Keel Haul/Long Haul transition, from about stations R1B15-RIB18, Dave Jones recognized a notable speleogenetic feature: a pair of major horizontal solution undercuts, separated by three vertical feet, incised into the bedrock. In many caves, these could be assumed to be differential solution along bedding planes. Here, in the massive Capitan, there is no horizontal bedding, and it is clear that they were created by enhanced solution at a water level during enlargement of the cave. They are related to the "acid lake basins" previously noted in the Southwestern and Eastern Branches, but extend widely along the passage walls, not being limited to a restricted, localized hollow. The upper undercut appears to define the ceiling of about 30 feet of the inner part of the alcove, and two subsidiary passage segments associated with it. As the level is followed out into the main passage, the undercut diminishes to two to three feet or less. The level three feet below is less well developed. Further west in Keel Haul, near IBA 7 below the Rainbow Room ascent, are similar nips encircling the passage. These are at approximately the same elevation as those in the RIB survey, and may be another expression of the same aggressive water level, several hundred feet away. I also noted related smaller-scale features near EKC7 near the Beard Room along the passage complex W from the second pit in the Northwest Passage. These are much smaller incised water lines, no more than an inch high and deep. They are somewhat discontinuous and are little more

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Volume 40, Number 5 San Francisco Bay Chapter Newsletter Page9 than distinctly horizontal chains of the small wall pockmarks that characterize many Capitan bedrock walls. I believe that I have seen such small-scale incised waterlines elsewhere in the cave, but they are so subtle that they are often difficult to distinguish from illusions caused by random lineups of pockets. These waterlines, on both scales, are probably evidence of hydrogen sulfide oxidation at the water table during solution of the cave voids. LAKE LEVELS IN THE ENTRANCE SERIES, AND LAKE LOUISE While entering April 27rb, I recorded the levels of the first pool in the entrance passage, and of Lake Lechuguilla, reading the rulers put in by the Park. The first pool had risen several inches overnight, since Ron DeLano had recorded it. This was evidently in response to the steady rain of the previous two days. On our exit May 3"\ it was down 3/4 inch. Lake Lechuguilla, on the other hand, had dropped since it was last read. It dropped another 3/4 inch during the week we were in the cave. It is now only a remnant in the bottom of its basin. En route down into it, I looked closely at the system of cracks that crisscross the basin walls above the water. Some of these are outlined by 1/4-inch welts of moist, soft material that is apparently an evaporite deposit from evaporation of water seeping from behind the wall. This tends to confirm the speculation I had previously made: the reason that Lake Lechuguilla has declined since its discovery is probably that its basin's inner wall is a thin shell of calcite backed by a silt deposit. I surmise that greater temperature variations since the entrance was dug open have made cracks in the wall open and/or widen, allowing water to leak into the silt and to evaporate from the cracks. Thus the lake will probably never hold water as well as it did before the breakthrough into inner Lechuguilla. Fortunately, this particular vulnerability apparently does not apply to any other lake in the cave. We also read the level of Lake Louise, which had risen a fraction of an inch in the past year that had seen less use of it. It is encouraging to see that it does have some recharge and is not irreversibly lowering. Knot of the Month If you have any suggestions for a knot you would like to see featured please send them to Cindy Heazlit. This month's feature knot is the Figure Eight Follow Through knot.

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Page 10 San Francisco Bay Chapter Newsletter May 1997 SFBC Meeting Minutes Submitted by this year's secretary, Steve Ruble April Monthly Meeting Date: : April22"'\ 1997 Time :8:00PM to 10:00 PM Location: Telegen Co. Headquarters Redwood City Attendance 4 Grotto Officers, 32 members or guests, no watch dog this evening. Special topic None • Noted again is the very fine facilities with audio and video capabilities, for our monthly meetings. This month we utilized their closed circuit video system for the main program. Thanks again to Bonnie and Jessica for use of their conference room. • The program was a long video by Bonnie Crystal on the recent speleo expedition to Borneo. Great program, thanks. • Introductions were made, and for the 1" time in a long time, some exchange newsletters were available to the members during the meeting for their review, if interested. This should be a regular item from now on. Be sure to look for them at future meeting, and perhaps learn what other grotto's are doing. Announcements: • The executive meeting will include planning for the upcoming regional. Please attend if you have any concerns or can offer any help. • Dave Bunnell made mention of some Borneo books that he might have for sale. • Nothing from Ann Bosted this month. Upcoming trips; see the newsletter for details. After the break: • No corrections to previous minutes, No correspondences, the usual treasurer's report. • Old Business; Regional planning, and an update on the Gray Whale Ranch area plans. • New Business; CH recapped the forest service "fee for caving" proposals, minor discussion about the BOG ballet, and Lysa DeThomas reported that she could use some help at the up coming convention with the junior programs and trips. See her if you can assist her. Trip Reports • IT on the redwood canyon and Lilburn project, B.Frantz on Yucca Valley I Joshua tree area vertical practices. P.Frantz on the Lava beds field cabin possibilities. A.Bosted talked about Lost Soldiers. Glen Buchar told of the recent trip to Crystal Palace. M.Profitt told us about TTT. Everybody had extremely wonderful experiences and fun on their various caving trips. The next meeting will be the Exec Meeting, on the 2 ... Tuesday, with the next monthly meeting on the 4th Tuesday. May Executive Meeting Date: May 13th, 1997 Time 7:30PM to 9:00PM Location: Fresh Choice restaurant (in San Mateo) all you can eat salads etc. Attendance: Merrilee Proffitt (hair really getting longer) Cindy Heazlit Special topic Eric Goodill Steve Ruble Mark Scott Traci Slotterback JimLakner Western Regional, again. As noted, the primary discussions were about plans for the upcoming regional, currently scheduled for October 25-26th. The regional will be held at A very ranch in the motherload area of the state. Exact pricing and details should be printed in an upcoming monthly newsletter. We are still looking for volunteers for various functions and activities. so if you can help out. please contact anyone on the exec committee. It is getting to the point where people are going to be "assigned" various tasks and duties for the regional without them having to volunteer 1". (J.Tinsley will be assigned outhouse manager, because of his prior experience, B.Frantz will be assigned to provide and maintain the hot tub, A.Bosted will run the book sale, B.Ruble will run the equestrian rental shop) You get the idea... Please volunteer, we need the help! Correspondence: Nothing interesting to report. Meeting adjourned, and Merrillee had "strawberries" again for desert, (I think it's an addiction)

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f Volume 40, Number 5 San Francisco Bay Chapter Newsletter Page 11 SFBC General Information Newsletter: This newsletter is a monthly publication of the San Francisco Bay chapter (SFBC) of the National Speleological Society (NSS). Any material not specifically copyrighted may be reproduced by other Internal Organizations of the NSS without permission provided credit is given to SFBC and the author. Opinions expressed within this newsletter are not necessarily those of SFBC, its board members, or the NSS. The newsletter editor welcomes material for publishing including, cartoons, trip reports, clippings, drawings, photographs, letters to the editor, accident reports, etc. Hard copy, disks, e-mail, fax and phone calls are acceptable media. Please call to check for possible format problems with machine readable text. Black and white photographs are preferable; color photos are acceptable. Deadline for submission is the Friday after the executive meeting. Dues/Membership: Dues are due January 1. Checks may be made payable to SFBC/NSS, PO Box 2282, Menlo Park, CA 94026 or can be delivered directly to the treasurer at the meeting. Price for annual membership is as follows: Regular Membership: $20.00; Family Membership: $8.00; Subscription Only: $12.00 Membership is open to anyone. However, in complying with the NSS rules governing Internal Organizations, only members of the NSS and this Internal Organization. have voting rights. Waivers: Waivers must be signed by all persons participating in SFBC Activities. Waivers are required for each SFBC activity. Forms are available at all chapter meetings and vertical practices-Trip leaders reserve the right to limit participation on their trips based on number of participants or individual qualifications. Executive Meetings: Executive meetings are held on the second Tuesday of each month at 7pm at the "Fresh Choice" restaurant in San Mateo. Anyone is invited to share a meal and swap stories with us, but only the elected officers can vote on grotto issues. "Fresh Choice" is located in a shopping center just South of Hi 92 on the West side of El Camino in San Mateo. From 92, exit South (from either direction) and take the 1 right turn into the shopping center driveway. Can't miss the restaurant. Chapter Meetings: Meetings are held on the fourth Tuesday of each month, (Note: This is not necessarily the last Tuesday of the month) at 8:00PM SHARP. Location: TELEGEN Building, 101 Saginaw, Redwood City, CA. Directions: From Highway 101, Exit Seaport Blvd. (same exit as Woodside Rd) and follow signs to Seaport Blvd. (towards the Bay). Turn left onto Chesapeake (signal light with the blue boat ramp sign). Turn left onto Saginaw_(in sight of a big mountain of salt), and left again into the first driveway on Saginaw. Turn immediately right, follow the parking area around the building and park to the west side. The TELEGEN building (101-199 Saginaw) is tan with a rust-colored angular facade. Enter the building through the front entrance with "1 01" above the door. Volunteers: Librarian: Jim Lakner (408) 738-2939 LAKNERJ @vncpo1.ne.ge.com Equipment Managers/Store Keepers Gail McCoy and Tom Mathey (408) 865-1763 Board Members: Chair: Merrilee Proffitt (510) 339-7483 mproffit@library.berkeley.edu Vice Chair: Cindy Heazlit ( 408) 448-8857 cheazlit@ix.netcom.com (home) cindy.heazlit@lmco.com (work) Secretary: Steve Ruble (415) 692-0477 sruble@ix.netcom.com Treasurer: Eric Goodill (415) 323-0976 ericg@cisco.com Newsletter Editor: Mark Scott (415) 497-4321 (home) (415) 725-3318 (work) (415) 725-3377 (fax) miscott@ leland.stanford.edu

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Page 12 May 22..t Letter Writing Party protesting Forest Service Cave Fees 7pm at Merrilee's house Contact: Merrilee Proffitt (see Exec list of addresses for #'s) 24-26"' Church Cave Project Contact: Dave Engel (714) 637-3171 dengel @earthlink.net 24-26"' NW Regional in Idaho See February's newsletter for details 24-26"' CRF Lilburn and Lava Beds Projects Contact: John Tinsley (415) 327-2368 jtinsley@isdmnl. wr.usgs.gov 23-1" Eastern Nevada Trip Contact: Daniel Snyder See April's newsletter for details (408)-421-0430 snydhaye@scruznet.com 27"' Monthly Meeting 8pm at Telegen San Francisco Bay Chapter National Speleological Society P0Box2282 Menlo Park, CA 94026 San Francisco Bay Chapter Newsletter June 7 -8"' WRTC Self Rescue Curriculum Development Meeting at New Melones Contact: Cindy Heazlit (see Exec list) 10"' Executive Meeting 7pm at Fresh Choice 14-21" NCRC in Kentucky Contact: Peri Frantz (408) 356-8506 or apfrantz@apple.com 14-15"' Greenhorn Cave Contact: Merrilee Proffitt (see Exec list) 14-15"' Church Cave Contact: Dave Engel (as above) 21" Vertical Practice Contact: Cindy Heazlit (see Exec list) 22-27"' NSS Convention See your NSS News for details 24"' Monthly Meeting 8pm at Telegen FIRST CLASS Mark Conover 10721 Wunderlich Dr Cupertino, CA 95014 May 1997 July 4-6"' CRF Lilburn Project Contact: Bill Frantz (408) 356-8506 or frantz@netcom.com 4-6"' KMCTF Marbles Project Contact: Bonnie Crystal (415) 358-9524 or BXTALI @aol.com 8"' Executive Meeting 7pm at Fresh Choice 12"' Euro-rigging Vertical Practice Contact: Cindy Heazlit (see Exec list) 19-20"' Millerton Lakes Contact: Eric Miles (415) 988-9497 or emiles@seagull.com 19-20"' Church Cave Project Contact: Dave Engel (as above) 22"" Monthly Meeting 8pm at Telegen 26-27"' CRF Lilburn Project Contact: John Tinsley (as above) R97

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]l s f b c newsletter In this Issue: Lilburn Memorial Day Trip Report Knot of the Month Regional Information The Sleeping Stalactite A Monster Fall on the Monster Hike to Monster Cave Caving Trip Info Sheet Update Project The Urge to go Spelunking Explained San Francisco Bay Chapter National Speleological Society Volume 40, Number 6 June 1997 Cover Photo by: Ann and Peter Bosted, featuring Ann Bosted in the mud caves in Anza Borego State Park in Southern California.

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,. Page2 San Francisco Bay Chapter Newsletter June 1997 Program Announcement This month's program will be a video on ice caving entitled Mountains of Glass. Since a good part of the Executive meeting will be off having fun (or maybe not during the actual COG) at the convention the meeting will be ably run by the Vice-Chair Cindy Heazlit. Memorial Day Weekend at Lilburn Cave and the Redwood Canyon Karst By John Tinsley Twenty joint-venturers and three up and corning caverkids attended The Cave Research Foundation expedition to Lilburn Cave, nominally coordinated by Bill Farr and John Tinsley. The long weekend was extremely productive with more than 245 volunteer hours logged among activities ranging from sedimentology, cartography, cave restoration and hydrology to maintenance of the field station, replacing shingles damaged by legions of aggressive woodpeckers, repairing the water supply reservoir, piping, and filtration system, installation of a new communications/radio electronics and 600+ feet of direct-burial cable connecting the in-cave dataline to the field station. And that was just on Friday evening. Not exactly. The weekend started with a Herculean performance by Jeff Cheraz and his friend, John Benson, a new N. They hiked into Redwood Canyon bearing not only their packs laden with caving gear and a new toolbox, but also bringing along a spool of direct-burial shielded multi conductor cable weighing about 100 lbs including the pole used for the transportation aid. Jeff had procured the cable through his professional contacts as an electrician. The cable's arrival clears the way for the completion of the new data and communications lines now being installed in the cave, replacing the deteriorated phone wire installed more than 25 years ago. The spool will make a fine fireside table or kindling when we tire of it being in the way of life in the field station. In a weak imitation of Jeff and John's action, Mark Scott and John Tinsley packed in a 55-gallon drum that Jeff had procured and left in the back of his truck, along with a length of electrical conduit to use as a bearing pole. Jeff had wired the barrel to the pole, and covered the wire with duct tape, so Tinsley and Scott really had no excuse for not bringing the barrel along. The load looked impressive, but in total it weighed about 10 pounds. The new barrel will augment the existing water supply for the field station, replacing a barrel with a seam split open by the rigors of a freezing winter a year ago. The cartographic effort made steady progress as quadrangle and lead-checking continued under the direction of Brad Hacker and Carol Vesely. Carol Vesely, i -..;J Roger Mortimer, Andrew Todhunter (new N), and Art Fortini surveyed and checked leads between the Schreiber Complex and the Impossible Dream in the central sector of Lilburn Cave. A total of 81 feet of new passage was surveyed (JN survey, connnecting into known passage at JI-6. A passage remains to be surveyed there, and Roger Mortimer knows where it is. On Sunday, Vesely, Todhunter, Cheraz, and Scott checked climbing leads in the Attic above the pit that drops into the Hexadendron Room. Two new leads each about 50 feet apart were located, and connected upward to passages containing footprints and survey stations. Jeff Cheraz, Brad Hacker, and Mark Scott sojourned to River Pit A venue, thence to the junction where one departs for the Z-Room and Thanksgiving Hall (station 801). Ten stations were surveyed, tying into known passage that is on the map. Brad incurred a near-miss when a suite of boulders decided to come loose, and brushed him aside while passing his position. Slightly shaken, they exited the cave. Lynne Jesaitis, Merrilee Proffitt, and John Benson went to the area above the Z-Room and located much passage that appeared to be virgin. Nearby were Hedlund survey stations, but none were numbered, and the Hedlund survey documentation (unbeknownst to the surveyors) was available in the field station. This area "will yield solid footage on future trips when the party is equipped with the Ellis Hedlund survey data to locate and number the stations, and tie the new survey into the cave. Roger Mortimer, John Benson, and Merrilee Proffitt surveyed off Curl Passage from BPS; the passage led nowhere exciting, but curiously had conspicuous air flow throughout. Twelve stations were set and about 90 feet of survey was netted. A productive trip. Phone line installation and maintenance was engaged in by many folks under the direction of Howard Hurtt. About 600 feet of direct-burial cable was buried between the Field Station and Meyer Entrance, with most of the expedition taking part at one time or another. The lion's share of the labor was supplied by Hurtt, Mary Ann Russo, Boris Galitsky, John Benson, and Jan Hubner, with assists from Tinsley, Art Fortini, Lynne Jesaitis, Jan Hubner, Mark Scott, and Cheryl Smith. Paul and Cindy Heazlit went to check the in-cave phone line integrity. Another trip will be required to complete that testing, and to install the new phone drops. John Tinsley and Boris Galitsky walked the karst to note any unusual sinkhole activity in result of the heavy winter runoff. Two intriguing leads were found, both above the putative Great North Cave, and cartographic talent was diverted on Sunday to push these new developments. i t

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;Volume 40, Number 6 San FranWoo Bay Cba\r No-tte< Page3 Neither panned out as totally going cave, but both retain high potential with some further work. Mark Scott climbed the tree and inspected the solar collector panels, finding them clean. The branch of the tree that shades the panels for a couple of hours each day during prime time is about 20 feet higher up the tree and is well out of reach. Trimming it might be difficult without dropping it onto the panel array, so we will probably just accept the shade penalty, at least for now. Bill Parr, ably assisted by Brian Christopher Parr and others, repaired the water line and installed a new filter on the intake tube. Boris Galitsky and John Tinsley led the peeker repair contingent. Actually it isn't what you may be thinking or hoping for. Woodpeckers have discovered the field station, and have pecked numerous holes through three layers of shingles, tarpaper, and 1/2-inch plywood sheathing thereby letting light into the cabin. Perhaps the 'peekers just like the attractive hollow sound of the cabin. But we wish they would ply their trade elsewhere. We have run through 1.5 bundles of shingles since the action got hot about two years ago. Additional shingles will need to be procured and transported to the cabin as a reserve against further damage. Hurtt and Tinsley replaced the broken glass pane in the lower 113 of the window next to the stove. Howard also brought in a spare piece of glass, in case there is a next time. Howard repaired the communications module and radio. Tinsley took measurements of the loft-shelf preparatory to fabricating a face frame for the new storage facility being planned by Mike Spiess. Bill Frantz and Marianne Russo conducted a restoration trip to an area located under the Jefferson Memorial. Here, a flowstone floor has been tracked with mud and dirt. Restoring this area will require several trips to clean; likely some etching with acid solutions may be required to release the worst of the detritus from parts of its flowstone carapace. In summary, the Memorial Day expedition was highly productive and sustained progress on all fronts. Future CRF trips: The expedition scheduled on June 21 weekend is to be led by Jack Hess and will be dedicated to the hydrology project. Bill Frantz will lead the July 4th expedition, which is the next scheduled CRF expedition to Redwood Canyon. Cabin supplies needed are few, but include a 3pack of paper towels and two 4-packs of toilet paper. Some quicklime for the outhouse would be also helpful. If it didn't happen last expedition, measurements should be taken for new fixed ladders inside the old entrance, as those anchors and floor-attachments are aged to the point of structural failure. Phone-drop equipment and potting compound are also required. Bill Parr is planning to dive, probably at Big Spring. A bundle or two of shingles needs to make it down the hill. A pack train is being thought of to get additional cement to the cabin to stabilize the foundation conditions for the ladders . near the Lilburn entrance. Mules of all types are being sought, and note that Boris Galitsky will have moved back east to Rutgers University to pursue his post-doc in artificial intelligence, so we won't have Boris to fall back on for heavy packing. There also may be some components constructed for the mouse-proof storage facility, assuming Tinsley and Spiess get the old act together and get the stuff built. The Sleeping Stalactite By: Julian Todd (of the Ex-Cambridge Speleological Society) Last night I had a dream, and in this dream I knew a woman who owned some private land up on the hillside with a little cave in it. I was very interested in this cave, and over the years I pestered her and pestered her until one fine day she provisionally agreed to take me there and show me around. Now this woman had some strange ideas about caving and, in spite of taking everything a little too personally at times, she didn't really know her way around. So when I followed her down past the entrance chamber, which was grand and very barren in an artistic sort of manner, we got lost. Now I would say I've enjoyed going down a few caves in my time. Some are hard, and some are easy, and in some you risk falling a long way if you make a wrong move, but almost always it's a sociable occasion; as a team you balk at the difficult bits, run through the easy bits, and help each other up the tough climbs. This woman didn't share that sort of attitude. For example, I would be sliding headfirst down into a hole with mud at the bottom, get a face full of the stuff and then have to crush and wiggle my body round an unbelievably tight corner with water running down my neck. I'd naturally curse and swear at it as I went through and at the other side this woman would be saying things like: "I can tell you're not liking it, do you want to turn back?" I'd say, "No." And she'd say, "It doesn't sound like you want to be here. Wouldn't you rather be outside on the surface drinking cups of tea instead?" "Absolutely not," I'd reply, and then I'd stand up in the chamber and see the most amazing sights ahead of in the dim flicker of my light. It would leave me speechless. This woman would then lead me on into another even more difficult bit, and after slightly more of my usual cursing and swearing that I do when I am undergoing a certain amount of pain, I soon learned that it was better to bite my tongue and keep quiet, than have to say, "No, I don't want you to take me back out, I really really am enjoying it," all the time.

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Page4 San Francisco Bay Chapter Newsletter June 1997 After a while this change in procedure got the better of my mood and I was more grim-faced and broody than I usually am in the situation. Finally things got really hard and I found myself crawling into a duck with not a lot of airspace at the top. The water was extremely cold and her movements in the puddle beyond send waves crashing over my face and nearly drowned me. I got through and shouted, "Jesus Christ, I only just got out of that one alive!" "Well, don't blame me," she said testily. "You're the one who insisted on coming this far!" "I'm not blaming you. I've just been through a very difficult section; I'm allowed to whinge about it. Sometimes," I said, "I don't think you've really got the idea of this whole thing. I mean, this is an excellent cave. I really do love it. So what if there are some difficult bits. I wouldn't have it any other way. Without them you would have nothing but a dull dark hole even a school kid could go into. As it is, it's got a whole lot of character, and I really appreciate it." This woman didn't say a word. The just looked at me with a seedy expression. I said, "Well, if you'll excuse me I'll just carry on a bit further." I went round the next corner and saw a sight of such splendour I had not dreamed could have existed before. Bright formations were stacked up on top of each other to the ceiling on like melons on an overblown fruit stall. There were waterfalls, and stalactites and crystalline minerals growing like cabbages off the floor. Unfortunately in the way was a deep dark hole. And then my light went out. I scrambled back down the passage behind me and met her again, me with my now dead light. She said with a note of apology, "It had to happen eventually. It was never destined to last." "What are you talking about?" I cried. "This light could have gone on another six hours if I'd charged properly. And I would still be going on if I had remembered to bring a backup light. The fact that it has gone out now is irrelevant. It has no meaning." Her blue eyes stared and burnt holes through my imagination, and she said something, but I couldn't hear it because my dream world started to clear away like smoke from a firecracker. I could not hold onto it for one moment longer, and I was rapidly left alone, lying in my bed at 5:30am. One side of me said comfortingly, "Don't worry, it's only a dream." But the other, more canny side said, "It's a dream: everything in it is significant." A Monster Fall on the Monster Hike to Monster Cave By Jed Mosenfelder (submitted to the SAGA caving newsletter, 11/6/97) I first heard about Monsterhoehle from Bill Farr, who had visited in the late 80's. The first thing he said to me about the cave was: " you won't believe the hike, they don't make trails in Austria quite the same way they do in America." Of course, I didn't believe him and forgot all about it. After all, how could any hike possibly matter in comparison to rapelling in waterfalls, crawling on your belly through tight passages floored by ice, bivying in your wet underwear at 1 C, and being force-fed chunks of meat and "stale" German bread while dreaming about eating hot Ramen noodles (his words, I rather like German food!). I was invited to go on the May expedition by Michael Denebourg from Aachen. On Friday night I met up with Michael, another German caver named Siegmar, and Hillary, another expatriate American. On saturday, excited to see my first serious cave in Europe, we set off on the trail after a quick visit to Lamprechstofen (a famous showcave, actually the second deepest cave in the world). Everything went fine up to where the first rock traverses started (at about 2000m elevation), although my shoulders were hurting from a poorly balanced pack. As I started a short traverse across a snow patch, I neglected to put my ice axe in before stepping out onto the slope. Whoops! Big mistake. Before I knew it I was sliding down, facing forward, and could not react fast enough to self arrest. I was so surprised to be falling that I didn't think about the seriousness of the situation until just before I stopped, about 30 meters down the hillside. The first thing I thought was, "hmm, maybe I'll take the day off from caving tomorrow." After the initial shock wore off and reality set in, I realized how lucky I was to be alive, since I could have easily gone another several hundred meters if I had tumbled down in a slightly different direction. My fall was arrested by jamming into a small chimney, which was taking water from the snowmelt. Not wanting to become hypothermic, I decided I had better see if I could move. So I stood up and found to my relief that my leg was not broken, although my knee was hurting. I didn't hear much from my companions and assumed they were having problems with me, so I started climbing up (it was about fourth class broken rock). After a few painstaking meters, I suddenly heard a call from Michael, the equivalent of "rock!", and it was a good thing he warned me since I was able to duck mostly out of the way of a rather large boulder that came hurtling straight in my direction! Whew. After another few meters of climbing I saw that Siegmar had fixed a rope and was rapelling down. He helped me climb up and it was

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Volume 40, Number 6 San Francisco Bay Chapter Newsletter Page 5 reassuring to be tethered to his jumar on the rope. At this point I was in a fair amount of pain and realized that in my condition it was going to be a very long hike to the cave, normally another half hour or hour from this point. Siegmar egged me on and we were able to traverse another 20 or 30 meters, then they decided to call a helicopter using the mobile telephone which Hillary had conveniently brought with him. The heli arrived surprisingly quickly, and lowered a stretcher and two handlers. Because a heavy fog was settling in, we were not able to fly all the way down the mountain but only across to a cabin at about the same altitude, where they patched me up a bit and then sent me down the hill in a tram (kind of like a ski-lift), which was even more exciting than getting picked off by the helicopter. A short while later, after trying to explain to numerous paramedics why ich spreche nicht sehr gut Deutsch even though my last name is Bavarian in origin, I finally arrived in the hospital. They x-rayed and stitched me up, shot me up with morphine and sent me to bed. I came out of the experience with minimal wounds, just a broken nose and some bad bruises and lacerations on my forehead and right leg. The worst part of the week by far was staying four days in the hospital in Zell Am See, being mostly ignored by the doctors and listening to three Austrian guys in my room snore and speak their rather heavy dialect. I really could barely tell the difference between der Schnarchen und der Sprechen not very helpful when you are just beginning to learn Deutsch! But I learned to say "Servus" with a proper Austrian accent, so i guess the week was not a complete loss. I was pretty disappointed to get so close to the cave and fail, but pretty happy to be alive after all. And also relieved now that I will recover well ahead of time for more caving later in the summer. LEARN (Lechuguilla Exploration And Research Network) 1997 Conservation I Restoration Trips Many of you are probably aware of the Lechuguilla research projects and may be interested in participating in such endeavours. The following is an announcement by Roland Vinyard for the upcoming conservation and restoration trips that are scheduled for later this year. If you are interested in participating in these sorts of projects you must contact Roland ASAP since the process of completing all the required caving skills resumes and obtaining sponsoring LEARN members to qualify for participation in the project takes a fair amount of time. Roland's email address is rvinyard@juno.com, if you need other contact information or other information about this project please contact Mark Scott. LEARN will run two trips into Lechuguilla Cave in 1997 for the purposes of restoration and conservation. These are in addition to our normal survey and exploration trips. Application to and selection for the Restoration trips will not affect or be affected by your status on survey trips, but the same vertical and other caving skills that are required for exploration will be needed for these trips as well. Like last year, we will be working in the Western Borehole and the Eastern sections. As is usual for LEARN expeditions, we will be staying in the cave for several days at a time and will be expected to remove at least 2 quarts of urine each time we exit. It goes without saying that all solid wastes are removed. The Park has requested that all cavers arrive in the area18 hours before entering the cave and we will have a long orientation by Park staff Saturday morning before trips begin. Photography for 1997 has been forbidden unless prior approval has been given. The Park has expressed an interest in having some before and after shots, so check with me or the Park before bringing your cameras in. Our work will not be very glamorous and will be tedious at times, but you will have a great deal of satisfaction over making a great cave a little better for your efforts. And, it is Lechuguillaall trips are great! The Urge to go Spelunking Explained Posted by Donald Davis on the Caver's Digest mailing list and submitted by Eric Goodill To Hazel Barton, British visitor to Denver, we owe the following information, which she chanced upon when querying a computer medical database for the word "spelunking." In Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 37:3, (1989), pp. 727-735, is the paper "Spelunking as a Manifestation of a Counterclaustrophobia," by Wayne A. Myers, M.D. The abstract follows: Material is presented from the case history of a patient whose interest in spelunking (cave exploration) was found to be an unconscious expression of a type of counterclaustrophobia. Both oedipal and preoedipal determinants of the claustrophobic anxieties are delineated. Of particular note in this instance is the testicular element in the genesis of the patient's claustrophobia. His confusion of the movements of his testicles into his inguinal canals during childhooddefecation with the movements of the feces themselves lent an especial intensity to his fear of being flushed away from the mother by an expulsive anal birth from the claustrum. Childhood anxiety aroused when his testicles would become trapped in the inguinal canals was an important forerunner of the adult fear of being trapped in confined spaces. A counterphobic element of the spelunking per se was his enjoyment in hanging suspended by a rope in caves. In this manner, he was able to act out (by virtue of his body-

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Page6 San Francisco Bay Chapter Newsletter June 1997 testicle equation) his identification with, and control over, the disappearing testicles in the setting of a claustrophilic union with the mother. Some highlights from the text: "Mr. A. was a thirty-seven-year-old single man, who came to me because of an anxiety attack while spelunking. He had often descended into caves before, but this time had lost his footing and fallen into space. While swinging wildly on his safety rope, he felt terror and was only barely able to pull himself up to safety. "His mother had become depressed when he was five, after his eight-yearold brother had fallen to his death down an elevator shaft. The mother was never the same thereafter. .. .ln adolescence, he gave up trying to soothe her and became passionately involved in spelunking .... " .... Mr. A's thoughts went to having spoken with his girlfriend about joining him on a cave trip, his first one since the attack. He said he had not mentioned it to me, as he felt I would object because spelunking was not something nice Jewish boys did .... " ... When I asked about the walls closing in on him [in a dream], he noted: 'At least I you have a chance to run for it, it's not so bad ... Being trapped is the worst thing. You have no control.. .it's like what used to happen to my testicles as a kid. They'd go up the cord in my groin, just like the rope I'm always swinging on in my dreams, and I'd have to wait for them to come down. Half the time I didn't know if they were dropping down in the bowl and would be flushed away or if they were mired in shit there. It was a nightmare ... .' " .... He became aware of further childhood memories of his testicles moving into the unguinal canal when he moved his bowels. He realized that part of his interest in spelunking, especially the descents on ropes, came from his confusion of his feces, his testicles and his dead brother, and from his wishes to regulate the ascent of his testicles into the canals and the descent of his feces into the toilet bowl. He also came to recognize that part of his anxiety in caves derived from the fear that he would be flushed down the toilet by the rejecting mother .... " .... the treatment was terminated prematurely. I should note here that Mr. A. regained his avid interest in spelunking." In his review of the literature, the analyst comments: "Asch sees a projection and displacement of the ambivalently perceived maternal object onto the enclosing space, and wonders if this is the origin of the symbol of the cave as first object. He notes that when the anxiety in claustrophobia is libidinized, the tension becomes an aim in itself and may give rise to spelunking as a pursuit. This case supports that view." Dr. Myers concludes: " .. .it seems clear that Mr. A.'s interest in spelunking is related both to his claustrophilic wish to be reunited with the mother (loved dead brother) cave and his counterphobic denial of his claustrophobic fears about entering into, and remaining within, the cave mother (feared dead brother). " ... .In spelunking, Mr. A. especially enjoyed hanging suspended by a rope (a variant of the inguinal and umbilical cords) in the air in a dark cave. In so doing, he became the mobile testicles, the fetus, the phallus, and the resurrected dead brother in utero--all riding up in the inguinal canal in a manner he could now control by pulling himself down to safety at will, a form of identification with the aggressor. "The patient's childhood understanding of the connection of the spermproducing function of the testicles and the issue of procreation helped to link separation and castration issues in his mind. Spelunking thus served a multiply determined counterphobic purpose for Mr. A. and helped him to deny anxieties from a variety of psychosexual and ego-developmental levels." No, the above account is NOT an [intentional] joke! It was evidently written in dead earnest (the author is identified as "Clinical Professor of Psychiatry, Cornell University Medical Center; Training and Supervising Analyst, Columbia University Center for Psychoanalytic Training and Research"). The proposed mechanism would presumably not account for female cases of spelunking. Caving Trip Information Sheets Update Project by Eric Goodill Your executive board decided it was time to update the information in the caving trip information sheets--you know, those sheets that you pick up when you sign up for an SFBC-led caving trip. Anyway, being new to the board and not knowing any better, I volunteered (nope, never been in the Army) to take on the project. I've gotten as far as scanning all the info sheets I could find into a computer, and I now have them in electronic format. Now I just need to update the information if needed. So, over the next several months, if you look at one of these sheets and find an error, omission, or want to add some useful information, please let me know. Probably the easiest way is to mark up one of the sheets and give it

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Volume 40, Number 6 San Francisco Bay Chapter Newsletter Page7 to me at the grotto meeting, but any method of communication will do. This project will be the most successful if you help, so please help. Forest Service Letter Writing Update By: Merrilee Proffitt I am happy to report that we had 20 letters submitted in our drive and that the winners of the posters donated by Ann Bosted were Glenn Butcher and slightly ironically Ann Bosted. Many thanks to all, especially Ann who gave the prize and moved things along. Western Regional Information Update By: Lynn Van Erden This article summarizes the plans for the 1997 Western Regional as they are being firmed up. Since our grotto is hosting the event this year, you should make an extra effort to attend or even volunteer to help. As you will read below, this will be a fun weekend filled with a variety of cave related actiVIties, fellowship, food and opportunities to just hang out and relax. The Regional is Friday-Sunday, October 24-26th. Other than kicking back around a campfire Friday evening, the activities are concentrated on Saturday and Sunday. The location is A very Ranch, which is on a beautiful site back in the boons on Camp Nine Road near Columbia at an elevation of about 2400 feet. Arrival time is anytime after noon on Friday (any volunteers for graveyard shift registration?). Driving time is 2-3 hours from the Bay Area. Bring your tent for the large meadow on the site which will serve as the camping area. Bathrooms, water and fairly limited shower facilities will be available to campers. Evenings may be chilly, so bring some warm clothing. For those who would like a soft bed and a roof over their head, there are a few cabins available for rent. Contact A very Ranch directly before they are taken (209)533-2851 or (415)-752-6434. Saturday activities will tentatively include a program on the NCRC and self rescue, a discussion on the Access Fund and bolting issues, the Western Region business meeting, and cave exploration presentations. Saturday evening entertainment will include an auction (Ron Long we're trying to sign you up as auctioneer ... ) and a special appearance by the world renowned Dancing Cave Pearls. You should bring interesting, unique or weird cave related items to donate to the auction (no formations please). Cave junk is okay too. Sunday will mostly be devoted to cave trips. There are a number of fun caves located within a short drive. Some of the caves that may be visited are Heater, Grapevine Gulch caves, Pinnacle Point, the Rock Pile, and Crystal Palace. These caves are fairly warm and come in both horizontal and vertical varieties so bring the appropriate gear. Additional trip leaders are being sought. Also tentatively scheduled for Sunday is a sketching workshop for those interested in learning this aspect of keeping cave survey book. Remember the beautiful quilt made from a collection of caving tee-shirts that was displayed at the grotto meeting several months ago? You now have an opportunity to own this one-of-kind, hand-made item. Raffle tickets for the quilt will be sold during the weekend with the proceeds going towards rescue gear for the Western Region. Also, for those of you interested in expanding your collection of caving tee-shirts (maybe to make a quilt of your own some day), a tee-shirt commemorating the weekend will be available. As has been recounted at many grotto trip reports on the annual New Year's visit, Avery Ranch serves fantastic and hearty food in abundant quantities. One special advantage of this Regional's location is the availability of an A very Ranch food package. This food option includes five meals: breakfast, lunch and a barbecue dinner on Saturday and breakfast and a box lunch on Sunday. The box lunch may be taken along on caving trips, on the road home or eaten on site. Vegetarian meals or other food restrictions can be readily accommodated provided they are requested during the registration process. Of course, those who do not desire to take part in this food package are welcome to prepare their own camping meals. A mailer with complete registration information and travel instructions will be mailed to each member of the Region in mid-July. The basic registration, which includes camping, will be $5 per person. The price for the optional food package is not finalized. It is expected to be approximately $30 per person with kids 7-12 at half price and kids 0-6 free. Tim and Tracie Slottenback have volunteered to be the registration contacts. Merrilee Proffitt is acting as the central point of contact for organizing the Regional. You should contact her if you can volunteer to help. Also, if you have additional questions you may contact her, other grotto officers or myself. It looks to be an enjoyable and memorable event. Mark your calendars now.

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Page 8 San Francisco Bay Chapter Newsletter June 1997 Gray Whale Ranch Update and Request for Comments Lysa DeThomas has provided a copy of the Gray Whale Ranch Interim Use Plan that includes a request for comment from the public concerning the proposed opening of the Gray Whale Ranch property to the public as a park area including the proposals for the management of the caves (notably IXL a.k.a. Hellhole) on the property. Comments should be directed to Robert Ueltzen, Northern Service Center, California Department of Parks and Recreation, 1725 23rd Street, Suite 200, Sacramento, CA 95816. (916) 323-0975. For more information on the status of the ranch and caves contact Lysa DeThomas at dethomas@cruzio.com or (408) 479-4023 (voicemail) or (408) 454-9881 (home good before Sam or after 9pm) or contact one of the Executive Committee members. Excerpts from the report that deal with the caves follow: "Beginning July 13th 1997, allow hiking, etc. IXL Cave will be open only by special permit" "Townsend's big-eared bats, Doloff cave spiders, Empire Cave pseudoscorpions, and Mackenzie's cave amphipods are found in the four limestone caves in the Cave Gulch." 'There are four limestone caves in Cave Gulch. The IXL Cave will be gated and access limited to docent-guided tours or by District-issued permit. The other cavers will be monitored; visible evidence of resource degradation or loss will lead to similar restrictions on the other caves." "Close IXL Cave to public use except for guided tours or persons with District-issued permit. A metal gate with openings to allow Townsend's big-ear bat passage will be installed." "Open caves will be monitored by department staff. If resource degradation or impacts to the sensitive faunal populations is evident, these caves will be closed with the same restriction as the IXL Cave." "IXL Cave will be closed to the public except with a permit or guided tour. Permits will be available from the DPR District Office in Santa Cruz. The remaining caves will be monitored for public safety concerns and resource protection. The permit and/or guided tour system will be discontinued and the caves will be entirely closed to public access if conditions warrant this action." "Search and rescue of the IXL (Hell Hole) Cave should be guided or led by personnel who are familiar with the cave." Financial Summaries April Open Income: Auction Dues Hardhat Total Expenses Misc. Newsletter postage Newsletter print Total Income Less Expenses Close May Open Income: Total Submitted by: Eric Goodill, Treasurer Hardhat 414.15 29.14 29.14 29.14 443.29 Hardhat 443.29 Operating 2703.06 149.00 332.00 481.00 20.46 64.00 106.24 190.70 290.30 2993.36 Operating 2993.36 Reserve 806.88 806.88 Reserve 806.88 Equipment 268.52 268.52 Equipment 268.52 Total 4192.61 149.00 332.00 29.14 510.14 20.46 64.00 106.24 190.70 319.44 4512.05 Total 4512.05 0.00

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Volume 40, Number 6 Expenses Newsletter postage Newsletter print Total Income Less Expenses Close San Francisco Bay Chapter Newsletter 443.29 28.80 58.45 87.25 -87.25 2906.11 806.88 Knot of the Month 268.52 If you have any suggestions for a knot you would like to see featured please send them to Cindy Heazlit. This month's feature knot is the Bowline. This knot must always be tied off with a finishing knot! Page9 28.80 58.45 87.25 -87.25 4424.80

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Page 10 San Francisco Bay Chapter Newsletter June 1997 SFBC Meeting Minutes Submitted by this month's secretary, Steve Ruble May Monthly meeting Date: Time Location May 27, 1997 8:00PM to 10:00 PM Te1egen Co. Headquarters Redwood City Attendance 4 Grotto Officers, ? members or guests, no dog noticed by me. Special topic None • Noted again is the very fine facilities with audio and video capabilities, for our monthly meetings. This month we only utilized their slide projector for the main program. Thanks again to Bonnie and Jessica for use of their conference room. • The program was a series of slides by Dave Bunnell, Bill Frantz and Djuna Bewley on the recent speleo expedition to Borneo. Great program, thanks. • Introductions were made, sign in sheet and hard hat were passed around. • Merrillee discussed the letter writing project for the forest service. Prizes will be awarded based on drawing of the included letters. • The exec committee still need some more volunteers for help for the up coming regional. Announcements: • None this month. (Ann is out of town) Upcoming trips; see the newsletter for details. Knot of the month, fun for all ... After the break: • Old Business; Regional planning, and an update on the gray whale ranch area plans. • New Business; a question was raised about potential BOG issues. None noted yet. Trip Reports • Various reports on Lilburn, Grapevine, Lyceum, and a regional in Idaho. Sounds great. The next meeting will be the Exec Meeting, on the 2nd Tuesday, with the next monthly meeting on the 4th Tuesday. June Executive meeting Date: June 10, 1997 Time 7:12PM to 9:08PM Location Fresh Choice restaurant (in San Mateo) all you can eat salads etc. Attendance Merrilee Proffitt (length of hair no longer an issue), Cindy Heazlit, Eric Goodill, Steve Ruble, Mark Scott, Bill and Peri Frantz, Lynn Van Erden, Jim Lakner Special topic Western Regional. As noted, the primary discussions were about plans for the upcoming regional, currently scheduled for October 25-26th. The regional will be held at A very ranch in the motherload area of the state. Exact pricing and details should be printed in an upcoming monthly newsletter. Those who wish to reserve a real cabin at A very should do so soon, as there is very limited availability. Correspondence: Nothing interesting to report. When Merrilee was asked about her upcoming trip to Greenhorn, she admited total ignorance of the cave. She only reports on what she knows, and in this case, she knows nothing ... Meeting adjourned, and Merrilee did not have "strawberries" as Fresh Choice didn't offer any tonight. She doubled up on chocolate brownies topped with about 6" of whipped cream looking stuff.

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Volume 40, Number 6 San Francisco Bay Chapter Newsletter Page 11 SFBC General Information Newsletter: This newsletter is a monthly publication of the San Francisco Bay chapter (SFBC) of the National Speleological Society (NSS). Any material not specifically copyrighted may be reproduced by other Internal Organizations of the NSS without permission provided credit is given to SFBC and the author. Opinions expressed within this newsletter are not necessarily those of SFBC, its board members, or the NSS. The newsletter editor welcomes material for publishing including, cartoons, trip reports, clippings, drawings, photographs, letters to the editor, accident reports, etc. Hard copy, disks, e-mail, fax and phone calls are acceptable media. Please call to check for possible format problems with machine readable text. Black and white photographs are preferable; color photos are acceptable. Deadline for submission is the Friday after the executive meeting. Dues/Membership: Dues are due January 1. Checks may be made payable to SFBC/NSS, PO Box 2282, Menlo Park, CA 94026 or can be delivered directly to the treasurer at the meeting. Price for annual membership is as follows: Regular Membership: $20.00; Family Membership: $8.00; Subscription Only: $12.00 Membership is open to anyone. However, in complying with the NSS rules governing Internal Organizations, only members of the NSS and this Internal Organization. have voting rights. Waivers: Waivers must be signed by all persons participating in SFBC Activities. Waivers are required for each SFBC activity. Forms are available at all chapter meetings and vertical practicesTrip leaders reserve the right to limit participation on their trips based on number of participants or individual qualifications. Executive Meetings: Executive meetings are held on the second Tuesday of each month at 7pm at the "Fresh Choice" restaurant in San Mateo. Anyone is invited to share a meal and swap stories with us, but only the elected officers can vote on grotto issues. "Fresh Choice" is located in a shopping center just South of Hi 92 on the West side of El Camino in San Mateo. From 92, exit South (from either direction) and take the 1 right turn into the shopping center driveway. Can't miss the restaurant. Chapter Meetings: Meetings are held on the fourth Tuesday of each month, (Note: This is not necessarily the last Tuesday of the month) at 8:00PM SHARP. Location: TELEGEN Building, 101 Saginaw, Redwood City, CA. Directions: From Highway 101, Exit Seaport Blvd. (same exit as Woodside Rd) and follow signs to Seaport Blvd. (towards the Bay). Turn left onto Chesapeake (signal light with the blue boat ramp sign). Turn left onto Saginaw (in sight of a big mountain of salt), and left again into the first driveway on Saginaw. Turn immediately right, follow the parking area around the building and park to the west side. The TELEGEN building (101-199 Saginaw) is tan with a rust-colored angular facade. Enter the building through the front entrance with "101" above the door. Volunteers: Librarian: Jim Lakner (408) 738-2939 LAKNERJ @vncpo 1.ne.ge.com Equipment Managers/Store Keepers Gail McCoy and Tom Mathey (408) 865-1763 Board Members: Chair: Merrilee Proffitt (510) 339-7483 mproffit@library.berkeley.edu Vice Chair: Cindy Heazlit (408) 448-8857 cheazlit@ix.netcom.com (home) cindy.heazlit@lmco.com (work) Secretary: Steve Ruble (415) 692-0477 sruble@ix.netcom.com Treasurer: Eric Goodill (415) 323-0976 ericg@cisco.com Newsletter Editor: Mark Scott (415) 497-4321 (home) (415) 725-3318 (work) (415) 725-3377 (fax) miscott@ leland.stanford.edu

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Page 12 San Francisco Bay Chapter National Speleological Society P0Box2282 Menlo Park, CA 94026 San Francisco Bay Chapter Newsletter FIRST CLASS Mark Conover 10721 Wunderlich Dr CA 95014 June 21st Vertical Practice Contact: Cindy Heazlit (see Exec list) Trip leader not confirmed at this time. 22-2i11 NSS Convention in Sullivan, Missouri See your NSS News for details 24th Monthly Meeting 8pm at Telegen July 4-6th CRF Lilburn Project Contact: Bill Frantz (408) 356-8506 or frantz@netcom.com 4-6th KMCTF Marbles Project Contact: Bonnie Crystal (415) 358-9524 or BXTAL1 @aol.com 8th Executive Meeting 7pm at Fresh Choice 12th Euro-rigging Vertical Practice Contact: Cindy Heazlit (see Exec list) 19-20th Millerton Lakes Contact: Eric Miles (415) 988-9497 or emiles@seagull.com 22"d Monthly Meeting 8pm at Telegen 26-27th CRF Lilburn Project Contact: John Tinsley (415) 327-2368 or jtinsley@isdmnl.wr.usgs.gov R97 August 2-3rd Crystal 67 Contact: John Tinsley (as above) 2-3rd Church Cave Project Contact: Dave Engel (714) 637-3171 or dengel@earthlink.net 11-15th International in Switzerland see your NSS News for details. 12th Executive Meeting 7pm at Fresh Choice 16th Vertical Practice Contact: Cindy Heazlit (see Exec list) 23rd SFBC Annual Picnic Time and Location to be decided Contact: Richard Fellows (510) 462-8953 or rfellows@pacbell.net 30-1 st CRF Lilburn & Lava Beds Projects Contact: John Tinsley (as above) 30-1 st KMCTF Marbles Project Contact: Bonnie Crystal (as above)

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s f b c newsletter In this Issue: Greenhorn Trip Report Help for Bats at Pinnacles National Monument Convention Trip Report Empire Cave Trip Report San Francisco Bay Chapter National Speleological Society Volume 40, Number 7 July 1997 Cover Photo by: Ann and Peter Bosted, featuring the famous butterfly formation in Windeler Cave.

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Page2 San Francisco Bay Chapter Newsletter July 1997 Program Announcement The program for the meeting will be the amazing Peter and Ann, showing pre-convention slides and a bit o' convention, followed by the incredible Dave with his convention slides and the caves of Missouri. A feast for the eyes. Dave suggests that anyone with convention slides should bring them along. SFBC Annual Picnic Announcement The annual SFBC picnic will be held on the 23rd of August on the same beach it was held upon a couple of years ago. A map and more detailed directions will follow next month but basically it is the first cove about V2 a mile North of the Bonney Doon Road and Highway 1 intersection on Highway 1. There is a large pull-out on the ocean side. This is just South of the town of Davenport. People are encouraged to bring their own food and beverages and anyone with things like a volleyball court, surfboard, etc. etc. should bring them along. As usual the squeeze box and other such toys will be in attendance. For more information contact: Mark Scott (415) 497-4321 (home), (415) 725-3318 (work) or miscott@ stanford.edu (preferrect). Church Cave Road Update According to Dave Engel the road access to Church Cave is still in limbo. The trips to Church Cave planned for August and September are tentative and will depend on whether access is available. It may be possible to hike down to the cave from the upper road but this question has not been settled at the time of this newsletter going to press. For more information contact the trip leader nearer the planned date of the trip. Greenhorn Cave Trip Report Submitted by Eric Goodill with additions by Kirk Hastings, Bill Frantz, Mark Scott, and Merrilee Proffitt (see what fun e-mail can be (which was used to set up the entire trip)) On June 14, 1997 members from the Southern California Grotto, Diablo Grotto, and SFBC mounted an expedition to Greenhorn Cave along the Kern River near Lake Isabella. Jeff and MaryAnne Cheraz from Southern California, Kirk Hastings from Diablo, and Merrilee Proffitt, Bill Frantz, Mark Scott, and I constituted the party. Bill, Mark, and I met at Bill's house at about 4 PM and drove off at about 4:15 PM southward. We drove I-5 until we went through Delano (where Bill said the UFW was formed) and then on to Lake Isabella along highway 155. This is a rather windy rpad, and I got a little car sick along the way. We arrived at about 10:30 PM or so at Pioneer Point USFS camp ground. We had no trouble finding a camp site. The whole southern shore of Lake Isabella is littered with USFS campgrounds. Merrilee and Kirk reportedly arrived sometime around 3am but being very good trip-mates, made little enough noise . that none of us woke up. The next morning started fairly leisurely. Somebody agitated for a diner run which we made. We went to Nelda's Diner which has quite passable food. We returned to camp to find Jeff and MaryAnne had arrived and were sleeping in their car. We roused them, chatted for a bit, and started preparing for the trip. We did a little more research on where we thought the cave might be (only Bill had been there about ten years before on a regional trip). We decided we had enough information, loaded up and drove off. The drive was fairly short, and we quickly found what we thought was the correct canyon to hike up into thanks to Bill's memory and a commercial map that mentions the cave. We could see what appeared to be a trail heading up the canyon and followed it up. The hike up was fairly short and ended at what looked like a moderately abandoned mining shack. As we later saw, it looks like there has been quite a bit of mining activity there in the cave. Bill commented that some of the equipment and cave markings were new since ten years before. The lower entrance to the cave lay near the shack. A quick snoop inside revealed the sound of rushing water. Jeff reported the name of the first drop as "Garden Hose Drop" due to the green garden hose tied around a rock and dropping the fifteen or so feet to the bottom. After suiting up we proceeded. Bill was the first to descend. Jeff and Mark followed. After Bill's descent, which involved a spread-eagle stem position, he recommended a route a few feet down the passage which Merrilee, Kirk, and I used. Mark then found an even easier way down which Mary Anne used. Sometimes it's good to not go first. This passage immediately lead to a channel filled wall-to-wall with deepening water and ended in a six-to-eight-foot water fall rising out of a plunge pool. Mark and Jeff voomed right up it and reported a much worse water fall not too far upstream. The rest of us exited the cave out a mined tunnel that simply involved walking straight out of the cave. We met Mark and Jeff a short distance up the hill at a middle entrance. They reported that climbing the second waterfall was awesome and lots of fun but a bit challenging. Mark felt he hadn't been in water like that since he'd left England. We all re-entered the cave above the harder waterfall. A series of signs, placed sort of like the Burma Shave signs, read, "Keep Out," "This Means You," and "You Are Claim Jumping" were placed just inside this entrance. This part of the cave also had spray-painted arrows indicating the route.

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Volume 40, Number 7 San Francisco Bay Caapter Newsletter Page3 We proceeded upstream through lots of short climbs, duck unders (though never completely submerged in water), wading, small waterfalls, and all the other fun stuff you might find in a granite purgatory cave. Despite the cave's reputation for being very challenging, if not downright dangerous, our consensus is that it is no more challenging than Middle Millerton. However, expect to get thoroughly wet. PVC suits, wet suits, or cordura suits with polypro undies are recommended. Merrilee bucked the trend and survived in cotton. Continuing, we came to a rather small fissurey bit which narrowed down to a sort of V -shaped cross section. I watched carefully how Merrilee navigated it (of course, that might not help much given our two body sizes), and then I attempted it. It turned out to be easier than it first appeared. After this crawlway, which Kirk elected not to attempt (Kirk said to say he was feeling wimpy and whiny!), our group split with Merrilee, Kirk, and Mary Anne retracing the route back to the entrance while Jeff, Mark, Bill, and I proceeded. Our group took a short snack break as I was getting hungry. After resuming we went under a skylight that was maybe forty or so feet up. We continued not much farther when Bill and I decided we'd like to exit the cave. Mark and Jeff continued on. Bill and I worked our way back to the skylight and attempted to exit. This involved climbing up the sort of ramp thingy. At one point the ramp had a three or four foot gap (as I remember it). The passage was small enough that one couldn't just stand to jump over it. The side-to-side distance was also not too much, and I attempted to chimney my way across it. I was nearly on the far side when my knees lost their grip on the far wall, and I fell about four or five feet to land on a granite slab. Bill quickly checked my condition. I was shaken but unhurt (and not stirred). A bit to the right of me was another hole that went down about eight or so feet. Hmmm. I gathered myself for a moment and then attempted the same crossing. Bill offered to belay me, and I always have a bit of webbing in the bottom of my pack just in case. Of course, I navigated the crossing without any trouble this time, but it was nice to know Bill was on the other end of the webbing. Bill then proceeded to climb up a fissure while I tried to stay out of the fall zone. He got to within about ten feet of the exit only to decide that a large rock was covering it that we probably couldn't squeeze through. So it was back across the tricky bit (much easier going down) and back through the rest of the cave. Bill and I exited through another exit that was slightly uphill of the Burma Shave entrance. It was more vertical than the other entrance, but still climbable. Mark and Jeff had continued on to find the cave became more of a talus breakdown pile with lots of squeezes through the boulders and groveling in the water to go on. Jeff found a crowbar amongst the big breakdown blocks but decided not using it to make additional breakdown was a good idea. They continued on for several hundred feet and broke through into more walking passage that presumably is the disconnected upper section we'd heard about. Jeff found a crowbar near some big breakdown . After discusing it over with Mark it was decided they should not use it on any of the breakdown boulders. At that point, they were fairly far from their packs and the rest of us, so they turned around and headed out the upper entrance that Bill and I has passed over (or under as it were). They report there was a *big* rock jammed in the entrance on top of a lot of trash, but they were able to squeeze through the rather tight gap at one side and then proceeded to walk down the hill just before Bill and I arrived. They thought Bill and I probably wouldn't have made the squeeze. We were probably in the cave a total of three to four hours. We changed clothes, recounted various parts of our journey to each other (exaggerations admirably kept to a minimum at this point), and hiked back to the cars. We then drove over to the hot springs which lie adjacent to the Kern River. They were very hot, and I could hardly stand the coolest pool. Many found ii comfy to submerge into the Kern River and back into the hot pool, but the river was a bit to cold for my taste. Apparently there are several other hot springs in the area worth checking out. It seems entirely civilized after a day of cold, wet caving to have a nearby hot spring to soak in whilst trading lies with toothless locals. We drove back to camp, fixed dinner, and talked the night away. Bill serenaded us with his backpack-sized guitar. We rose the next morning and spent a while chatting around the breakfast table. After that we packed everything up and headed off. Jeff and MaryAnne left us to spend the day in Mineral King. Our destination was Packsaddle Cave. This is a USFS cave and is marked on their maps. The trail leads up from the Kern River about 800 feet to the cave. The cave isn't too large, but it's actually kind of nice. There used to be lots of nice decorations, and some of them are still there. There's nice banding in the marble and what looks like some directional formations sticking out of the side of a rock. The entrance is rather large, and it's actually hard to get out of sight of it. There is one crawly bit in the back, and a smaller crawly bit that heads off from there, but none of us were in the mood to push much. Mark found a solitary bat roosting, and we saw a few bats flying in and out. We encountered a group of four or five guys from Bakersfield in the cave when we arrived along with the strong scent of the "killer weed," but everything was extinguished by the time we got very close. After our visit, we ended up leaving them behind and hiked back down the

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Page4 San Francisco Bay Chapter' Newsletter July 1997 trail. While descending we encountered a family coming up, and they had found two snakes that had fought. It looked like one had killed the other, but the survivor was not in good shape at all. There was also an uneventful rattlesnake sighting. Back down at the trailhead we signed out on the trial log. Most everybody who signed claims the cave as the destination. Many comments mentioned rattlesnakes, and one said something like, "Out of beer. Back later." Hmmrn. We drove off through some very scenic parts of Sequoia National Forest with nice vistas. of granite domes. We descended into the Central Valley and stopped in Visalia at Rosa's for a nice Italian dinner. Joel Despain drove over from Three Rivers and joined us. After that all that was left was the uneventful drive home. A great weekend with good caving and good companionship. Help for Bats at Pinnacles National Monument By: Georgia Stigall I Lorna Prieta Chapter The Bear Gulch cave system at Pinnacles National Monument (30 miles south of Hollister) has been closed temporarily to protect colonies of Townsend's big-eared bats. These bats are a threatened species due to habitat loss, and are extremely sensitive to disturbance from humans. Adult bats will abandon their infants or drop them to the ground, where they die. Park officials will decide in July whether the Bear Gulch caves should remain closed or be reopened for either guided tours or unrestricted visiting. Please write to Pinnacles at the address below to thank them for closing the caves, and to express your support for protection of these ecologically critical animals. It is likely that Park officials will be pressured from recreationists to reopen the area. Like all other parks & preserves, they need public support to fulfill their mission of protecting native wildlife. Ask them to either keep the caves closed, or reopen them only for **controlled access with interpreters**. Ask them to not reopen the caves for unrestricted access under any circumstances. Address letters to: Superintendent, Pinnacles National Monument, 5000 Highway 146 Paicines, CA 95043. Please send a copy of your letter to Larry Whalon, Resources Management Chief, at the same address. Thank you! Georgia Stigall Native Habitats 17287 Skyline Blvd, #102 Woodside CA 94062-3741 gstigall @aol.com or http://members.aol.com/GStigall Convention Trip Report By: Lysa De Thomas Mark, Merrilee, and I drove to the convention together. As usual, things got off to a hectic start. First we were going to leave Wednesday, then Thursday, then Friday,... we eventually got on the road Friday afternoon. I was a little nervous since I had to be at the convention Monday morning to run JSS activities, but Merrilee said that Joel Despain told her it was only a 30 hour trip, so we had plenty of time. Once we got out of traffic, we had a fine time driving through the mountians talking about all the things that make long car ride discussions interesting ... sex, politics, and religion. Poor Mark had to deal with two very opinionated women (who did not always agree with his beliefs). Everything was fine, the conversation lively and enlighting, the scenery beautiful and bold, and our energy at a good level. Then I started to drive. Now I have not driven a car, let alone a stick, since last convention. I admit it showed. This was a major upset to Mark. Finally we got him to go to sleepthe only way he could handle my driving! We took turns driving, napping and talking throughout the rest of the trip. I personally think napping is the only way to get through Eastern Colorado and Kansas. One never quite understands phrases such as "flat" and "monotonous", and "BORING" until one drives through Kansas. We arrived in Sullivan on Sunday afternoon. Merrilee had been napping, while Mark and I watched a cool rain storm off in the distance. What we didn't know then was that the rain storm had completely flooded the campsite the night before, the roads to the campground had been closed all night, forcing most of the early arrivers to sleep in the school gym, ( although they might not have believed this, the people who were flooded out of their tents and into their cars feel that they were the lucky ones.) Convention itself was interesting. I spent most of my time running JSS activities. For the JSS, this was a landmark year. We had over 70 children involved in activities; a great deal of them over the age of 13! Many parents informed me that their kids excitement ov.er the JSS was the reason they went to convention. We had plenty of support from everyone, and truely a good time was had by all. Believe it or not, next year hints at being even better for us! JSS sections of the Cartograpy and Photo Salon are in the works.. If you have young cavers, tell them to get their cameras and sketch books working! As far as the rest of the convention goes, I wish I could be as glowing, but I can't. This year's convention staff was truely understaffed, and very underprepared. I did not

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Volume 40, Number 7 San Francisco Bay Chapter Newsletter Page 5 experience most of the problems first hand, (except those that dealt with materials that the JSS did not receive, and the lack of vegitarian food at any of the meals), but I heard plenty of stories. Mainly, I feel, that they boil down to lack of planning and understanding of convention dynamics by the convention committee, (such as putting the session on International Exploratation in a very small room, or cancelling a sesson without any notification at all). While discussing these problems with the powers that be, I found out that most of the staff, including most of the head honchos, had never attended a convention. Obviously a big no no. Convention ended with the typical speeches and awards, although I can not say for sure since I was sitting with Ginger Luckins watching over 70 children and teens throwing each other in the water with glee. It was wonderful, sort of like a grandparent watching the children play at a family reunion. In fact, that was how we explained ourselves to some curious people people at Six Flags. The kids and I were already talking about next year, and you could see they were tring to make sense out of our name tags and caving shirts. "We meet every year." one child explained, "And we explore caves" another added. "Caves?" the people responded. "Yeah! said another child, "And pits, pits with ropes!" "Ropes?" "Yeah, ropes with vertical gear. That's why we're not afraid of any of these rides" "Oh, where do you come from?" "All over the country. We meet in a different place every year. This year we're here, next year we're in Tennessee, last year we were in Colorado ... " "Are you a family? You all have different last names, but you seem to enjoy each other so much ... " "We do enjoy each other alot. And yes, we are a family of sorts, we all love caves." "We have some mud running through our veins. " Empire Cave Trip Report By: Ethan Wilkins age 6 1/2, Ali Hoffman age 5 ll/12, Rogan Kriedt age 6 Vz, Zoe Novic age 5 Vz, Dylan Ornas age 6, Ari Sidfield age 10 Vz, and Jorden Sidfield age 7. With some help from Lysa De Thomas age 34 7/12. We went to Empire Cave. It is a very very big cave with a really long ladder. We had to wear helmets on our heads with chin straps. Dillon had to wear one of Lysa's helmets because his did not have a chin strap. We also had to bring three flashlights. That's because you can drop one, or the battery can die, or the bulb can burn out, or lots of things. We took a picture before wr; went into the cave. Then we went down the ladder. Ali was the first kid to go down the ladder. She wasn't afraid, not even a teensie little bit because she did it last year. Everyone went down the ladder one at a time, and you had to say, "ON Ladder" and "OFF Ladder", and "ROCK" if you dropped something. And you don't look up if you hear the word rock, because you might get the rock in your face. And you don't go on the ladder together because you don't want to fall like dominoes if one person falls. It was really fun and interesting in the cave. First Lysa told us a story about a little boy who was afraid of the dark, but learned that it was only his imagination. Then we saw a spider that only lives in the caves in Santa Cruz. And we saw lots of moths. In the very big part of the cave we saw two big stalagtites. They looked like waterfalls. To get to the back of the cave we had to crawl. There was paint on the walls and some of us tried to rub dirt on it to cover it up. In the very back of the cave we found lots of mud or clay statues. Then we each got a pretty rock from Lysa's pack and put it somewhere in the room. Then we turned off all are lights, and stayed quiet for very very long time (35 seconds). When we turned on the lights the rocks were shining and the cave was very pretty, but then we put the rocks back in Lysa's pack and the room looked ugly. We learned never to take rocks out of caves, or to break the things off the walls. It makes the cave ugly that way. On the way out we could go down a very crawly passage if we wanted to. It was very muddy. Ethan, Dylan, Lesley, Barak, Ari and Lysa went down it. Barak and Lysa got the muddiest. We took a picture of all of us all as we were very dirty when we got out of the cave.

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..... Page6 San Francisco Bay Chapter Newsletter July 1997 June Financial Summary: Submitted by: Eric Goodill Hardhat Operating Open 443.29 2906.11 Income Dues 50 Hardhat 16.57 Equipment 12 Total 16.57 62 Expenses Misc. 409.9 WRDues 408 Total 0 817.9 Close 459.86 2150.21 SFBC Meeting Minutes June Monthly meeting. Submitted by this month's Secretary, Steve Ruble Date: Time Location June 24, 1997 8:00PM to 10:00 PM Telegen Co. Headquarters Redwood City Attendance 3 Grotto Officers, ? members or guests, and the watch dog hardly notices us anymore. • Noted again is the very fine facilities with audio and video capabilities, for our monthly meetings. This month we utilized their video system for the main program. Thanks again to Bonnie and Jessica for use of their conference room. • The program was a video titled "Caves of Glass". This is one of the fine videos produced as part of the "Realm of Darkness" series. It was good to see it again. Great program, thanks. • Introductions were made, sign in sheet and hard hat were passed around. • Merrilee and Mark were missing this month, due to attending the national convention. Cindy led us through the meeting. Announcements: • There is a potential for this grotto to host a future BOG meeting. More will be discussed at a future executive meeting. Upcoming trips; see the newsletter for details. Knot ofthe month, the bowline ... fun for all! After the break: • Old Business; Regional planning. • New Business;. None noted. Trip Reports • Various reports that all sounded great. (I've got to go caving more often). Reserve Equipment Total 806.88 268.52 4424.8 50 16.57 12 0 0 78.57 409.9 408 0 0 817.9 806.88 268.52 3685.47 The next meeting will be the Exec Meeting, on the 2"d Tuesday, with the next monthly meeting on the 4"' Tuesday. July Executive meeting Submitted by the industrious Newsletter Editor, Mark Scott since Steve was too busy to come to the meeting. Date: Time Location July 8th, 1997 7:00PM to 9:30PM Fresh Choice, San Mateo Attendance Merrilee Proffitt, Cindy Heazlit, Mark Scott, Eric Goodill, and Jim Lakner. Correspondence An I/0 memo was received from the I/0 admin. committee concerning a request for information on our procedures to deal with members who aren't NSS members. A quantity of the new NSS leaflets was received, anyone who wants a few of these to hand out to prospective cavers should ask an Executive Committee member. • Briefly discussed the Regional budget with a discussion about how the profit/loss would be dealt with and decided that the budget should aim for break-even. • The program for July's meeting will be on the Caves of Missouri and a convention recap by Dave Bunnel and Ann and Peter Bosted. • The program for August will be by Ron Winokur on cave diving in Mexico. • The idea of constructing a grotto web page was put forward and it was noted that no-one really had the time or inclination to do it and that we need to solicit volunteers to create it. Mark Scott offered to host the site and do minor regular maintenance. • The possibility of hosting a BOG was discussed. To date Merrilee has been unable to contact the NSS officer responsible for this and more information will be hopefully be obtained about this when she is ful.

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Volume 40, Number 7 San Francisco Bay Chapter Newsletter Page7 • A quick recap of the convention was given for those who were unable to attend. • The regional schedule of events was discussed along with ideas for what sorts of activities would be run. • Cindy requested reimbursement for new SRT books she had purchased. Unfortunately Eric ran out of checks SFBC General Information Newsletter: This newsletter is a monthly publication of the San Francisco Bay chapter (SFBC) of the National Speleological Society (NSS). Any material not specifically copyrighted may be reproduced by other Internal Organizations of the NSS without permission provided credit is given to SFBC and the author. Opinions expressed within this newsletter are not necessarily those of SFBC, its board members, or the NSS. The newsletter editor welcomes material for publishing including, cartoons, trip reports, clippings, drawings, photographs, letters to the editor, accident reports, etc. Hard copy, disks, e-mail, fax and phone calls are acceptable media. Please call to check for possible format problems with machine readable text. Black and white photographs are preferable; color photos are acceptable. Deadline for submission is the Friday after the executive meeting. Dues/Membership: Dues are due January 1. Checks may be made payable to SFBC/NSS, PO Box 2282, Menlo Park, CA 94026 or can be delivered directly to the treasurer at the meeting. Price for annual membership is as follows: Regular Membership: $20.00; Family Membership: $8.00; Subscription Only: $12.00 Membership is open to anyone. However, in complying with the NSS rules governing Internal Organizations, only members of the NSS and this Internal Organization. have voting rights. Waivers: Waivers must be signed by all persons participating in SFBC Activities. Waivers are required for each SFBC activity. Forms are available at all chapter meetings and vertical practicesTrip leaders reserve the right to limit participation on their trips based on number of participants or individual qualifications. Executive Meetings: Executive meetings are held on the second Tuesday of each month at 7pm at the "Fresh Choice" restaurant in San Mateo. Anyone is invited to share a meal and swap stories with us, but only the elected officers can vote on grotto issues. "Fresh Choice" is located in a shopping center just South of Hi 92 on the West side of El Camino in San Mateo. From 92, exit South (from either direction) and take the 1 right turn into the shopping center driveway. Can't miss the restaurant. just before she asked the question so this will have to wait until Eric's return from his holidays. Merrilee once more failed to have any "strawberries" as they weren't available, in fact nor were the usual brownies or any of the really good deserts. Hopefully they'll be around next month! Chapter Meetings: Meetings are held on the fourth Tuesday of each month, (Note: This is not necessarily the last Tuesday of the month) at 8:00 PM SHARP. Location: TELEGEN Building, 101 Saginaw, Redwood City, CA. Directions: From Highway 101, Exit Seaport Blvd. (same exit as Woodside Rd) and follow signs to Seaport Blvd. (towards the Bay). Turn left onto Chesapeake (signal light with the blue boat ramp sign). Turn left onto Saginaw (in sight of a big mountain of salt), and left again into the first driveway on Saginaw. Turn immediately right, follow the parking area around the building and park to the west side. The TELEGEN building (101-199 Saginaw) is tan with a rust-colored angular facade. Enter the building through the front entrance with "10 1" above the door. Volunteers: Librarian: Jim Lakner (408) 738-2939 LAKNERJ @vncpo l.ne.ge.com Equipment Managers/Store Keepers Gail McCoy and Tom Mathey (408) 865-1763 Board Members: Chair: Merrilee Proffitt (510) 339-7483 mproffit@ library .berkeley .edu Vice Chair: Cindy Heazlit (408) 448-8857 cheazlit@ix.netcom.com (home) cindy.heazlit@lmco.com (work) Secretary: Steve Ruble (415) 692-0477 sruble@ix.netcom.com Treasurer: Eric Goodill (415) 323-0976 ericg@cisco.com Newsletter Editor: Mark Scott (415) 497-4321 (home) (415) 725-3318 (work) (415) 725-3377 (fax) miscott@ stanford.edu

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PageS San Francisco Bay Chapter Newsletter San Francisco Bay Chapter National Speleological Society PO Box 2282 Menlo Park, CA 94026 FIRST CLASS Mark Conover 10721 Wunderlich Dr Cupertino, CA 95014 July 19-20"' Millerton Lakes Contact: Eric Miles (415) 988-9497 or emiles@seagull.com 22nd Monthly Meeting 8pm at Telegen 26-27"' CRF Lilburn Project Contact: Howard Hurtt (209) 266-0521 jhubner@ tigertown .aol.com August 2-3.u Crystal 67 Contact: John Tinsley (415) 327-2368 (home) (415) 329-4928 (work) jtinsley@ isdmnl. wr. usgs.gov 2-3.u Church Cave Project Contact: Dave Engel (714) 637-3171 or dengel@earthlink.net 11-15"' International in Switzerland see your NSS News for tletails. 12th Executive Meeting 7pm at Fresh Choice 16th Vertical Practice Contact: Cindy Heazlit (see Exec list) 23'd SFBC Annual Picnic See directions inside! Contact: Mark Scott (see Exec list) 30-1" CRF Lava Beds Project Contact: Bill Devereaux (503) 363-3831 (home) (504) 378-3971 (work) 30-1" CRF Mineral King Project Contact: Jeff Cheraz (818) 359-7818 (home) gephc@ juno.com 30-1" KMCTF Marbles Project Contact: Bonnie Crystal (415) 358-9524 (home) (415) 349-9613 (work) BXT ALl@ aol.com July 1997 R97 September 9th Executive Meeting 7pm at Fresh Choice 13th Vertical Training on Anchors Contact: Cindy Heazlit (see Exec. List) 13-14th Church Cave Contact: Bill Frantz (408) 356-8506 or frantz@netcom.com or Contact: Peter Bosted (415) 234-9966 (home) (415) 926-2319 (work) hosted@ slac.stanford.edu See note inside!!! 20-21" Twin Lakes (Gourmet Backpacking) Contact: Richard Fellows (tentative) (510) 462-8953 (home) (510) 440-0330 (work) rfellows@pacbell.net 23.u Monthly Meeting 8pm at Telegen 27-28th Cave City and King Tut Contact: Michele Richardson (408) 427-0638 (home) I ' . t . ' ' t

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,j ,, s f b c newsletter In this Issue: Grotto Picnic Reminder page 1 Several Trip Updates page 1 Dive Lilburn Project Announcement pages 1-4 First Descent pages 4-6 Further Comments on Folia Origin and a Response. pages 6-9 Batting Around Georgia pages 9-10 Knot of the Month page 10 I San Francisco Bay Chapter National Speleological Society Volume 40, Number 8 August 1997 Cover Photo by: Mark Scott, featuring Shannon Mathey in the SFBC Squeeze Box at last years picnic.

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Page2 San Francisco Bay Chapter Newsletter August 1997 Program Announcement The program for the meeting will be by Ron Winiker. SFBC Annual Picnic Announcement The annual SFBC picnic will be held on Saturday the 23'd of August on the same beach it was held upon a couple of years ago. The beach in question is the first cove about half a mile North of the Bonney Doon Road and Highway 1 intersection on Highway 1. There is a large pull-out on the ocean side. This is just South of the town of Davenport. People are encouraged to bring their own food and beverages and anyone with things like a volleyball net, surfboard, hibachi or weber grills etc. etc. should bring them along. As usual the squeeze box and other such toys will be in attendance. (did you read that Steve??) The event will run in the afternoon so show up from about noon onwards. For more information contact: Mark Scott (650) 497-4321 (home) (650) 725-3318 (work) miscott@stanford.edu (preferred). Church Cave Road Update By Dave Engel Great news! The road to Church Cave has reopened. The cave is once again open. I plan to continue the original schedule as follows: September 6-7Th. September 27-28Th. October ll-12Th. November l-2"d I will also look at the possibility of adding other trips. I have been considering several other trips, so if you have spare time for the project, please let me know. Quilt Raffie Information By Lynn Fielding I wanted to let everyone know that Pat Garner and her quilting guild have donated their time and energy to make a quilt out of caving tee shirts. This quilt will be raffled off at this year's regional meeting on Oct. 26Th. at Avery Ranch. You not not have to be present to win. Tickets are $1 each or 6 for $5. Peri Frantz is in charge of distributing tickets so contact Peri (or myself) for more info. Proceeds from the raffle will help to purchase gear for theWRTC gear cache. Please help either this and purchase a ticket either in advance or at the regional meeting in October. Also, give Pat a big Thank you for her efforts! Moaning and Grapevine Trip Information By Dave Herberg 'Steve Fairchild, owner of Moaning, has granted permission for a grotto trip after hours on Oct 1 Ch. or 18Th., for a party of up to 6 people. October was "still a ways out" for him to schedule precisely, but it looks like a go. It will likely be a beginning vertical trip, with one 80' or so drop. I could also do a Grapevine trip if demand warrants it on Oct 4Th .. Beginner's trip, kids OK, 8 to 10 max. Twin Lakes Gourmet Backpacking Trip Info. The leader for this trip has changed due to a family illness. The gourmet backpacking trip is now going to be led by the Frantzs on the same weekend of the 20-2lst of September and you can contact them at (408) 356-8506 or frantz @netcom.com. Thanksgiving Trip to ;\rizona Information By Peter Bosted The trip is to Onyx Cave and Cave of the Bells, near Tuscon Arizona. The caves are warm and very well decorated. Both caves involve quite a bit of exposed climbing and a bit of tight crawling, but should be fun for all cavers who are reasonably fit and comfortable with some exposure. There is one rope drop in Onyx that requires rapelling: the rest are all handlines. We may visit 250' deep Dante's Descent (a basalt pit) on the way, for those driving. For those flying, make reservations well in advance. Onyx and Bells will be on Friday and Saturday. Trips into Onyx are limited to six people per leader (we may have two leaders), while Bells is six people per day, and I think we only have it for Saturday. People wishing to go to Onyx please sign the permit at the September or October grotto meetings. If you are interested in this trip you can contact Peter at (415) 2349966 (home) or (415) 926-2319 (work) or bosted@slac.stanford.edu. Or of course you can just come to one of the meetings. Dive Lilburn! 5-8Th. September.1997 By: Bill Parr ACTIVffiES The primary activities planned for the diving expedition are: (1) Continued push in Big Springs, hopefully reaching a practical limit for swimming exploration (estimated at 1500. 1800 ft. with the current depth profile). j

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Volume 40, Number 8 San Francisco Bay Chapter Newsletter Page3 (2) Continued push in the Upstream Rise, hopefully breaking the sump to reach air filled cave. A secondary surface activity will be to obtain GPS fixes on the cave entrances and spring. SUPPORT PERSONNEL Merrilee Proffit (see Exec list for contact info.) has currently agreed to help organize surface support I sherpa personnel. Jeff Cheraz has agreed to look in to packing arrangements. A second full-cave-certified diver, Jim Brown, with extensive sump diving and sidemount technique experience shall also be present. Jim shall provide any needed set-up and clean-up diving aid needed in Big Springs. Jim is also fully qualified to go through the Upstream Rise sump and assist with dry cave survey. If the pack train is used to hike cabin junk out of the canyon, John Tinsely shall arrange for proper disposal of the trash beyond the trailhead. ITINERARY 4Th. Sept. Advance party accompanies packers to CRF cabin with tanks and other diving equipment. Acclimatization day for decompression adjustment. 5-8Th. Sept. Planned diving days. One day is alloted for R&R or a second Upstream Rise dive. 9Th. Sep. Any remaining crew hikes out of Redwood Canyon. Note that this itenerary may have to be adjusted depending upon pack train availability. If unused tanks are availible, diving activites shall resume as soon as the following weekend. PLAN The plan is for two Big Springs dives and at least one Upstream Rise dive. The actual order of the dives will remain flexible and depend upon available sherpa power and individual fitness. Support personnel are expected to come and go over 5-8Th. Sept. A pack train will be used to hike tanks, regulators, and batteries in. The pack train may also be used to hike some cabin junk out. The current plan is for spent tanks to be manually hiked out. Other optional tasks for support personnel include: * GPS location of major karst features. * Ridgewalking * Cabin maintanence/ firewood duty. GPS and ridgewalking would be best coordinated through use of Tinsley's sinkhole map, if available. EQUIPMENT BREAKDOWN BY DIVE (due to space limitations only the summary is given here) Equipment used for all dives (mostly already at cabin) includes, dry suit; undercloths; BC; fins; wetsuit hood, gloves; flashlights; primary dive light & spares; spare mask; reels & line. This comprises the basic "dive kit" (about 35 lb). Also needed are, basic tools; 02 meter. These items weigh about 7 lb. The 02 meter does not need to be hiked to dive location, so the required dive kit weight is 39lb. SUMMARY OF EQUIPMENT TO HAUL DOWN VIA PACK TRAIN 2 S96 sidemount: 18%02/82% He 55lb 110 lb 2 S95 sidemount: 18%02 I 82% He 56lb 112lb 2 S80 sidemountlstage: air 42lb 84lb 2 G80 sidemount: 28% 02/72% N2 35lb 70 lb 2 S72 sidemount: 28% 02/72% N2 31lb 62lb 2 Al40 sidemount: air 23lb 461b 2 AL30deco: 50% 02/ 50% N2 17lb 34lb 1 ALS80 stage: 32% 02/68% N2 40 lb 40lb I ALSO stage: 32% 02/68% N2 40 lb 40 lb I All7 Ar pony: IOO% Ar I4lb I4lb I Al12 Ar pony: IOO% Ar lllb IIlb 02 deco: IOO% 02 20lb 20 lb 02 deco/acx: 100%02 24lb 24lb 20 tanks subtotal: 667lb 11 regulators 62lb "D" cell batteries I2lb 2000' dive line 8lb 3 dive reels 8lb total: 7571b Note that is weight is a "current best estimate" and is subject to further refinement.

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Page4 San Francisco Bay Chapter Newsletter August 1997 DISCUSSION The permits for this trip is to use a pack train to haul in a massive amount of gear to support multiple dives, as a minimum of three dives need to be conducted even if the cave does not "go." Although it is hoped that the sumps will be open after the next winter season, activities are planned under the assumption that they will not. In other words, this is our opportunity ... lets do it! If Big Springs is still going after the planned dives, a return trip will be planned for ASAP, most probably using a dive scooter to maximize penetration while minimizing gas consumption and decompression time. The idea here is to use the scooter to reach the end-of-line, then swim on to explore & survey. If the Upstream Rise is broken, the next activity would be to put two divers (Jim Brown and myself) through the sump for a 6-12 hour survey trip. This dive would orient Jim to the sump. If the Rise is broken on the first dive, and Big Springs appears hopeless, this could happen on this trip. Otherwise a return trip as soon as the next weekend will be planned for this activity. The next step would be to plan a 2-3 day camp on the far side to extend the survey. Hopefully these surveys would then give direction to in cave or surface efforts by other personnel for a dry connection push. First Descent, My Trip to Moaning Caverns By Robert Mudry It should go without saying, that if you're afraid of heights and claustrophobic, it is probably wise to stay away from caves, particularly ones involving 140 foot rappels and passages with names like "The Meat Grinder," and "The Pancake." But that is exactly where I found myself today. The cave's name is Moaning Caverns, and those moans were likely going to be coming from me. It was no accident that I ended up at Moaning Caverns. It all started several months ago, when I passed the entrance to Mercer Caves on the way to a friend's wedding. I felt strangely compelled to give the cave a visit. But it was late, the caves where closed for the night, and there wasn't enough time the following day. "Too bad," I thought "I doubt I'll ever be up this way again." A few weeks later, while browsing around a local bookstore, I was gravitated to the "sports" section, looking for books on caves and caving. I found Cave Passages: Roaming the Underground Wilderness, by Michael Ray Taylor. A chapter or two later, and I was hooked: I didn't just want to go on a 45 minute "walking tour" of Mercer Caves, I wanted to be a caver. I wanted to crawl and wiggle through mud filled passages hundreds of feet underground, and I wasn't going to let anything as silly as a bit of claustrophobia get in my way. Oh, and never mind that pesky fear of heights. This was bigger. This was an obsession which filled my dreams with imaginings of adventure, exploration, and beautiful chambers hidden in the darkness for millions of years, beckoning me to find them. And when I discovered that Moaning Caverns offered an "adventure tour," not even the Second Coming could have kept me away. The adventure tour is a two hour crawl through an area of the caverns where the "normal" visitors weren't allowed. No camera toting, stroller pushing, tourists here! This was crawling and squirming and grunting through a real, mud filled cave. Add to that a 140 foot rappel down into the main chamber, and you have my biggest fear. And that is just the way I wanted it! If I was going to be a caver, I was going to have to confront those fears in a big way. I was going to find out then and there if I had what it takes. The adventure started with a quick change into some dirty coveralls, caving gloves, and a lamp-helmet which appeared to have seen better days. We were then strapped into our rappelling gear. I could have sworn I saw a smear of blood on my harness, but the guide assured me they've had no deaths. Some "minor mishaps," granted, but no one had kissed the bottom hard enough to dent the limestone. After a few short minutes of instruction on the proper operation of our descending equipment, a dubious metal contraption called a "J-rack" designed to keep the caver from littering the cave floor with his twisted remains, it was off to "the pit." The Way Down The rope threaded through my descender, I leaned back and began the, hopefully slow, descent into Moaning Cavern's main chamber. The first 20 feet of the descent is a tube around five feet in diameter at its narrowest. Not so bad. A ledge I 0 feet below blocked my view of the long way down, and I was too busy trying to keep pieces of my face from becoming embedded in the rock to think about the remaining 130 feet or so. At the bottom of the entrance tube is a small ledge. Unfortunately, this made a perfect resting spot and that is exactly what the rappeller before me was doing: resting on the ledge. Apparently, he decided to wait a moment for the rappeller before him to get a bit of distance before going on. I guess that was the best thing for him to do, since in spite of having four separate ropes, they were rather closely spaced, and I imagine it is unwise to rappel onto the head of someone you're about to spend two hours with underground. But that still left me dangling there with another rappeller about to rappel straight onto my head.

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Volume 40, Number 8 San Francisco Bay Chapter Newsletter Page5 "Uh, better wait up thirty seconds or so on the next rappeller!" I croaked upward. My voice sounded meek and muffled in the tube. "What?" was the weak reply from above, "Is something wrong?" Great, the others probably think I'm wimping out or something and want to be yanked back up. "We're a little jammed up down here." I replied. "How many of you are hanging out on the ledge?" the guide asked. Obviously this has happened before, and he wasn't looking forward to pulling our sorry butts out. Fortunately, the gentleman before me started his way back down. "Uh, never mind. He just started down again!" No excuses now. Lowering myself down to the ledge, I lingered only for a moment. A step backwards, and my feet were right at the edge. With a deep breath and a bit of blind faith, I Jeanedback once again. Just a few more feet, and I would clear the tube. Just moments from emerging into the main chamber, I could suddenly hear the low, echoing voices of the walking tour below. My heart jumped. And then the chamber opened up and for the first time I could see I was dangling, free, over 100 feet from the bottom of the chamber: I, the one terrified of heights, was suspended near the ceiling of a chamber large enough to hold the entire Statue of Liberty, from a rope about as wide as my thumb. And I wasn't afraid. A little concerned, maybe, but not scared. My heart slowed and my muscles relaxed. This was actually ... fun! With a bit more confidence, I took a good look around. Since this is a show cave, the main chamber was rather well lighted, so I had a good view of just about everything. The giant spiral staircase back to the surface was on my left, and at its base was the platform where the "normal" tours stared and gawked. About halfway down, I caught up with that last rappeller, the one on the ledge. I waited a minute or two for him to get the rest of the way down, then I continued my descent. The last few feet involved one of the guides below pulling my rope over to the platform, where I landed gracefully and unhooked the rope from my harness. Not a problem. Low Ceilings and Tight Crawls On the far end of the platform, a short ladder dropped the final five feet down to the "real" floor of the chamber. Scrambling over the damp and slippery slope, I made my way to a knotted rope which assisted in the final ten foot descent into the first of many small chambers. If I'm as claustrophobic as I think I am, now is when I'll find out! The first chamber was a rectangular room, maybe eight feet wide and twelve feet long with a four foot ceiling. At one end of the room was a 200 foot pitch. According to the guide, Chris, all the staff at Moaning Caverns would do that pitch once a year, and explore the lower levels. I would have strapped on some descenders right there if Chris would have let me. Apparently my fear of heights had been somewhat tamed after that first pitch! As soon as the rest of the group had finished gathering, all seven of us headed off through a small passage at the end of the chamber opposite the second pitch. Not too tight, the passage went for another ten or fifteen feet before entering a smaller chamber which contained one of the few remaining stalactites in the cave. About the size of two clenched fists, its reddish hue earned it the name "Heart of the Cave." It was pretty, but I couldn't help thinking how gorgeous this chamber must have been a hundred years ago. Back in the eighteen hundreds, gold miners spent an entire year banging around these caverns, and in the process destroyed almost all of the formations in the cave, except those. in the main entrance chamber. How you can make a living mining gold and not know that gold doesn't grow in marble is beyond me. While this region is famous for its gold, copper, and silver, these miners picked the one spot it couldn't possibly be! Before continuing deeper into the cave, Chris had us climb a slippery mass of flowstone up into another small chamber. I opted to be the last up, because though I hadn't noticed any signs of claustrophobia yet, I didn't cherish the thought of being jammed into the back of a small chamber with six other people I barely knew. My first attempt to climb in failed almost immediately. This stuff was slick and admittedly I tried using brute force to work my way up the flowstone. Deep breath. I looked around a bit and spotted what appeared to be an excellent handhold for balance, and a solid place to put my right boot. I pushed gently with my foot and it almost felt as if I floated into the chamber above. It was an incredible feeling, and in retrospect I don't think I truly entered the cave until that moment. There wasn't much in this new chamber, except of course six miserable looking men and women. I almost felt sorry for them, as I headed back down, not because they were all crammed up in that little chamber, but because it didn't seem to me as though they were experiencing the cave. Rather, they were crawling through mud and dirt, getting bruised and battered on their little tourist adventure. I floated back down into the lower chamber. Chris smiled and nodded sagely. Another twenty foot passage, best traveled sitting, sloped into the largest chamber so far. At twenty feet by ten feet, everyone fit comfortably. The ceiling was no higher than two and a half feet. I should have been terrified, but claustrophobia was the furthest thing from my mind. I laid back on the cool rock floor and put my hands behind my head. Water dripped from the ceiling, slowly rebuilding

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Page6 San Francisco Bay Chapter Newsletter August 1997 stalactites broken I 00 years before by the clumsy and uncaring miners. One hundred years, and still they looked like they were broken just yesterday. Chris was leading the group, one at a time, into a small helectite filled chamber. I didn't mind being last. Turning off my light, I closed my eyes and all the tension left my body. My turn to enter the helectite room. I opened my eyes and to my surprise the rest of the group had turned off their lamps as well. I almost didn't want to turn mine back on, but I could hear Chris' muffled calls for the next to go. I slithered across the chamber to the helectite room entrance. Squeezing into the narrow passage, I simply had to stand up and my head poked into the tiny room. There was Chris, laying on has back staring up at the ceiling. He glanced in my direction and grinned. Photos of helectites don't do the real thing justice. I was staring at several dozen right now, just inches from my face. I held my breath, afraid my exhales would in some way mar these delicate white flowers. A few moments, and I ducked back out into the larger chamber. The air was getting a bit stale in that little room and Chris was beginning to look a tad green. The next area was called "the Meat Grinder," a twenty foot meandering squeeze, averaging a foot or so in width. Since I was anxious to try my hand at a real squeeze, I volunteered to go first. No one objected. The Meat Grinder was more vertical then I expected, but keeping both my arms in front and gently pushing with my feet I was able to scoot along quite comfortably. Halfway up was the first "escape route," a knotted rope leading up a nearly vertical chimney. Supposedly, if you freaked out and couldn't take the squeeze, you could bypass it using the knotted rope. If you ask me, the knotted rope looked a bit scarier then the squeeze! Ten more feet and the Meat Grinder opened up into a small chamber where I was able to rest while waiting for the rest of the group to bully their way through. About five minutes of grunting and groaning and everyone was ready. Chris suggested we hang out in this new chamber for a bit and try our hands at the two "optionals." On one side of the chamber was a little seven foot pit which lead down into "the Roach Motel." Opposite the Roach Motel was "the Column Squeeze." I was anxious to try both. In order to get down into the Roach Motel, you have to squeeze into a narrow pit, dangle from a convenient hand hold, and finally let go in an act of faith that the floor really is just an inch or two below. Once inside, you can hop down into a two or three foot deep depression and then simply stare at the walls. Which is exactly what I did. It didn't look like much at first, but then I noticed tiny cracks in the rocks, and inside those cracks were crystals. Baby helectites, just beginning their long and breathtaking life? Back in the upper chamber (I guess I really could check out. .. ) I headed over to the Column Squeeze. An eight foot lay-on-your-side, dusty squeeze which leads to an extremely small room with a squat column right smack in the middle. A bit too dusty for me, I popped through in about 30 seconds, my eyes red and stinging. The "Pancake" is a flat but wide squeeze, best done on your back. It didn't seem too long to me, but it would have been rather unnerving if I was claustrophobic. Glad that wasn't the case! After the Pancake, another small chamber and then a short squeeze called "the Birthing Canal." The squeeze ended in yet another small room, almost at the end of the tour. I had to jam myself up into a tight corner in order to let everyone in. While laying there, staring at the ceiling and waiting for everyone to force their way through the last squeeze, called "the Rabbit Hole," I noticed a tiny six inch by six inch tube which couldn't be seen from anywhere except where I was jammed in. Six beautiful, pristine, four inch stalactites were bunched together, maybe two or three feet into the tube. I wonder how many people who have taken this tour have been lucky enough to have seen them? The "Rabbit Hole" is a very short, but very tight squeeze, which leads to the bottom of a forty foot chimney. It was no problem pushing through the ten inch squeeze, but as I popped through I nearly got a boot straight in my face. The last of the group was making their way up the chimney, kicking down mud and pebbles. Here I learned a valuable lesson which will probably serve me well on future caving trips: if someone is above you in a chimney, don't look up! I ducked back into the Rabbit Hole and waited for everyone to make it up the chimney. An easy, forty foot climb, with lots of ledges, footholds, and a conveniently placed knotted rope, and I emerged at the top of a forty foot flowstone formation in the main entrance chamber. I'd made it! Sliding under another knotted rope, I slid down the flowstone to the tour platform. Back on the Surface I had a lot to think about on the three hour drive home. I knew now that caving was not only right for me and that I was mentally and physically up to the challenge, but that I had to cave. What was the appeal? Why was I so strongly drawn underground? I thought this trip would answer those questions, but it left me more confused than ever. It wasn't the formations, and it wasn't the crawling, climbing, and squeezing. The rappel was fun, but it wasn't that either. What caused the extreme sense of peace and serenity? Was it something in the earth itself? A soothing consciousness emanating directly from the rock? Maybe someday I will answer these questions, but one thing is certain: there's mud in my blood and the earth is calling me home.

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Volume 40, Number 8 San Francisco Bay Chapter Newsletter Page? Further Comments on Folia Origin By Dale Green Donald Davis recently contributed an interesting article on folia for the May issue of the SFBC's Newsletter (Davis, 1997.) In it several occurrences are described from Hurricane Crawl Cave along with discussions of how folia are formed. Included is a brief origin theory of mine originally contained in a report I wrote after visiting the same cave. Our ideas on genesis differ considerably and I feel some elaboration of my ideas is necessary. Since I did not view most of what Donald describes, it is impossible to comment on the bulk of the report. What I would like to discuss instead is what my description of folia origin doesn't cover why I reject the prevailing view that folia are created at a pool's edge by accretion of soft calcite scum as proposed by Davis and others. Folia are comparatively rare speleothems. Many long-time cavers have never seen them in person. Donald's description is adequate: "Folia are unusual speleothems that form contoured fields of interleaved, downward-sloping ribs along vertical or overhanging cave walls." Pages could be used covering finer details but Figure 1 should give you an approximate idea. This is a wall of folia seen in Indian Burial Cave, Nevada. Because of the perspective, it is not apparent that the lower edges of these ribs are nearly horizontal. Because of breakage during breakdown collapse, portions are missing. The basic dispute is this: I propose that an entire wall of folia, such as shown in the photo, is created beneath the water table simultaneously throughout the entire vertical extent rather than at a water surface that is fluctuating up and down. Some of my reasons are: All folia occurrences I have observed are crusts or coatings of near-uniform thickness throughout their entire vertical and horizontal extent, except for gradual thinning at the upper limit. An excellent place to observe this is in Indian Burial Cave where an immense block fell from the ceiling after being coated with folia. Many cracks allow examination of cross-sections. A gradual buildup in coating thickness at the extreme lower limit occurs in Goshute Cave, the only exposure known to me where a true lower limit of folia is not covered by water, breakdown, debris, etc. Nowhere in the entire vertical range of folia walls is one level more favored for deposition than another, and I have been informed of some locations where folia covers more than 100 feet, bottom to top. How, I have often questioned, can a fluctuating water level make such an even-thickness deposit throughout decades of feet? It would require that the water's surface spend exactly the same time at all levels and that degassing to precipitate the calcite scum was always the same. Tens or hundreds of thousands of years are probably necessary for deposition to take place, requiring an incredible constancy of fluctuations. This constancy has to occur in exactly the same manner for all pools depositing folia throughout the world because even the minute details of folia morphology are the same for every deposit. Surely at sometime during the depositional history a pool would remain very close to the same level long enough to leave a reminder, a bathtub ring so to speak, such as shelfstone. Nothing like that has ever been reported, except for Hurricane Crawl, where I strongly believe the shelfstone is distinctly post-folia deposition. Folia ribs eventually grow to form inverted cups with the lower edges nearly horizontal. The common analogy of folia being upside-down rimstone pools is valid. None of these lower, horizontal edges are ever at the same elevation as another edge in any of the folia displays I have seen. If a pool is covered with calcite scum why is deposition taking place at only one rib and nowhere else around the periphery? Such a deposition would have to exist in the same physical conditions for thousands of years. Folia grow only on downward-facing slopes. Why is there no calcite scum deposition on upward-facing slopes (i.e., floors) when the pool fluctuates downward? None has been reported. Also, there are many places where cross sections of broken folia ribs can be seen. They show concentric growth rings similar to any other subaqueous coating. It is doubtful that accreting calcite scum would demonstrate such rings. My list of why? and how come? for the pool-edge theory goes on and on but I'll truncate it here. Needless to say I never been able to comprehend the water level idea since I first saw folia in Burial Cave 40 years ago because of the unanswered questions posed above along with many others. For a discussion of how I think folia are formed, refer to the quotes in Davis's article and the abstract in the NSS Journal. The occurrence of "mud folia" in Colorado's Cave of the Winds is often cited as justification for proposing that folia, both calcite and mud, form from accretion of particles at a fluctuating water level. Davis states (pg. 7) "Except in scale (which is also quite variable in calcite folia,) the calcite folia and mud folia I have seen are morphologically identical." On this point I disagree. If I had to chose one distinctive adjective to describe folia ribs, it would be "interleaving" or maybe "interlocking." Every folia investigator uses similar terms starting with de Saussure, and others, in I 952 when folia were first named and described from their occurrence in Indian Burial Cave, Nevada. ("Connect and interconnect" were the words used then.) It is this interleaving that makes folia so unique and enigmatic. The so-called "mud folia" do not possess this most descriptive feature of calcite folia. The drooping mud ribs are perfectly horizontal and evenly spaced from each other, never interleaving or touching one another as all calcite

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Page8 San Francisco Bay Chapter Newsletter August 1997 folia ribs do. Most mud ribs are separated from each other by only a few millimeters at most. It is very difficult for me to conceive how they could have been formed by accretion of mud or clay particles from a fluctuating water level. Certainly any delicate mud or clay feature below the water level would start to dissolve and be erased or destroyed in a matter of minutes. Once a mud rib was deposited, it would be instantly destroyed if the water level rose above the rib's elevation. Mud ribs are very delicate These drooping mud shelves do not form individual cups as found in calcite folia. Rather, the ribs are horizontally continuous, except where broken by mechanical failure from the pull of gravity. If calcite folia are turned upside down, the cups would hold water in separate pockets at varying elevations. If "mud folia" were hardened and turned upside down, water would run out the ends of the ribs. Few, if any, of the ribs I observed had closure at the ends (although pieces of mud may have fallen away.) After intensely studying folia for the past 7 years, I saw very little morphological similarity between "mud folia" and calcite folia, even after allowing for scale. My interpretation of the mud features in Cave of the Winds is that they are tiny mud shelves deposited by a monotonically decreasing water level. For some reason the water level periodically stayed at one elevation long enough to allow suspended clay particles to adhere to, and build out from, cave walls, creating the equivalent of calcite shelfstone. When the water level dropped, support was removed from the mud shelves and they drooped down because of their weight. My opinion is that these mud shelves have no genetic relationship whatever to calcite folia and the comparison is therefore invalid. If any serious investigator of folia is ever in Eastern Nevada and we can arrange a mutually convenient time, I'll be happy to show you how my ideas apply to the folia in Goshute Cave first, then in Indian Burial Cave afterward (60' pit involved.) Contact me at dajgreen@burgoyne.com or (801) 277-6417. I'm in the NSS directory. REFERENCES: Davis, Donald G., 1997, Folia in Hurricane Crawl Cave and Crystal Sequoia Cave. San Francisco Bay Chapter Newsletter, Vol40, No.5, May, pg. 3-7. Response to Further Comments on Folia Origin By Donald Davis Thank you for the your response to my report on the Hurricane Crawl Cave folia. You make a number of good points, which clarify considerably why you don't accept the water-level hypothesis for folia. I can neither confirm nor refute all of them, because many--such as the distinction between calcite folia and mud folia--involve small-scale details that I have not specifically recorded from my own observations, and which would require revisiting the sites to re-observe those specific features. I do have a few comments, however. You raise the question posed by relatively even thickness of folia deposition over a range up to 100 or more vertical feet (as occurs in Lechuguilla Cave). You regard this as incompatible with a water-level origin, on the grounds that "tens or hundreds of thousands of years are probably necessary for deposition to take place, requiring an incredible constancy of fluctuations." As far as I know, however, no one has any empirical data on the actual growth rate of folia. If they are, as I propose, accreted primarily from surface scum, associated (in the calcite case) with a high C02 degassing rate, they are probably faster-growing than most speleothems. Furthermore, if these sites are at water-table windows (as is evidently the case at Lechuguilla), we might expect comparatively constant chemical conditions over fairly long periods, and the random fluctuations of the level should smear out the area of maximum deposition over an extensive vertical zone. Several feet of waterlevel variation has been observed at the Lake of the White Roses in Lechuguilla in less than ten years since it was discovered, so surface fluctuation of more than 100 feet in the total time of folia growth seems not at all improbable. Then: "Surely at sometime during the deposition history a pool would remain very close to the same level long enough to leave a reminder, a bathtub ring so to speak, like shelfstone. Nothing like that has ever been reported, except for Hurricane Crawl, where I strongly believe the shelfstone is distinctly post-folia deposition." This "bathtub ring" effect is exactly what I think is so well exemplified by Hurricane Crawl. Whether or not the shelfstone there intergrades with the folia (as it appears to me), or is post-folia and unrelated, the folia in Hurricane Crawl occupy very restricted vertical zones: about two

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Volume 40, Number 8 San Francisco Bay Chapter Newsletter Page9 inches (in the case of the active folia in the Schist Canyon section) to two feet (in all the others). Moreover, at least one clearly similar case elsewhere has been reported: the miniature folia in Groaning Cave, Colorado, where rudimentary folia ribs grew along a ring-like band about two inches high, in an area where a perched but considerably-fluctuating water table still exists. (I don't have my reference to this on hand, since my files are not with me here, but it's cited in Cave Minerals of the World.) In fact, in every case where the folia are not at the very bottom of the cave, a distinct upper and lower limit can be defined. This is certainly true in Goshute Cave, Nevada, where the folia zone is restricted to several tens of feet in the middle of a much more extensive vertical range. The folia do indeed form a "bathtub ring"; it's just a much bigger ring than in the Hurricane or Groaning examples. The same, on a still larger scale, is true in Lechuguilla. And: "Folia grow only on downward-facing slopes. Why is there no calcite scum deposition left on upward-facing slopes (i.e., floors) when the pool level fluctuates downward? None has been reported. Also, there are many places where cross-sections of broken folia ribs can be seen. They show concentric growth rings similar to any other subaqueous coating. It is doubtful that accreting calcite scum would demonstrate such rings." There are several considerations here. Such floor deposition may be common, but may only assume the form of a calcite crust, unremarkable in appearance and not likely to be specifically observed and noted in descriptions. And, since calcite folia are invariably associated with calcite rafts, upward-facing surfaces in many sites are mantled by sunken raft deposits, obscuring what they might otherwise look like. (The rafts themselves may be thickened by subaqueous deposition, some of which will be from accreting scum particles.) You are correct that folia show growth rings. I might expect such rings to be more blurred in a case of pure scum accretion than in that of crystallization from solution. However, (calcite) folia are presumably a mixed case of accretion/crystallization, in which the latter continues when the folia shelf is submerged. In Indian Burial Cave, Nevada, the rings in folia cross-sections show greater deposition on the upper than on the lower side of the shelf, which is consistent with growth enhancement by settling of suspended material. While I can't answer all your objections (at least without making many further observations), it still seems to me that the preponderance of evidence is strongly in favor of folia being in essence a fluctuating-water-level equivalent of shelfstone, not a fundamentally phreatic form. And the Hurricane Crawl Cave examples are among the best of such evidence. The Schist Canyon folia in particular--which appear to be actively growing in a very narrow band associated with an existing water level--are extremely suggestive of this. Batting Around in Georgia By: David Parks Can some one be on a first name basis with a singular bat among 10,000? We sure tried. Officially my trip was as a volunteer to help Richard Kappel document the flight and nesting behaviour of the endangered gray bat. Unofficially, I wanted to get in all the caving I could during my first visit to TAG country. TAG is the cave rich area where Tennessee, Alabama and Georgia meet. The first evening we set up a bat trap outside Frick's cave at the foot of Lookout Mountain. We quickly caught 'Charley' and attached a transmitter to him. The we went to a nearby 80 foot water tower to practice vertical while tracking the bat with a directional antenna from the tank top. If any locals saw our lights wandering around up there, they must have thought us to be extra terrestrials. The sensation was like being in an inside out cave. We stayed at a ranger station courtesy of the Georgia Department of Natural Resources. The next day we started off with a trip into Pettijohn's Cave, only a half mile from our bunks. Wonderful introduction to TAG mud. We barely scratched the surface of it's six miles of complex passage. Then we went to PMI, the Petzl distributor and maker of rope. The rope making was fascinating. They have an indoor tower like an elevator shaft for testing dynamic rope loading. Down there everyone talks caves, bats and rope. Even the local hardware store has a vertical department. That night we set out bat microphones in a pattern to record flight paths. More dancing on the tank top with telemetry equipment and back to the ranger station for computer analysis of the bat recordings. The hypersonic spectral pattern tells what kind of bat, how many bats, its type of activity and where it likes to fly. The third night was spent preparing for future visits by ridge walking and scoping the overall topography of Pigeon Mountain. We lost track of Charley our 'radio active' bat. Did he go to another cave or groom off his transmitter into the guano piles in his home cave? After all the bats had left for the night we went into Frick's with the radio reciever. Because gray bat caves are strictly off limits, this was a rare privilege. Guano is very very slippery. It was as steamy as a London fog and at one point we lost our way in the mist. No transmitter, but lots of bat tapes to analyze that night. The next day we had to cancel our planned deep pit trip because our guide was off training dogs in cave rescue. Instead we went to Anderson Spring Cave with E.T. Davis and his girl friend. We had met E.T. at Frick's the day before. He is a long time caver and cave diver and so we

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Page 10 San Francisco Bay Chapter Newsletter August 1997 swapped a few diving lies. He mentioned that he had been in Lechuguilla and knew Dave Bunnell and Peter Bosted, among others from our grotto. Anderson is a linear non vertical cave, with a refreshingly cool water crawl. At night we set out the microphones, we went to Lowry cave to look for Charley. More Guano to crawl over. Previously, bat pampers had been left on the floor to measure the Guano accumulation rate. In scientific terms, it takes alot of bats a long time to make those piles. The final day, I got a consolation prize for missing the big pits. We visited Ellison's Cave on Pigeon Mountain and descended into the Warm Up Pit. This little feller is variously listed as 125 to 145 feet. However, right around the corner from the pit bottom is a 'real' pit of over 500 feet. Without a guide, it was out of the question. We reluctantly went back to prepare for the nightly batting practice. Many thanks to Cindy Heazlit and my fellow vertical students for patiently getting me ready for this wonderful trip. Knot of the Month By Cindy Heazlit This month's knot is the Frost knot. It is good for tying loops in webbing, such as etriers and retains 50% of the material strength. 1) Fold one end of the webbing over the other 3) Bring it through SFBC Meeting Minutes July monthly meeting Submitted by the secretary, Steve Ruble Date: July 22, 1997 Time: 8:00 PM to 10:00 PM Location Telegen Co. HQ Redwood City Attendance: 4 Grotto Officers, ? members or guests, and the watch dog seems pretty bored. Special topic: None 2) Tie an overhand knot at the "folded" end 4) Set the knot by pulling on it • Noted again is the very fine facilities for our monthly Ipeetings. Thanks again to Bonnie and Jessica for use of their conference room. • The program was a collection of slides from Bunnell and Bosted. Great program, thanks. • Introductions were made, sign in sheet and hard hat were passed around.

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Volume 40, Number 8 San Francisco Bay Chapter Newsletter Page 11 Announcements: • At the next executive meeting, the possibility and content of a possible web site for this grotto will be discussed. Anyone interested in this topic will be welcome to join the exec members. • Some discussion was made about the potential IXL gating project • Bosteds have a new calendar available. Ask for a discount from Ann. (Let me know if you get one.) Upcoming trips; CRF Lilburn, Thanksgiving to Onyx, Cave of the Bells, and possibly Dantes Descent. No Knot of the month, this month. After the break: • • Old Business; Regional planning and updates . New Business;. None noted . Trip Reports • Various reports that all sounded great. (I've got to go caving more often). The next meeting will be the Exec Meeting, on the 2"" Tuesday, with the next monthly meeting on the 4" Tuesday. August Executive Meeting Submitted by: Merrilee Proffitt, SFBC Chair Date: Time: August 12" 1997 7 PMto9PM Location: Fresh Choice, San Mateo Present: Merrilee Proffitt, Cindy Heazlit, Eric Goodill, Steve Ruble, and Robert Mudry. Cindy relayed that David Pryor of the Shascade Caving Society passed away from a major heart attack. The meeting centered on discussions for a grotto web page, which Robert Mudry will author and host. Executive board members to provide content to Robert. SFBC Genera] Information Newsletter: This newsletter is a monthly publication of the San Francisco Bay chapter (SFBC) of the National Speleological Society (NSS). Any material not specifically copyrighted may be reproduced by other Internal Organizations of the NSS without permission provided credit is given to SFBC and the author. Opinions expressed within this newsletter are not necessarily those of SFBC, its board members, or the NSS. The newsletter editor welcomes material for publishing including, cartoons, trip reports, clippings, drawings, photographs, letters to the editor, accident reports, etc. Hard copy, disks, e-mail, fax and phone calls are acceptable media. Please call to check for possible format problems with machine readable text. Black and white photographs are preferable; color photos are acceptable. Deadline for submission is the Friday after the executive meeting. Dues/Membership: Dues are due January I. Checks may be made payable to SFBC/NSS, PO Box 2282, Menlo Park, CA 94026 or can be delivered directly to the treasurer at the meeting. Price for annual membership is as follows: Regular Membership: $20.00; Family Membership: $8.00; Subscription Only: $12.00 Membership is open to anyone. However, in complying with the NSS rules governing Internal Organizations, only members of the NSS and this Internal Organization. have voting rights. Waivers: Waivers must be signed by all persons participating in SFBC Activities. Waivers are required for each SFBC activity. Forms are available at all chapter meetings and vertical practicesTrip leaders reserve the right to limit participation on their trips based . on number of participants or individual qualifications. Executive Meetings: Executive meetings are held on the second Tuesday of each month at 7pm at the "Fresh Choice" restaurant in San Mateo. Anyone is invited to share a meal and swap stories with us, but only the elected officers can vote on grotto issues. "Fresh Choice" is located in a shopping center just South of Hi 92 on the West side of El Camino in San Mateo. From 92, exit South (from either direction) and take the I right turn into the shopping center driveway. Can't miss the restaurant. Chapter Meetings: Meetings are held on the fourth Tuesday of each month, (Note: This is not necessarily the last Tuesday of the month) at 8:00 PM SHARP. Location: TELEGEN Building, 101 Saginaw, Redwood City, CA. Directions: From Highway 101, Exit Seaport Blvd. (same exit as Woodside Rd) and follow signs to Seaport Blvd. (towards the Bay). Tum left onto Chesapeake (signal light with the blue boat ramp sign). Tum left onto Saginaw (in sight of a big mountain of salt), and left again into the first driveway on Saginaw. Tum immediately right, follow the parking area around the building and park to the west side. The TELEGEN building (101-199 Saginaw) is tan with a rust-colored angular facade. Enter the building through the front entrance with "101" above the door. Volunteers: Librarian: Jim Lakner (408) 738-2939 (home) LAKNERJ @vncpo l.ne.ge.com Equipment Managers/Store Keepers Gail McCoy and Tom Mathey (408) 865-1763 (home) Board Members: Chair: Merrilee Proffitt (510) 339-7483 (home) mproffit@Iibrary.berkeley.edu Vice Chair: Cindy Heazlit (408) 448-8857 (home) cheazlit@ix.netcom.com (h) cindy.heazlit@lmco.com (w) Secretary: Steve Ruble (650) 692-0477 (home) sruble@ix.netcom.com Treasurer: Eric Goodill (650) 323-0976 (home) ericg@cisco.com Newsletter Editor: Mark Scott (650) 497-4321 (h) (650) 725-3318 (w) (650) 725-3377 (fax) miscott@stanford.edu

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Page 12 San Francisco Bay Chapter Newsletter San Francisco Bay Chapter National Speleological Society PO Box 2282 Menlo Park, CA 94026 August 23"' SFBC Annual Picnic Contact: Mark Scott (see Exec list) 26 n. Monthly Meeting 8pm at Telegen 30-1" CRF Lava Beds Project FIRST CLASS Mark Conover 10721 Wunderlich Dr Cupertino, CA 95014-3848 9th Executive Meeting 7pm at Fresh Choice 13'h Vertical Training on Anchors Contact: Cindy Heazlit (see Exec. List) 13-14th SFBC Church Cave trip Contact: Bill Frantz Contact: Bill Devereaux (503)363-3831 (h) (503) 378-3971 (w) (408) 356-8506 frantz@netcom.com or Peter Bosted (650) 234-9966 (home) (650) 926-2319 (work) hosted@ slac.stanford.edu Herberg_David @tandem.com 11-12 n.. Church Cave Project Contact: David Engel (see above) 11 n.. or 18 n.. Moaning (to be confirmed) Contact: Dave Herberg (see above) 11-13 n.. CRF Mineral King Project Contact: Roger Mortimer (209) 432-0503 (h) (209) 453-5705 (w) mortimer@uscsfresno.edu 30-1" CRF Mineral King Project Contact: Jeff Cheraz 20-21 ''Twin Lakes (Gourmet 14 n.. Executive Meeting (818) 359-7818 (home) gephc@juno.com 30-1" KMCTF Marbles Project Contact: Bonnie Crystal (650) 358-9524 (h) (650) 349-9613 (w) BXTAL1 @aol.com September 5-8th Dive Lilburn Project (See inside) Contact: Merrilee Proffitt (See Exec list) 6-7n. Church Cave Project Contact: David Engel (714) 637-3171 dengel@earthlink.net Backpacking) Contact: Bill Frantz (see above) 7pm at Fresh Choice 23"' Monthly Meeting 8pm at Telegen 27-28th Cave City and King Tut Contact: Michele Richardson (408) 427-0638 (home) 27-28th Church Cave Project Contact: David Engel (see above) October 4 n.. Grapevine Gulch (tentative) Contact: Dave Herberg (408) (l!) (408) 285-4219 (w) 18 n. Vertical Practice Contact: Cindy Heazlit (see Exec list) 21ST Monthly Meeting 8pm at Telegen 24-26 n.. Western Regional Meeting at Avery Ranch Contact: Tim and Tracie Slottenback (408) 984-0664 z1zz@msn.com 31-2 No CRF Lilburn Project Contact: Mike Spiess (209) 434-3321 (h) (209) 431-8100 x322 (work) mikes @hdcsi.com

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s f b c newsletter In this Issue: Several Announcements on Upcoming trips and the Regional Page2 Call for A ward Nominations Pages 3-4 Caving Job Offer Page4 The Cold Hard Facts About Freezing to Death Pages 4-8 Minutes Page 8 Grotto Information Page 9 Upcoming Trips Page 10 San Francisco Bay Chapter National Speleological Society Volume 40, Number 9 September 1997 Cover Photo by: Peter Bosted featuring Mark Scott in Toppled Table Talus cave (well sort of, Peter is in the cave at least)

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Page2 San Francisco Bay Chapter Newsletter September 1997 Program Announcement The program for the meeting will be a joint slide show with the Bosted's, the Frantz's and Dave Bunnell on the International in Switzerland. (I think, the people who are presenting may be a little different from this) Moaning and Grapevine Trip Information By Dave Herberg Oct 4 Grapevine Gulch beginners trip, max -12 people Oct 11 Moaning Cavern off-trail trip, vertical, max 6 people I just reconfirmed this with the cave owner. There is one drop of -65' with plenty of room to maneuver. Other passages have crawls, climbs, and squeezes. Possibility of bad air at the bottom. This is an after-hours trip, starting at 1800 (or 6pm for those non-European or military folk out there) or so. Vertical Hauling and Lowering Systems Module for the WRTC/SRC By: Cindy Heazlit The SFBC will be sponsoring a course on caving self rescue techniques for the Self Rescue Committee of the Western Region Training Committee (WRTC/SRC). Training will take place on November 22N, and will feature the Vertical Hauling and Lowering Systems module. Students will learn how to improvise various rescue hauling and lowering systems using their own vertical gear. There will be discussions and hands on sessions dealing with the "best" type of system to use for each situation and the limitations of each system. Special emphasis will be placed on edge techniques and how to avoid problems during a haul. There will also be discussion on how to determine when the problem is too large, difficult, or dangerous for a self rescue. Students must be vertically competent, which includes the ability to quickly perform change-overs. They must also have the ability to place secure anchors. Due to the technical difficulty of this session, class size will be limited to 12 individuals. The class will take place during a very long day. Students should bring all the equipment they would normally take on a full vertical caving trip, and be willing to let it be used as part of a rescue system. This class is a "work in progress" currently being developed by the WRTC/SRC. All individuals participating in the module are expected to provide constructive feedback to the SRC. Help Wanted for Organizing the Western Regional By Merrilee Proffitt We still need volunteers to assist with the regional meeting, which will be held October 24-26Th. We need: o People to write questions for Speleo-Jeopardy. This is your chance to show off your knowledge of obscure underground knowledge! o People ahead of time to help make signs, badges, and to assemble registration packets. o Is your employer willing to part with any cute promotional trinkets (the kind given away at product shows)? Including plastic bags? If so, we would love these for registration packets! Especially the bags. o Do you have the capability of printing up a LARGE campground map and a LARGE schedule? I would love to hear from you! o People to show up early and help with set up! We will be putting up signs, taping black plastic to windows (because cavers love the dark, right?), setting up a SpeleOiympics course, setting up a bulletin board, preparing for the hoards, and generaity having a great time! We will be there aii day on Friday. Let me know if you can make it early. o People to help clean up. Shouldn't take a heck of a long time. o People to lead caving trips. For any and all of the above, please contact Merrilee at mproffit@library.berkeley.edu or at home (510) 339-7483. Quilt Raffle Ticket Sellers Needed By: Lynn Fielding Attention cavers! We still need ticket sellers to help out with the raffle for the beautiful quilt (made of caving t-shirts) designed and sewn by Pat Garner. If you can help sell a few tickets, contact Peri Frantz at apfrantz@apple.com or (408) 356-8506. Proceeds will be used to build a gear cache for the Western Region Training Committee. The Quilt is featured on the cover of the California Caver, Issue Number 206, which is currently in the mail and on its way to you. •.

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Volume 40, Number 9 San Francisco Bay Chapter Newsletter Page 3 Call for 1998 Award Nominations By: Mike Hood Once again, it is time to nominate that deserving member of your grotto, section, or region for the various NSS awards to be presented at the 1998 convention. Please submit nominations to the appropriate award sub-chair by November 15tli, 1997. You can even submit your nomination via e-mail to the appropriate sub-chair through the A wards Committee Home Page, found in the NSS Home Page. Nominations are being sought for the following awards: WILLIAM J. STEPHENSON OUTSTANDING SERVICE AWARD One Outstanding Service Award is given each year to a member of the NSS for outstanding service to speleology and the NSS. Honorary Membership is conferred upon receipt of this award. Equal with the Honorary Membership, this award constitutes the Society's highest award. Send nominations to Gale Beach, 488 Oak Court, Menlo Park, CA 94025-2843, e-mail ray beach @earthlink.net HONORARY MEMBERSHIP One Honorary Membership is given each year for outstanding contributions to the field of speleology. The award confers life membership to the Society. Equal with the William J. Stephenson Outstanding Service Award, this award constitutes the Society's highest award. Send nominations to Gale Beach, 488 Oak Court, Menlo Park, CA 94025-2843, e-mail ray beach @earthlink.net LEW BICKING AWARD This award recognizes an individual NSS member who, through specific actions, has demonstrated a dedication to the thorough exploration and mapping of a cave or group of caves. The recipient must have been a member in good standing of the Society for at least two years immediately prior to being submitted as a candidate. A cash award accompanies this recognition. Send nominations to Patricia Kambesis, 3473 Regalwoods Drive, Doraville, GA 303404019, e-mail pkambesis@aol.com SCIENCE AWARD One Science Award is given each year to recognize one NSS member who, over time, has demonstrated outstanding , dedication to the scientific study of caves. Send nominations to Dr. John Mylroie, P.O. Box 2194, Mississipi State, MS 39762-2194, e-mail MYLROIE@ Geosci.msstate.edu SPELEAN ARTS & LETTERS A WARD One Spelean Arts and Letters Award is given annually to recognize one NSS member, who, over time, has advanced spelean arts and letters by significant artistic expression, management, or criticism. Send nominaions to Scott Fee, 2501 Gable Blvd., Birminghan, AL 35215-2862, e-mail scottfee@usa.pipeline.com FELLOW OF THE SOCIETY Recipients are members who, over a number of years, have exemplified by their actions their dedication to the goals of the Society or to the Society itself. Recipients must have been members in good standing of the Society for at least two years immediately prior to their names being submitted as candidates. Send nominations to Bill Mixon, 14045 N. Green Hills Loop, Austin, TX 78737-9229, e-mail billmixon@ worldnet.att.net CERTIFICATE OF MERIT Certificates may be given to individuals, jointly to no more than three individuals, or to organizations. Several Certificates of Merit may be awarded each year for specific accomplishments in cave exploration, study, conservation, or for accomplishments which further other goals of the NSS. Send nominations to Bill Bussey, 3007 Mt. Moriah Rd., Durham, NC 27707-9023, e-mail billbus@gte.net CONSERVATION AWARD The Conservation Award is given annually to an individual who, through his or her actions, has demonstrated an outstanding dedication to the cause of cave conservation. Send nominations to Jeanne Hill, 662 Old Gurley Rd., Huntsville, AL 35811-9416 PETER M. HAUER SPELEAN HISTORY AWARD This award provides a cash award to be given to an individual or group of individuals engaged in an outstanding spelean history research project. The project is presented at the Convention for consideration for the award. Send nominations to Dr. Cato Holler, Jr., P.O. Box 100, Old Fort, NC 28762-0100, e-mail hollers@icu2.net JAMES G. MITCHELL AWARD This award provides a cash award for the best scientific paper presented at the Convention by a member (or members) of the Society age 25 or younger. Send nominations to Charles Lundquist, 214 Jones Valley Dr., Huntsville, AL 35802-1724

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Page4 San Francisco Bay Chapter Newsletter September 1997 NATIONAL CAVES ASSOCIATION BEST PAPER ON A SHOW CAVE A WARD The National Caves Association presents this award for the best paper related to a show cave given by an NSS member at the Convention. The award includes a check for $100 from the National Caves Association. Send nominations to Gordon Smith, 9850 N. Skyline Dr., Floyds Knobs, IN 47119-8821 Comments and suggestions on the nomination process and operation of the Awards Committee are always welcome. Please write Mike Hood, Awards Committee Chairman, 23 Wells Ave., Dayton, OH 45431-1420. E-mail mhcaver@ aol.com Cave Management Internship at Jewel Cave National Monument By: Mike Wiles Jewel Cave is offering a one-year internship in cave resource management. This volunteer position is designed to provide assistance to the cave management program, and also to give the intern relevent training and experience. The position offers no salary, although we provide a place to stay and $100 per week for living expenses. The internship will last a full year, from January to December, 1998. Applicants need not be enrolled with an educational institution in order to be considered. Regular duties include: collecting water samples from the cave and nearby springs, analyzing water samples for nitrates and chlorides, monitoring cave temperature and humidity, radon monitoring, computer data entry, bat counts, assisting with photomonitoring and cave inventory programs, cleaning lint accumulations and removing algae from the tour route, helping organize projects involving other cavers, and providing assistance to the interpretive staff. Other opportunities may be available, depending on the funding we receive to accomplish special projects. In the past, interns have helped in areas such as water-quality studies, dye tracing, cave radio location, cave SAR preplanning, paleontological test digs, geologic mapping, photomonitoring, and biologic studies. Additionally, the program can be tailored to your specific interests and skills. Training will be provided! In addition to in-house training, this year's intern attended a four-day GPS class, a week long NCRC cave rescue course, and will soon be attending the Karst and Cave Management Syposium in Billingham, Washington. The main requirements are: Caving experience, basic computer skills, and writing/public speaking experience. Additionally, environmental, photographic, and geological experience or training could also be put to good use. There will be many opportunities for caving. Those with sufficient desire and ability are welcome to participate in the ongoing exploration program. Applications can be obtained from: Mike Wiles c/o Jewel Cave RR I, Box 60AA Custer, SD 57730 Completed applications must be received by Friday, October 24th, 1997 and each applicant will be notified of the final selection by Monday, November 17th, 1997. Actual starting and ending dates are flexible and can be negotiated. Please pass this message along to anyone who might be interested. If you have any questions, please call me at: (605) 673-2061, ext. 1226. My e-mail address is Mike_ Wiles@nps.gov. The Cold Hard Facts of Freezing to Death As Freezing Persons Recollect the Snow--First Chill-Then Stupor-Then the Letting Go From OutSide Magazine January 1997 By Peter Stark, submitted by Steve Ruble When your Jeep spins lazily off the mountain road and slams backward into a snowbank, you don't worry immediately about the cold. Your first thought is that you've just dented your bumper. Your second is that you've failed to bring a shovel. Your third is that you'll be late for dinner. Friends are expecting you at their cabin around eight for a moonlight ski, a late dinner, a sauna. Nothing can keep you from that. Driving out of town, defroster roaring, you barely noted the bank thermometer on the town square: minus 27 degrees at 6:36. The radio weather report warned of a deep mass of arctic air settling over the region. The man who took your money at the Conoco station shook his head at the register and said he wouldn't be going anywhere tonight if he were you. You smiled. A little chill never hurt anybody with enough fleece and a good four-wheel-drive. But now you're stuck. Jamming the gearshift into low, you try to muscle out of the drift. The tires whine on ice-slicked snow as headlights dance on the curtain of frosted firs across the road. Shoving the lever back into park, you shoulder open the door and step from your heated capsule. Cold slaps your naked face, squeezes tears from your eyes. You check your watch: 7:18. You consult your map: A thin, switchbacking line snakes up the mountain to the penciled square that marks the cabin. Breath rolls from you in short frosted puffs. The Jeep lies cocked sideways in the snowbank like

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Volume 40, Number 9 San Francisco Bay Chapter Newsletter Page5 an empty turtle shell. You think of firelight and saunas and warm food and wine. You look again at the map. It's maybe five or six miles more to that penciled square. You run that far every day before breakfast. You'll just put on your skis. No problem. There is no precise core temperature at which the human body perishes from cold. At Dachau's cold-water immersion baths, Nazi doctors calculated death to arrive at around 77 degrees Fahrenheit. The lowest recorded core temperature in a surviving adult is 60.8 degrees. For a child it's lower: In 1994, a two-year-old girl in Saskatchewan wandered out of her house into a minus-40 night. She was found near her doorstep the next morning, limbs frozen solid, her core temperature 57 degrees. She lived. Others are less fortunate, even in much milder conditions. One of Europe's worst weather disasters occurred during a 1964 competitive walk on a windy, rainy English moor; three of the racers died from hypothermia, though temperatures never fell below freezing and ranged as high as 45. But for all scientists and statisticians now know of freezing and its physiology, no one can yet predict exactly how quickly and in whom hypothermia will strike--and whether it will kill when it does. The cold remains a mystery, more prone to fell men than women, more lethal to the thin and well muscled than to those with avoirdupois, and least forgiving to the arrogant and the unaware. The process begins even before you leave the car, when you remove your gloves to squeeze a loose bail back into one of your ski bindings. The freezing metal bites your flesh. Your skin temperature drops. Within a few seconds, the palms of your hands are a chilly, painful60 degrees. Instinctively, the web of surface capillaries on your hands constrict, sending blood coursing away from your skin and deeper into your torso. Your body is allowing your fingers to chill in order to keep its vital organs warm. You replace your gloves, noticing only that your fingers have numbed slightly. Then you kick boots into bindings and start up the road. Were you a Norwegian fisherman or Inuit hunter, both of whom frequently work gloveless in the cold, your chilled hands would open their surface capillaries periodically to allow surges of warm blood to pass into them and maintain their flexibility. This phenomenon, known as the hunter's response, can elevate a 35-degree skin temperature to 50 degrees within seven or eight minutes. Other human adaptations to the cold are more mysterious. Tibetan Buddhist monks can raise the skin temperature of their hands and feet by 15 degrees through meditation. Australian aborigines, who once slept on the ground, unclothed, on near-freezing nights, would slip into a light hypothermic state, suppressing shivering until the rising sun rewarmed them. You have no such defenses, having spent your days at a keyboard in a climate-controlled office. Only after about ten minutes of hard climbing, as your body temperature rises, does blood start seeping back into your_: fingers. Sweat trickles down your sternum and spine. By now you've left the road and decided to shortcut up the forested mountainside to the road's next switchback. Treading slowly through deep, soft snow as the full moon hefts over a spiny ridgetop, throwing silvery bands of moonlight and shadow, you think your friends were right: It's a beautiful night for skiing--though you admit, feeling the minus-30 air bite at your face, it's also cold. After an hour, there's still no sign of the switchback, and you've begun to worry. You pause to check the map. At this moment, your core temperature reaches its high: 100.8. Climbing in deep snow, you've generated nearly ten times as much body heat as you do when you are resting. As you step around to orient map to forest, you hear a metallic pop. You look down. The loose bail has disappeared from your binding. You lift your foot and your ski falls from your boot. You twist on your flll;shlight, and its cold-weakened batteries throw a yellowish circle in the snow. It's right around here somewhere, you think, as you sift the snow through gloved fingers. Focused so intently on finding the bail, you hardly notice the frigid air pressing against your tired body and sweat-soaked clothes. The exertion that warmed you on the way uphill now works against you: Your exercise-dilated capillaries carry the excess heat of your core to your skin, and your wet clothing dispels it rapidly into the night. The lack of insulating fat over your muscles allows the cold to creep that much closer to your warm blood. Your temperature begins to plummet. Within 17 minutes it reaches the normal 98.6. Then it slips below. At 97 degrees, hunched over in your slow search, the muscles along your neck and shoulders tighten in what's known aspre-shivering muscle tone. Sensors have signaled the temperature control center in your hypothalamus, which in turn has ordered the constriction of the entire web of surface capillaries. Your hands and feet begin to ache with cold. Ignoring the pain, you dig carefully through the snow; another ten minutes pass. Without the bail you know you're in deep trouble. Finally, nearly 45 minutes later, you find the bail. You even manage to pop it back into its socket and clamp your boot into the binding. But the clammy chill that started around your skin has now wrapped deep into your body's core. At 95, you've entered the zone of mild hypothermia. You're now trembling violently as your body attains its maximum shivering response, an involuntary condition in which your muscles contract rapidly to generate additional body heat. It was a mistake, you realize, to come out on a night this cold. You should turn back. Fishing into the front pocket of yourshell parka, you fumble out the map. You consulted it to get here; it should be able to guide you back to the warm car. It doesn't occur to you in your increasingly clouded and panicky mental state that you could simply follow your tracks down the way you came. And after this long stop, the skiing itself has become more difficult. By the time you push off downhill, your muscles have cooled and tightened so dramatically that they no longer contract easily, and once contracted, they won't

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1 Page6 San Francisco Bay Chapter Newsletter September 1997 relax. You're locked into an ungainly, spread-armed, weak kneed snowplow. Still, you manage to maneuver between stands of fir, swishing down through silvery light and pools of shadow. You're too cold to think of the beautiful night or of the friends you had meant to see. You think only of the warm Jeep that waits for you somewhere at the bottom of the hill. Its gleaming shell is centered in your mind's eye as you come over the crest of a small knoll. You hear the sudden whistle of wind in your ears as you gain speed. Then, before your mind can quite process what the sight means, you notice a lump in the snow ahead. Recognizing, slowly, the danger that you are in, you try to jam your skis to a stop. But in your panic, your balance and judgment are poor. Moments later, your ski tips plow into the buried log and you sail headfirst through the air and bellyflop into the snow. You lie still. There's a dead silence in the forest, broken by the pumping of blood in your ears. Your ankle is throbbing with pain and you've hit your head. You've also lost your hat and a glove. Scratchy snow is packed down your shirt. Meltwater trickles down your neck and spine, joined soon by a thin line of blood from a small cut on your head. This situation, you realize with an immediate sense of panic, is serious. Scrambling to rise, you collapse in pain, your ankle crumpling beneath you. As you sink back into the snow, shaken, you, heat begins to drain away at an alarming rate, your head alone accounting for 50 percent of the loss. The pain of the cold soon pierces your ears so sharply that you root about in the snow until you find your hat and mash it back onto your head. But even that little activity has been exhausting. You know you should find your glove as well, and yet you're becoming too weary to feel any urgency. You decide to have a short rest before going on. An hour passes, at one point, a stray thought says you should start being scared, but fear is a concept that floats somewhere beyond your immediate reach, like that numb hand lying naked in the snow. You've slid into the temperature range at which cold renders the enzymes in your brain less efficient. With every one-degree drop in body temperature below 95, your cerebral metabolic rate falls off by 3 to 5 percent. When your core temperature reaches 93, amnesia nibbles at your consciousness. You check your watch: 12:58. Maybe someone will come looking for you soon. Moments later, you check again. You can't keep the numbers in your head. You'll remember little of what happens next. Your head drops back. The snow crunches softly in your ear. In the minus-35-degree air, your core temperature falls about one degree every 30 to 40 minutes, your body heat leaching out into the soft, enveloping snow. Apathy at 91 degrees. Stupor at 90. You've now crossed the boundary into profound hypothermia. By the time your core temperature has fallen to 88 degrees, your body has abandoned the urge to warm itself by shivering. Your blood is thickening like crankcase oil in a cold engine. Your oxygen consumption, a measure of your metabolic rate, has fallen by more than a quarter. Your kidneys, however, work overtime to process the fluid overload that occurred when the blood vessels in your extremities constricted and squeezed fluids toward your center. You feel a powerful urge to urinate, the only thing you feel at all. By 87 degrees you've lost the ability to recognize a familiar face, should one suddenly appear from the woods. At 86 degrees, your heart, its electrical impulses hampered by chilled nerve tissues, becomes arrhythmic. It now pumps less than two thirds the normal amount of blood. The lack of oxygen and the slowing metabolism of your brain, meanwhile, begin to trigger visual and auditory hallucinations. You hear jingle bells. Lifting your face from your snow pillow, you realize with a surge of gladness that they're not sleigh bells; they're welcoming bells hanging from the door of your friends' cabin. You knew it had to be close by. The jingling is the sound of the cabin door opening, just through the fir trees. Attempting to stand, you collapse in a tangle of skis and poles. That's OK. You can crawl. It's so close. Hours later, or maybe it's minutes, you realize the cabin still sits beyond the grove of trees. You've crawled only a few feet. The light on your wristwatch pulses in the darkness: 5:20. Exhausted, you decide to rest your head for a moment.When you lift it again, you're inside, lying on the floor before the woodstove. The fire throws off a red glow. First it's warm; then it's hot; then it's searing your flesh. Your clothing has caught fire. At 85 degrees, those freezing to death, in a strange, anguished paroxysm, often rip off their clothes. This phenomenon,known as paradoxical undressing, is common enough that urban hypothermia victims are sometimes initially diagnosed as victims of sexual assault. Though researchers are uncertain of the cause, the most logical explanation is that shortly before loss of consciousness, the constricted blood vessels near the body's surface suddenly dilate and produce a sensation of extreme heat against the skin. All you know is that you're burning. You claw off your shell and pile sweater and fling them away. But then, in a final moment of clarity, you realize there's no stove, no cabin, no friends. You're lying alone in the bitter cold, naked from the waist up. You grasp your terrible misunderstanding, a whole series of misunderstandings, like a dream ratcheting into wrongness. You've shed your clothes, your car, your oil-heated house in town. Without this ingenious technology you're simply a delicate, tropical organism whose range is restricted to a narrow sunlit band that girds the earth at the equator. And you've now ventured way beyond it. There's an adage about hypothermia: "You aren't dead until you're warm and dead." At about 6:00 the next morning, his friends, having discovered the stalled Jeep, find him, still huddled inches from the buried log, his gloveless hand shoved into his armpit. The flesh of his limbs is waxy and stiff as old putty, his pulse nonexistent, pupils unresponsive to light. Dead. But those who

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r Volume 40, Number 9 San Francisco Bay Chapter Newsletter Page7 understand cold know that even as it deadens, it offers perverse salvation. Heat is a presence: the rapid vibrating of molecules. Cold is an absence: the damping of the vibrations. At absolute zero, minus 459.67 degrees Fahrenheit, molecular motion ceases altogether. It is this slowing that converts gases to liquids, liquids to solids, and renders solids harder. It slows bacterial growth and chemical reactions. In the human body, cold shuts down metabolism. The lungs take in less oxygen, the heart pumps less blood. Under normal temperatures, this would produce brain damage. But the chilled brain, having slowed its own metabolism, needs far less oxygen-rich blood and can, under the right circumstances, survive intact. Setting her ear to his chest, one of his rescuers listens intently. Seconds pass. Then, faintly, she hears a tiny sound--a single thump, so slight that it might be the sound of her own blood. She presses her ear harder to the cold flesh. Another faint thump, then another. The slowing that accompanies freezing is, in its way, so beneficial that it is even induced at times. Cardiologists today often use deep chilling to slow a patient's metabolism in preparation for heart or brain surgery. In this state of near suspension, the patient's blood flows slowly, his heart rarely beats--or in the case of those on heart-lung machines, doesn't beat at all; death seems near. But carefully monitored, a patient can remain in this cold stasis, undamaged, for hours. The rescuers quickly wrap their friend's naked torso with a spare parka, his hands with mittens, his entire body with a bivy sack. They brush snow from his pasty, frozen face. Then one snakes down through the forest to the nearest cabin.The others, left in the pre-dawn darkness, huddle against him as silence closes around them. For a moment, the woman imagines she can hear the scurrying, breathing, snoring of a world of creatures that have taken cover this frigid night beneath the thick quilt of snow. With a "one, two, three," the doctor and nurses slide the man's stiff, curled form onto a table fitted with a mattress filled with warm water which will be regularly reheated. They'd been warned that they had a profound hypothermia case coming in. Usually such victims can be straightened from their tortured fetal positions. This one can't. Technicians scissor with stainless-steel shears at the man's urine-soaked long underwear and shell pants, frozen together like corrugated cardboard. They attach heart monitor electrodes to his chest and insert a low-temperature electronic thermometer into his rectum. Digital readings flash: 24 beats per minute and a core temperature of 79.2 degrees. The doctor shakes his head. He can't remember seeing numbers so low. He's not quite sure how to revive this man without killing him. In fact, many hypothermia victims die each year in the process of being rescued. In "rewarming shock," the constricted capillaries reopen almost all at once, causing a sudden drop in blood pressure. The slightest movement can send a victim's heart muscle into wild spasms of ventricular fibrillation. In 1980, 16 shipwrecked Danish fishermen were hauled to safety after an hour and a half in the frigid North Sea. They then walked across the deck of the rescue ship, stepped below for a hot drink, and dropped dead, all 16 of them. "78.9," a technician calls out. "That's three-tenths down." The patient is now experiencing "afterdrop;" in which residual cold close to the body's surface continues to cool the core even after the victim is removed from the outdoors. The doctor rapidly issues orders to his staff: intravenous administration of warm saline, the bag first heated in the microwave to 110 degrees. Elevating the core temperature of an average-size male one degree requires adding about 60 kilocalories of heat. A kilocalorie is the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of one liter of water one degree Celsius. Since a quart of hot soup at 140 degrees offers about 30 kilocalories, the patient curled on the table would need to consume 40 quarts of chicken broth to push his core temperature up to normal. Even the warm saline, infused directly into his blood, will add only 30 kilocalories. Ideally, the doctor would have access to a cardiopulmonary bypass machine, with which he could pump out the victim's blood, rewarm and oxygenate it, and pump it back in again, safely raising the core temperature as much as one degree every three minutes. But such machines are rarely available outside major urban hospitals. Here, without such equipment, the doctor must rely on other options. "Let's scrub for surgery," he calls out. Moments sliding a large catheter into an incision in the man's abdominal cavity. Warm fluid begins to flow from a suspended bag, washing through his abdomen, and draining out through another catheter placed in another incision. Prosaically, this lavage operates much like a car radiator in reverse: The solution warms the internal organs, and the warm blood in the organs is then pumped by the heart throughout the body. The patient's stiff limbs begin to relax. His pulse edges up. But even so the jagged line of his heartbeat flashing across the EKG screen shows the curious dip known as a J wave, common to hypothermia patients. "Be ready to defibrillate," the doctor warns the EMTs. For another hour, nurses and EMTs hover around the edges of the table where the patient lies centered in a warm pool of light, as if offered up to the sun god. They check his heart. They check the heat of the mattress beneath him. They whisper to one another about the foolishness of having gone out alone tonight. And slowly the patient responds. Another liter of saline is added to the IV. The man's blood pressure remains far too low, brought down by the blood flowing out to the fast-opening capillaries of his limbs. Fluid lost through perspiration and urination has reduced his blood volume. But every 15 or 20 minutes, his temperature rises another degree. The immediate danger of cardiac fibrillation lessens, as the heart and thinning blood warms. Frostbite could still cost him fingers or an earlobe. But he appears to have beaten back the worst of the frigidity. For the next half hour, an EMT quietly calls the readouts of the thermometer, a mantra that marks the progress of this cold-blooded proto-organism toward a state of warmer, higher consciousness. "90.4 .

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Page 8 San Francisco Bay Chapter Newsletter ( September 1997 "92.2 . " From somewhere far away in the immense, cold darkness, you hear a faint, insistent hum. Quickly it mushrooms into a ball of sound, like a planet rushing toward you, and then it becomes a stream of words. A voice is calling your name. You don't want to open your eyes. You sense heat and light playing against your eyelids, but beneath their warm dance a chill wells up inside you from the sunless ocean bottoms and the farthest depths of space. You are too tired even to shiver. You want only to sleep. "Can you hear me?" You force open your eyes. Lights glare overhead. Around the lights faces hover atop uniformed bodies. You try to think: You've been away a very long time, but where have you been? "You're at the hospital. You got caught in the cold." You try to nod. Your neck muscles feel rusted shut, unused for years. They respond to your command with only a slight twitch. " You'll probably have amnesia," the voice says. You remember the moon rising over the spiky ridgetop and skiing up toward it, toward someplace warm beneath the frozen moon. After that, nothing--only that immense coldness lodged inside you. "We're trying to get a little warmth back into you," the voice says. You'd nod if you could. But you can't move. All you can feel is throbbing discomfort everywhere. Glancing down to where the pain is most biting, you notice blisters filled with clear fluid dotting your fingers, once gloveless in the snow. During the long, cold hours the tissue froze and ice in the '
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l. :\ Volume 40, Number 9 San Francisco Bay Newsletter Page9 SFBC General Information Newsletter: This newsletter is a monthly publication of the San Francisco Bay chapter (SFBC) of the National Speleological Society (NSS). Any material not specifically copyrighted may be reproduced by other Internal Organizations of the NSS without permission provided credit is given to SFBC and the author. Opinions expressed within this newsletter are not necessarily those of SFBC, its board members, or the NSS. The newsletter editor welcomes material for publishing including, cartoons, trip reports, clippings, drawings, photographs, letters to the editor, accident reports, etc. Hard copy, disks, e-mail, fax and phone calls are acceptable media. Please call to check for possible format problems with machine readable text. Black and white photographs are preferable; color photos are acceptable. Deadline for submission is the Friday after the executive meeting. Dues/Membership: Dues are due January I. Checks may be made payable to SFBC/NSS, PO Box 2282, Menlo Park, CA 94026 or can be delivered directly to the treasurer at the meeting. Price for annual membership is as follows: Regular Membership: $20.00; Family Membership: $8.00; Subscription Only: $I2.00 Membership is open to anyone. However, in complying with the NSS rules governing Internal Organizations, only members of the NSS and this Internal Organization. have voting rights. Waivers: Waivers must be signed by all persons participating in SFBC Activities. Waivers are required for each SFBC activity. Forms are available at all chapter meetings and vertical practicesTrip leaders reserve the right to limit participation on their trips based on number of participants or individual qualifications. Executive Meetings: Executive meetings are held on the second Tuesday of each month at 7pm at the "Fresh Choice" restaurant in San Mateo. Anyone is invited to share a meal and swap stories with us, but only the elected officers can vote on grotto issues. "Fresh Choice" is located in a shopping center just South of Hi 92 on the West side of El Camino in San Mateo. From 92, exit South (from either direction) and take the I right turn into the shopping center driveway. Can't miss the restaurant. Chapter Meetings: Meetings are held on the fourth Tuesday of each month, (Note: This is not necessarily the last Tuesday of the month) at 8:00PM SHARP. Location: TELEGEN Building, 101 Saginaw, Redwood City, CA. Directions: From Highway 101, Exit Seaport Blvd. (same exit as Woodside Rd) and follow signs to Seaport Blvd. (towards the Bay). Turn left onto Chesapeake (signal light with the blue boat ramp sign). Turn left onto Saginaw (in sight of a big mountain of salt), and left again into the first driveway on Saginaw. Turn immediately right, follow the parking area around the building and park to the west side. The TELEGEN building (101-199 Saginaw) is tan with a rust-colored angular facade. Enter the building through the front entrance with "10 I" above the door. Volunteers: Librarian: Jim Lakner (408) 738-2939 (home) LAKNERJ @vncpo l.ne.ge.com Equipment Managers/Store Keepers Gail McCoy and Tom Mathey (408) 865-1763 (home) Board Members: Chair: Merrilee Proffitt (510) 339-7483 (home) mproffit@library.berkeley.edu Vice Chair: Cindy Heazlit (408) 448-8857 (home) cheazlit@ix.netcom.com (h) cindy.heazlit@lmco.com (w) Secretary: Steve Ruble (650) 692-0477 (home) (65I) sruble@ix.netcom.com Treasurer: Eric Goodill (650) 323-0976 (home) (651) ericg@cisco.com Newsletter Editor: Mark Scott P.O. Box 7685, Stanford CA 94309-7685 (650) 497-432I (h) (65I) (650) 725-33I8 (w) (650) 725-3377 (fax) miscott@stanford.edu

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Page 10 San Francisco Bay Chapter Newsletter San Francisco Bay Chapter" National Speleological Society PO Box 2282 Menlo Park, CA 94026 FIRST CLASS Mark Conover 10721 Wunderlich Dr Cupertino. CA 95014 September II-I3 Th CRF Mineral King Project Contact: Roger Mortimer 20-2I" Twin Lakes (Gourmet ( .:lv•i) 'f C)'=-3 Contact: Bill Frantz mortimer@uscsfresno.edu (408) 356-8506 frantz@netcom.com 23'" Monthly Meeting 8pm at Telegen 27-28'h Cave City and King Tut Contact: Michele Richardson (408) 427-0638 (h) (408) 358-5647 (w) 27-28'h Church Cave Project Contact: David Engel (714) 637-3171 dengel @earthlink.net October 4Th. Grapevine Gulch Contact: Dave Herberg (408) 395-3823 (h) Herberg_David @tandem.com 11-12 Th. Church Cave Project Contact: David Engel (see above) II Th. Moaning off trail trip Contact: Dave Herberg (see above) 14Th. Executive Meeting 7pm at Fresh Choice 18Th Vertical Practice Contact: Cindy Heazlit (see Exec list) 28 sr Monthly Meeting 8pm at Telegen 24-26Th. Western Regional Meeting at A very Ranch Hosted by the SFBC Contact: Merrilee Proffitt (see Exec list) 31-2 ND CRF Lilburn Project Contact: Mike Spiess (209) 434-3321 mikes@hdcsi.com November _ !"Crystal Consumnes trip Contact: Eric Goodill (see Exec list) 1-2"" Church Cave Project Contact: David Engel (see above) R97 I" Empire Cave Cleanup Trip Contact: Michelle Richardson (see above) 8-11'" CRF Lilburn Project Trip Contact: Paul Nelson (909) 869-7623 nelsonpd @sce.com II
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l s f b c newsletter In this Issue: WRTC Module Page 1 Potluck Party Invite Page 1 Elections Coming Up! Page 1 Exec. Board Job Desc. Pages 1-5 . Grapevine Gulch Trip Pages 5-6 Church Cave Update Pages 6-7 A Letter From Far Away Page 7-8 IXL Cleanup Trip Report Pages 8-10 Minutes, Summaries etc. Pages 10-11 Upcoming Trips Page 12 San Francisco Bay Chapter National Speleological Society Volume 40, Number 10 October 1997 Cover Photo by: Bill Frantz of Avery Ranch (the site of this months Western Regional). Hopefully it won't be this cold during the regional8-) ' I

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Page2 San Francisco Bay Chapter Newsletter October 1997 Cover Photo This month's cover photo features the Main Lodge at Avery Ranch which is the site of this month's Western Regional meeting hosted by the SFBC. The photo was taken by Bill Frantz. Vertical Hauling and Lowering Systems Module for the WRTC/SRC By: Cindy Heazlit The SFBC will be sponsoring a course on caving self rescue techniques for the Self Rescue Committee of the Western Region Training Committee (WRTC/SRC). Training will take place on November 22d, and will feature the Vertical Hauling and Lowering Systems module. Students will learn how to improvise various rescue hauling and lowering systems using their own vertical gear. There will be discussions and hands on sessions dealing with the "best" type of system to use for each situation and the limitations of each system. Special emphasis will be placed on edge techniques and how to avoid problems during a haul. There will also be discussion on how to determine when the problem is too large, difficult, or dangerous for a self rescue. Students must be vertically competent, which includes the ability to quickly perform change-overs. They must also have the ability to place secure anchors. Due to the technical difficulty of this session, class size will be limited to 12 individuals. The class will take place during a very long day. Students should bring all the equipment they would normally take on a full vertical caving trip, and be willing to let it be used as part of a rescue system. This class is a "work in progress" currently being developed by the WRTC/SRC. All individuals participating in the module are expected to provide constructive feedback to the SRC. Potluck Party Announcement By: Susan Shalit Join us for a Fall party in the hills with a view of the valley. If the sun is shining, there will be a sunset. Bring binoculars and telescopes for day and night viewing from the deck. Sit by the fire, talk with friends or play Scrabble, trivia, card games, etc. Bring your own games, if you wish. WHEN: WHERE: RSVP: Saturday, Nov. 22, 3pm Roy Elder and Susan Shalit's home 3844 Suncrest Ave. San Jose, CA 95132 408-926-4609 or 408-272-4617 (Call ahead to tell us what you would like to bring, so that we don't end up with all pumpkin pies) DIRECTIONS: From 680: Take Berryessa exit Go East about 2 miles past Piedmont Ave. where Berryessa becomes Suncrest Ave. Go about 1 mile up Suncrest, past water tank on your right. After Perie Dr. it's the 3rd house on your right. From 101 South: Take 13th Street exit Go left on 13th over the freeway Turn right on Commercial Left on Berryessa After crossing over 680 heading towards the hills, Go East about 2 miles past Piedmont Ave. where Berryessa becomes Suncrest Ave. Go about 1 mile up Suncrest, past water tank on your right. After Perie Dr. it's the 3rd house on your right. PLENTY OF STREET PARKING AVAILABLE, CURB YOUR WHEELS, IT'S STEEP. Elections Announcement: By: Merrilee Proffitt Well, that time of the year is here. The leaves are not exactly turning, but the days are growing shorter and the officers are getting restless. Who will serve next year? Yes, it's THAT TIME, time to nominate officers for the board. The board elections will be held at the November board meeting (that's November 25th) for chair, vice-chair, secretary, treasurer, and newsletter editor. Nominations will be held at the October meeting and at the November meeting before the elections. You are eligible to vote if you are BOTH an NSS member and an SFBC member. In order to hold office in the grotto, you must be hold membership in the SFBC and the NSS. There are no age requirements, no gender bias, need not be present to win! So who do you want to look at up at the front of the room in 1998? What kind of contribution would you like to make? All the officers will be happy to chat with you about their positions, and summary job descriptions are in this newsletter as well. All aboard! SFBC Chair Job Description Responsibilities: Runs general and executive meetings, sets agendas for meetings, and organizes programs and events. Programs must be set by the 2nd Friday of each month, so the Newsletter Editor can publicize the program for that month. Generally serves as one of the two contact people for the

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Volume 40, Number 10 National Speleological Society Page 3 NSS (printed in the Member's Manual). Responsible for submitting annual report to the NSS each year. Special meetings: First executive meeting of each year (2nd Tuesday in January) is the annual trip planning meeting and should be as widely attended as possible. Publicize and pre-plan accordingly. Last grotto meeting of each year (4th Tuesday of December) is a grotto Christmas party. There is a grotto auction that needs to be organized for this. Executive meetings: If you know ahead of time what the agenda is for the executive meeting, announce it at the grotto meeting or in the newsletter, so that interested members can arrange to attend or can convey input they have to a board member. Personal note: It seems to me as if in our organization there is a lack of a key person who keeps in touch with what is going on in the NSS and with other (especially local) 1/0s. Perhaps this is the responsibility of the chair (certainly, there is not too much to do in this job). The duties of the Vice Chair: 1) Serve as one of the 5 members of the corporate executive committee. 2) Perform all executive duties when the Chair is absent. See the description of the Chair position for the tasks that must be completed. 3) Provide training to grotto members. Training should include (but is not limited to) instruction in basic safe caving practices, soft caving techniques, safe vertical techniques, basic cave rescue, photography, surveying, and cave science. Members should be encouraged to expand their own knowledge in each of these subjects. 4) Maintain the grotto training cache. The Vice Chair shall maintain the training cache in a safe condition, and replace worn or damaged items as needed. An inventory shall be maintained of all items in the cache. The Vice Chair should strive to provide diversity within the equipment cache, so that a variety of equipment is available to the membership. The Vice Chair shall evaluate all new equipment as it becomes available, and seek to add it to the equipment cache if it is deemed to be safe. 5) Assist the Treasurer in the annual audit of the training cache. 6) Report all grotto caving incidents/accidents to American Caving Accidents, and to the National Cave Rescue Commission Coordinator Western Region. 7) Act as grotto liaison to any cave training organizations. The Vice Chair currently serves as the grotto liaison to the Western Region Training Committee. 8) Act as a 2nd grotto contact point for the NSS. If it is impractical for the Vice Chair to perform this function, another point of contact should be identified. SFBC Treasurer's Duties Executive Board Member The treasurer is a voting member of the executive board. As such, he or she must stay abreast of current caving events to be a responsible and active member of the Board. The treasurer shall attend both the monthly general meetings and the monthly Executive-Board meetings. Keeping of Financial Records There is no mandated method of keeping financial records that the treasurer must follow. However, records should be complete and clear so that the current treasurer can understand what was done by previous treasurers. Manage the accounts SFBC may have one or more accounts with banks or other financial institutions. SFBC most likely has a checking account which is used for the day-to-day expenses (e.g., newsletter printing and mailing, rent, etc.). SFBC may also have a certificate of deposit (CD) or other investment instrument if it is sitting on a fair pile of cash. The Orderly Transfer of Power Board elections are held at the November general meeting. If any of the check signers on SFBC's checking account changes, then contact the bank and ask what needs to be done as far as transferring check-signing rights to the new board member(s). The signers are usually the treasurer, the chair, and the secretary. Store and Training Equipment Inventory Once a year we should inventory the grotto store, collect any money that the store has received for items sold or rented, and perhaps write a check to reimburse expenses the store keepers have incurred keeping the store stocked. However, the storekeepers my just directly deduct funds from sales ' proceeds to replenish stock. We should also annually inventory the training equipment cache (mostly vertical stuff for vertical training but may include other training items as needed). Paraphernalia Sales SFBC may sell T-shirts or other SFBC paraphernalia from time to time. Anything SFBC sells has tax donation value to the purchaser only to the extent that the price paid exceeds the value of the item received. For example, if SFBC pays $6 to buy T -shirts but sells them for $10, the purchaser may claim a $4 ($10-$6) tax deduction as a donation to SFBC. SFBCDues

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Page4 San Francisco Bay Chapter Newsletter October 1997 Dues may or may not be collected as the executive board desires. Dues probably should cover at least Western Region dues and newsletter copying and mailing. Dues are annual and are due January 1st of each year. Checks should be made payable to "SFBC-NSS" and be deposited into SFBC's account. It's probably a good idea to have some membership forms available at the grotto meetings for folks to fill out. This form should also be published in the newsletter for a few months before and after the New Year. The type of information to be collected for a membership renewal might include: *Name (primary name if for a family membership). *Family member names (if applicable). *Mailing address (for newsletter). *Day phone. * Evening phone. *E-mail address. * NSS membership? (yes/no). If yes, NSS number. * Other grotto affiliation. SFBC dues are actually prorated quarterly depending on when a regular or associate member joins. Subscription and family-member dues amounts never change based on when they join. Jim Lakner is currently the keeper of the SFBC membership list and newsletter mailing labels. Give Jim frequent updates about new or renewing members. Indicate the primary family member for family memberships. Western Region Dues SFBC is a member of the Western Region (WR) of the NSS. As such, SFBC owes dues to the WR for each member of SFBC. Filing Taxes The good news is that we don't have to file taxes, however, see the next section for fun with government forms. State of California Incorporation Filing The SFBC is incorporated in the state of California as a non profit 501c(3) corporation. As such, we need to send an incorporation filing each year to the California Secretary of State. Monthly Summaries for the Newsletter The treasurer shall provide a monthly summary of income and expenses to the newsletter editor before the submission deadline so it may be published. The Board may elect to have the treasurer give an oral summary the monthly general meetings. Make these brief NSS End-of-Year Filing As an organization of the NSS, the NSS requires that we file an annual report after the end of each year. This report is actually sent by the SFBC chair, but the treasurer provides: * Annual statement * Itemized disbursement/receipt statement * Supplemental Information Schedule Duties by Calendar Month This section lists duties on a time-line basis. *January Solicit Dues. Everybody's dues are due. Make announcements at meetings and place an renewal form in the newsletter. Solicit Auction Debts. Most likely not everybody paid their Christmas-Party auction debt at the party. Start going after these folks until all are paid up. Donate $50 to Bat Conservation International (BCI) annually. The Board needs to confirm. *February Solicit Dues (again). See January. *March Solicit Dues (again again). See January. *April Pay Western Region Dues. Pay these dues as often as you'd like, but quarterly should be enough. See the section on Western Region Dues for more details about how to do this. *August File California "Statement of Domestic Nonprofit Corporation" by August 31. *November Solicit Dues. See January. Change signature card if needed after the elections. *December Dues. See November.

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Volume 40, Number 10 National Speleological Society PageS Christmas Party Auction. Be present or delegate the job of recording the auction debts at the annual Christmas Party auction. *Every Month Accept Dues. People may pay dues at any time. Treasurer's Report. Write a report for both the meeting and the newsletter if the board deems it appropriate. Solicit Hardhat Donations. At each general meeting, make an announcement and pass the hardhat to collect whatever you can from the members present. Newsletter Editor: List of Duties: Main Responsibilities include: Prepare, print, and distribute the monthly SFBC newsletter Regularly attend SFBC meetings and events and keep abreast of relevant issues to allow informed voting upon Executive Committee issues Maintain, update, and publish the calender of events of SFBC activities. These include caving trips, vertical practices, monthly and executive meetings etc. Print the schedule of events for the entire year in the January issue of the newsletter as they are determined at the annual planning meeting in January (normally at the Executive meeting that month). As a part of the above the Newsletter editor needs to: -Obtain and publish the SFBC meeting minutes (both executive and general monthly meetings). Get the minutes from the Secretary. -Obtain and publish the SFBC financial summary (get this from the treasurer). -Publish any other information that is required by SFBC's legal status as a non profit organization. (see below for the list of these items) -Solicit articles that will be of interest to the SFBC members. Examples include things such as trip reports, important speleo-political events, announcements of upcoming activities, etc. -Ensure that permission has been obtained to reprint any material that is to be published (eg check with authors of articles on Caver's Digest, and other mailing lists etc.) -Solicit cover photos for the newsletter. It is preferred if these include pictures of SFBC members wherever practical. -Publicize the upcoming program for the monthly meeting. -Print a synopsis of, or if appropriate a copy of any important correspondance that the grotto receives. -Proofread articles submitted and produce a readable newsletter. -Obtain labels for newsletters from whoever is in charge of maintaining the list of members and/or providing labels (this is currently the Librarian). -Have an adequate supply of copies of the newsletter made to allow for new members, handing out at meetings, etc. beyond the number of mailing copies. (about 10 extra copies are normally good for this). -Bring the extra copies of the newsletter to the monthly meetings. -Send copies of the newsletter to all the required NSS archive and News addresses and to all the other Grottos with whom we have a newsletter exchange. Currently this is taken care of by the inclusion of these addresses on the labels provided to the Editor. Other information that is useful for the Newsletter Editor to know: -The regular mailing date for the newsletter is the Tuesday the week after the Executive meeting. (Eg. the Tuesday between the Executive meeting and the General Monthly meeting.) -The deadline for submissions for the newsletter is the Friday after the Executive meeting. -There is an SFBC electric stapler for the Newsletter Editor's use. -The maximum number of pieces of paper that can be sent on a normal First Class stamp is 6, (12 sides of double sided printing). -The post office requires that the address be on the top half of the page when the newsletter is folded and that the document be secured in it's folded state with an adhesive sticker and not a staple. (although a staple is okay for holding the pages of the newsletter together, and they don't seem to enforce this rule very much) The bylaws of the SFBC 501(c)-3 incorporation lists the SFBC Newsletter as the method of disseminating information to the corporate membership. In order to comply with the laws of California, we are legally required to publish: -Minutes of any SFBC meetings -Annual financial summary Grapevine Gulch.Trip Report By: John Link This was a beginners trip lead by David Herberg. Also in attendance Glenn Butcher, Eric Goodill, Jason Herberg, and John Link. We left the Bay Area about 7:20am and arrived in the Camp nine road vicinity in some time over two hours. It was noticed that a new large steel gate had appeared in what was a parking area in the past. We proceeded down the hill to Grapevine Gulch. The first cave we came upon was Bobcat. Although I have visited may show caves in the past this was my first encounter with wild cave. We proceeded down the hole, ventured through some small crawls, and somewhat small rooms. Then we came upon the beginning cavers worst fear,

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Page6 San Francisco Bay Chapter Newsletter October 1997 the tight spot. This momentarily brought to mind thoughts like "you must be kidding, go through there". However since everyone else went through with no apparent problem, these thoughts passed quickly. So I proceeded to slide through the tight spot to the next room. There were some insects of the flying variety noticed along a ledge. Also some plant sprouts which were going to get a sad surprise if they were expecting to get sun light down there. After thoroughly exploring the Bobcat cave we proceeded to the Grapevine cave entrance. We came upon a group from the Mother Lode Grotto who were there to survey the cave. We decided to let them work for a while, so we went and had lunch. From there we proceeded to Porcupine cave which had many entrances and exits all around in a circular area. While exploring the different rooms I came upon my first bat hanging from the ceiling. This was a very cool unexpected event. Unfortunately my light frightened the bat which flew off into another room. Everyone in the group was heading out in different entrances and exits of the cave. Once I was outside, I saw a hole just to the right of the entrance we had gone into. So I proceeded down, after getting all the way inside the entrance I discovered there seemed to be a circular vertical tube below with no easy way down. So I chickened out on this entrance and proceeded back to the surface. We later learned from the Mother Lode Grotto survey team that this was the "Rabbit Hole" and was a 20 foot drop which required vertical equipment. Never did I feel so good about chicl<:ening out on anything after hearing this fact. The last cave we explored was Grapevine, Glenn and I went down the entrance to see if we could find the main cavern. After a few false starts, we proceed back towards the entrance and explored a upward hole leading to another room. This was indeed the correct path to the main cavern. We found the survey team inside measuring the ceiling height using a helium balloon with a string on it. If I remember correctly the were measuring around forty five feet at the top of the cavern. The people in the survey team were very nice to us, dispite the fact that we were interrupting there work. There were even a few of the Cave Pearls among their group. We talked to the Mother Lode team for a while and then proceeded to explore the remaining areas of the cave. Some observations on this cave were, that their had been a fair amount of stalactite damage due to careless people visiting the caves in the past. Also many of the formations were rather dirty due to dust turned up into the air from previous caving expeditions. By the time we came out of Grapevine cave I was painfully aware of the need for the knee and elbow pads which I had forgotten in the car. Also the need for the overalls which were left behind in the car as well were very apparent. Since I was pretty dirty to say the least. At this point we headed back up the hill to the van. Somehow the hill seems at least twice as far going back up, it than it was when we went down. All together it was a very good trip. I would like to thank David, Jason, Glenn, and Eric for making this a great beginner caving trip which I will never forget. Church Cave Update By: David Engel Since the road opened, we have had 3 weekend trips to Church/Boyden, and have surveyed on both Saturday and Sunday. We have been to Church the last two weekends. In the area below the Malebolge, we have followed the stream a bit further than last year. This area is 519.2 feet below the Upper Entrance and as such is the deepest portion of the cave surveyed to date. If someone wanted to do a relatively easy dig, they could get deeper, and back to the stream and hopefully continue downstream towards Boyden. We have also finished a few other leads in the Malebolge area. Of course there are more leads remaining in that region. We have excavated what has been called "Boyden Cave Rear Entrance #2." This is at the top of the first climb in Windy Gulch, where writing was scratched off of a rock. We have mapped about 140 feet in this cave, and made a handshake connection with Boyden. Lots of rock moving would be required to phyically connect. I doubt it will be done. however, we have passed the survey tape through and connected it on the map. We have mapped the vast majority of Ernest Smith Cave, just down from Donald's Duck. It has terminated in a dirt plug. About 25 feet of tight survey remains. It lies over the Passage Pit area, but is very high. John Rasmussen and Jon Kany spearheaded this project. The Root Entrance area and Scotch Light Room have been resketched. During this offseason, we hope to finish a 20 scale map of the circuit route. This resketch is needed for that project. A stream has been identified in Boyden Caverns that could be the Church Cave stream. This has not been surveyed or pushed. It is tight, but pushable. Anyone interested? A cartography session was held at my house recently. Four project members (James and Alan Rice, Stephanie Woodward and myself) worked on updating the data. John Rasmussen has been a huge help at the cave, and is presently working on updating LRCF's in the early Church Data. I continue to plug away at the final Boyden map. With a day or so of drafting, it could be finished. Church Cave now has 3.45 miles of surveyed length, and Boyden's has 0.63 miles. The two caves are approximately 400 feet apart and portions are at the same elevation.

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Volume 40, Number 10 National Speleological Society Page? The Forest Service and Pat Wass have been given a copy of the line plot after each survey trip. They also have the updated list of surveys and station names. We have been trying to improve communications with the USFS. That sums up what we have accomplished in the past three trips. Remember, the season is drawing to a close. I hope that everyone can make it to the cave to help out. We really need YOUR participation, please try to attend. With the forecasted El Nino, who knows if we will even be able to get to Church Cave next year. On the other hand, we hope to formulate a list of survey trips in the very early part of 1998. These trips will be published in Regional and Grotto publications so you can plan your schedule around Church. We are also going to recommend to the Western Region a long weekend survey trip. Presently, we are considering Memorial Day in 1998. If you have any suggestions, please let me know. If you have not been to Church this year, please consider that this project should be supported by the entire Western Region. This cave is one of the most signifigant caves in the state, and should be surveyed. We need your help! The sooner that we can wrap up the survey, the earlier we can get the flagging out of the cave and clean up any trash A Letter From Far Away: By: Vance Stevens My Summer 1997 copy of California Caver arrived via courier from Washington today (mail forwarding works!). Inside were articles by John Tinsley and Joel Despain and Peri Frantz and other names familiar, and it got me thinking I really ought to send the email to you guys I've been putting off writing. I really haven't put it off all that long. I mean, I got here in July and it took me a month to get an apt and all the proper visas in order, at which time and only at which time could I get a phone and subsequently an internet connection. So although I stopped caving when things were getting hot and heavy about disposing house and all the baggage associated with California lifestyle last spring, it's only been the last month or so that I've got out of a hotel and got my family over here and the sea shipment unpacked more or less. The house in California has just been sold, so next on the list is a 4x4 car. But what I've been meaning to write you people about is just to say how much I appreciated knowing you and hanging out above ground and below the short time I was hanging out in California. You're a refreshingly knowledgable, party down, energetic and ecologically astute group, and I wish I'd had more time to learn more from you and eventually contribute more to what you are doing. We left one son in California so I may pop back and get in touch with you and find out if there's a trip on. Also, if any of you are out this way, feel free to call on us for a crash pad or whatever. It's a pretty small world and you never know where you'll run into people. I'm not aware of any caves in the Emirates at this point, but the country to the south, Oman, is full of them, including the 2nd largest cave chamber in the world after the one at Mulu (nice drop in but doesn't go anywhere unfortunately). If someone wants to check it out, give me plenty of notice and I'll see if I can activate whatever's left of my caving connections in Oman. Again, thanks for putting up with giving me lifts and having me along on your trips. I hope to see you again one day. Here's contact info: VANCE STEVENS CALL Coordinator, AMIDEAST UAE/MLI Project 1730 M Street, NW, #1100 Washington, DC 20036 (202) 776-9600 (202) 776-7091 (FAX) vstevens@amideast.org (forwards to Abu Dhabi office at present) Abu Dhabi office: phone: +971-2-456595; fax: +971-2-456757 Abu Dhabi office email: m6244446@emirates.net.ae Abu Dhabi office p.o. box: 7102, Abu Dhabi Abu Dhabi home phone: +971-2-326972 Personal p.o. box: 41637, Abu Dhabi Personal email: vstevens@emitates.net.ae http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepagesNance_Stevens IXL Cleanup Trip Report By: Robert Jon Mudry Attended: Chris, Ken, Lysa, Mark, Robert, Sunia IXL, known to many locals as Hellhole, is Santa Cruz's largest known cave, at about 600 feet long and around 150 feet deep. Recently acquired by the park service, the cave is currently closed to the public, however "the public" doesn't seem impressed by this change of status, and thus a gate is planned to be installed sometime in the not too distant future. Legally speaking, the cave is considered an "attractive nuisance," meaning the people attracted to this cave are, generally speaking, a nuisance. Since without a gate, the cave is accessible to anyone who has figured out how to turn on a flashlight, or knows someone who does, things are rather trashed. With special permission from the park service, our goal was to do a quick assessment of the damage and pick up as much of the larger trash items as we could. The trip started with Chris and I arriving about an hour late. Lysa, Mark, Ken, and Sunia were just getting out of Empire Cave, which is across the road. Chris is a coworker of mine, who had expressed an interest in caving. Since this was going to be my first wild cave trip, and Sunia had never been underground before, I thought this was an excellent

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Page 8 San Francisco Bay Chapter Newsletter October 1997 opportunity to get Chris hooked as well. Chris and I suited up, and we all headed off on the somewhat longer than advertised hike to the cave. The entrance, a foot or so in diameter, appeared more like a rabbit hole than a hellhole to me. I couldn't help but picture a little white rabbit run past, pull a gold pocketwatch out of his vest pocket, and then frantically dive in the tiny opening while mumbling something about "being late." Instead, we were greeted by a fluttering bat, possibly a Townsend's. The tiny flying mammal flew around Sunia's head once, then silently dove into its dark home. After gathering our bearings, we began to file into the cave. Unfortunately, I was not aware of the entrance's small dimensions so I couldn't warn my friend Chris of the impending crunch. Chris took one look at "The Mancatcher," and announced that he didn't think that he would make it. The Mancatcher opens into "The Big Room," and we were sure that he would be able to make it to that part of the cave. But when your instincts say no, it's never wise to push your luck. Chris decided to exit the cave and stay topside with Ken, who was tired and not feeling in the right frame of mind to enjoy the cave properly either. Instead, they would be our "first line of defense" from the previously mentioned "nuisances," and attempt to convince them that caving was best done with working lights, helmets, and some form of footwear. The entrance corridor is maybe twenty feet long, very tight in spots, and filled with large spiders with long creepy legs. As one who is officially Rather Creeped-Out By Spiders, I made a special effort to zip through the Mancatcher as fast as the cave would let me. No Metadollofs, a spider unique to the caves of Santa Cruz, were spotted in the entrance, and neither did I see that bat. Upon entering the Big Room, we all recognized a rather unpleasant odor. Scanning the room with our lights, the source of said odor was spotted. A nuisance decided to prove that not only was he an asshole, but he had one as well. The evidence was found somewhere around the middle of the chamber. Upon assessing its dimensions, Mark classified it as a "big bore turd," and the rest of us readily agreed. Thankfully, the offender's obviously high-fiber diet made the odiferous object easy to contain, and it was promptly sealed in a ziplock baggy and placed in a corner for later extraction. After neutralizing the obvious threat, we proceeded to assess and clean. The Big Room averages around fifteen feet high, and is maybe feet or so long. Most of the floor is covered with solidly packed dirt, crudely adorned with thousands of tiny objects, none of which you will find classified as "speleothem." The objects included broken glass fragments, buttons: scraps of unidentifiable metal, various plastic items, and candy wrappers, all painstakingly embedded in the cave floor by hundreds of trampling feet. We removed as many of these artifacts of human stupidity as we possibly could. Also recovered were various cans, bottles, one condom (slightly used) and globs of candlewax. The walls were covered with spraypaint, most of which were arrows for the benefit of those more intellectually challenged then the original artisans. These beacons of ignorance will be removed on future trips, after the gate has been installed. Speaking of speleothems, every one of them in this previously beautiful cave was severely damaged, utterly destroyed, or completely removed. The once sparkling white walls are now brown and muddy. Hundreds of hours of hard work may help restore the walls and flowstone to something close to white, but nothing can repair the vicious damage done to the formations. Our lives are nothing more than a flicker, yet our arrogance in the face of millennia is only surpassed by our ignorance. After perhaps thirty minutes of picking up loose trash and prying objects out of the mud, a group of seven students entered the Big Room. Their attire generally consisted of shorts, T-shirts, and sneakers. None had helmets, but most (not all) were carrying flashlights. We're talking cheap plastic discount store flashlights. Most were already dim. Lysa took this opportunity to talk to the group, notifying them that they were indeed trespassing and that if caught they would each be fined $150. She also discussed safety and conservation. I was surprised that we weren't told to just go bugger-off, and all except one, appeared genuinely interested and almost concerned. After the lecture, we then sent them on their way. It was at this point that Mark and Sunia decided to go with this new group and clean the back of the cave, at the bottom of the pit. Lysa and I stayed behind to finish up our work in this room, and clean the connecting passageways and side-chambers. The groups kept on corning. None were dressed for caving, and none had helmets. Only one small group of three had head-mounted lights. The highlight was one woman who entered without any shoes. We mentioned that broken glass, used condoms, and human feces generally don't mix well with bare feet, and she agreed to exit the cave. Without a flashlight though, she had to be escorted to the surface by someone slightly better illuminated. Another group was detected when Lysa and I were cleaning an area thirty or forty feet down a passage. I smelled the cigarette smoke all the way from the Big Room, before even hearing them. Going to investigate, I was greeting by another largish group, with no less then three of them smoking. It doesn't take a genius to realize that cigarette smoke inside a cave is patently stupid, and I found myself saying something that, as a smoker myself, I have never before uttered: "Gentlemen, would you kindly extinguish your cigarettes." Much to my surprise, they complied and actually apologized. Lysa then joined them in the Big Room and gave them the "standard lecture."

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Volume 40, Number 10 National Speleological Society Page9 Lysa and I eventually met up with Mark and Sunia, at the top of the pits. I didn't have the time or the immediate urge to venture to the bottom, having been underground for around five hours or so. I'm sure the next time we do a cleanup run, I will have the opportunity to see the rest of the cave. Maybe by then, I will have managed to get the rest of the mud out of my hair, and clean some of the dirt out of my nasal passages. There is no such thing as a sacrificial cave, and IXL is no exception. With hard work, a well planned management proposal, and education, IXL and its residents can be saved. Almost all of the people we talked too inside the cave were genuinely interested in what we had to say and wanted to enjoy, not destroy, the cave. With education, and if given an opportunity to join a grotto or other caving club where they can be taught good caving practices, I am certain most of the people we encountered would become responsible and productive cavers. Hours underground Very full bags of trash removed from cave Trespassers lectured Metadolloff spiders spotted Bats spotted near entrance Dishes of after-caving Thai food consumed Number of "shit" jokes while underground 6 2 19+ 1 1 5+ countless Lysa and I had just finished lecturing another group, when we moved into a nearby passageway. The group was still exploring the chamber, when from behind we heard one exclaim: "Wow! That's so cool!" I pictured a gloveless, dirty hand pointing in the dim glow of a flashlight at one of the broken mud smeared formations. Lysa and I smiled at each other. There was a caver back there. We can not abandon her any more then we can abandon IXL. Monthly Financial Summaries By: Eric Goodill Summary for Month Equipment Hardhat Operating Reserve Total July Open 268.52 459.86 2150.21 806.88 3416.95 Inflows Dues, SFBC 40.00 40.00 Hardhat 10.52 10.52 Total Inflows 10.52 40.00 50.52 Outflows Dues, SFBC 3.50 3.50 Hardhat 58.00 58.00 Misc. 10.00 10.00 Newsletter copying 60.29 60.29 Newsletter postage 32.00 32.00 Total Outflows 58.00 105.79 163.79 Change -47.48 -65.79 -113.27 Close 268.52 412.38 2084.42 806.88 3303.68 Summary for Month Equipment Hardhat Operating Reserve Total August Open 268.52 412.38 2084.42 806.88 3303.68 Inflows Dues, SFBC 26.00 26.00 Equipment 290.00 290.00 Total Inflows 290.00 26.00 316.00 Outflows Newsletter copying 92.55 92.55 Newsletter postage 76.80 76.80 Total Outflows 169.35 169.35 Change 290.00 -143.35 146.65 Close 558.52 412.38 1941.07 806.88 3450.33 Summary for Month Equipment Hardhat Operating Reserve Total September Open 558.52 412.38 1941.07 806.88 3450.33 Outflows Newsletter copying 51.42 51.42

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Page 10 San Francisco Bay Chapter Newsletter October 1997 Newsletter postage Total Outflows 38.40 89.82 38.40 89.82 Change Close 558.52 412.38 -89.82 1851.25 806.88 -89.82 3360.51 SFBC Meeting Minutes Submitted by this month's secretary, Steve Ruble (I think he was more original with his title earlier in the year, don't you? Ed.) September Monthly meeting Time: 9/23/97, 8-IOpm Location Telegen Co. Headquarters Redwood City Attendance 4 Grotto Officers, 38 members or guests, and the usual watch dog . Special topic WEB Page Review • Noted again is the very fine facilities for our monthly meetings. Thanks again to Bonnie and Jessica for use of their conference room. • The program was a collection of slides from Bunnell and the Frantzs, (3 projectors due to burnouts). Great program, thanks. • Introductions were made, sign in sheet and hard hat were passed around. Announcements: • At the next executive meeting we will be finalizing issues for the upcoming regional. Anyone interested in helping will be welcome to join the exec members. • Some discussion was made about the potential IXL gating project. • Bosteds have a the new calendar available. Ask Ann for a copy. Upcoming trips; CRF Lilburn, Crystal Sequoia restoration, Thanksgiving to Onyx, Cave of the bells, and possibly Dantes decent. No Knot of the month, this month. Break; Buy your cave quilt raffle tickets now, they are going quickly. After the break: • Old Business; Regional planning and updates, Gray Whale ranch updates .. • New Business; A mention was made about the need for NSS award nomination letters. Trip Reports • Various reports that all sounded great. (Twin Lakes, Crystal 67, White Chief, Lilburn, and of course some International caving, (Carl Reuter and Ann Bosted)). The next meeting will be the Exec Meeting, on the 2"d Tuesday, with the next monthly meeting on the 4th Tuesday. October Executive meeting Time: October 15, 1997, 7:07pm to 9:12pm Location Fresh Choice restaurant (in San Mateo) all you can eat salads etc. Attendance Merrilee Proffitt Cindy Heazlit Eric Goodill Steve Ruble Mark Scott Special topic Bill and Peri Frantz Tracie Hughes John? Western Regional. As noted, the primary discussions were about plans for the upcoming regional, currently scheduled for October 25/26. The regional will be held at A very ranch in the motherload area of the state. By the time you get this newsletter, it will be too late to register, as you will have just missed the entire event. Correspondence Nothing to report as no one has been to the PO box.

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Volume 40, Number 10 National Speleological Society Page 11 SFBC General Information Newsletter: This newsletter is a monthly publication of the San Francisco Bay chapter (SFBC) of the National Speleological Society (NSS). Any material not specifically copyrighted may be reproduced by other Internal Organizations of the NSS without permission provided credit is given to SFBC and the author. Opinions expressed within this newsletter are not necessarily those of SFBC, its board members, or the NSS. The newsletter editor welcomes material for publishing including, cartoons, trip reports, clippings, drawings, photographs, letters to the editor, accident reports, etc. Hard copy, disks, e-mail, fax and phone calls are acceptable media. Please call to check for possible format problems with machine readable text. Black and white photographs are preferable; color photos are aq.:eptable. Deadline for submission is the Friday after the executive meeting. Dues/Membership: Dues are due January 1. Checks may be made payable to SFBC/NSS, PO Box 2282, Menlo Park, CA 94026 or can be delivered directly to the treasurer at the meeting. Price for annual membership is as follows: Regular Membership: $20.00; Family Membership: $8.00; Subscription Only: $12.00 Membership is open to anyone. However, in complying with the NSS rules governing Internal Organizations, only members of the NSS and this Internal Organization. have voting rights. Waivers: Waivers must be signed by all persons participating in SFBC Activities. Waivers are required for each SFBC activity. Forms are available at all chapter meetings and vertical practicesTrip leaders reserve the right to limit participation on their trips based on number of participants or individual qualifications. Executive Meetings: Executive meetings are held on the second Tuesday of each month at 7pm at the "Fresh Choice" restaurant in San Mateo. Anyone is invited to share a meal and swap stories with us, but only the elected officers can vote on grotto issues. "Fresh Choice" is located in a shopping center just South of Hi 92 on the West side of El Camino in San Mateo. From 92, exit South (from either direction) and take the 1 right turn into the shopping center driveway. Can't miss the restaurant. Chapter Meetings: Meetings are held on the fourth Tuesday of each month, (Note: This is not necessarily the last Tuesday of the month) at 8:00 PM SHARP. Location: TELEGEN Building, 101 Saginaw, Redwood City, CA. Directions: From Highway 101, Exit Seaport Blvd. (same exit as Woodside Rd) and follow signs to Seaport Blvd. (towards the Bay). Turn left onto Chesapeake (signal light with the blue boat ramp sign). Turn left onto Saginaw (in sight of a big mountain of salt), and left again into the first driveway on Saginaw. Turn immediately right, follow the parking area around the building and park to the west side. The TELEGEN building (101-199 Saginaw) is tan with a rust-colored angular facade. Enter the building through the front entrance with "1 01" above the door. Volunteers: Librarian: Jim Lakner (408) 738-2939 (home) LAKNERJ@vncpo1.ne.ge.com Equipment Managers/Store Keepers Gail McCoy and Tom Mathey (408) 865-1763 (home) Board Members: Chair: Merrilee Proffitt (510) 339-7483 (home) mproffit@library.berkeley.edu Vice Chair: Cindy Heazlit (408) 448-8857 (home) cheazlit@ix.netcom.com (h) cindy.heazlit@lmco.com (w) Secretary: Steve Ruble (650) 692-0477 (home) sruble@ix.netcom.com Treasurer: Eric Goodill (650) 323-0976 (home) ericg@cisco.com Newsletter Editor: Mark Scott PO Box 7685, Stanford CA 94309-7685 (650) 497-4321 (h) (650) 725-3318 (w) (650) 725-3377 (fax) miscott@stanford.edu

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Page 12 San Francisco Bay Chapter Newsletter San Francisco Bay Chapter National Speleological Society PO Box 2282 Menlo Park, CA 94026 October 24-26 Th. Western Regional Meeting at A very Ranch Hosted by the SFBC Contact: Merrilee Proffitt (see Exec list) 28th Monthly Meeting Note: Nominations for Exec. Board 8pm at Telegen 31-2 ND CRF Lilburn Project Contact: Mike Spiess (209) 434-3321 November 1st Crystal Consumnes trip Contact: Eric Goodill (see Exec list) 1-2"d Church Cave Project Contact: David Engel dengel @earthlink.net 1st Empire Cave Cleanup Trip Contact: Michelle Richardson (see above) 8-11 th CRF Lilburn Project Trip Contact: Paul Nelson (909) 869-7623 nelsonpd@ sce.com FIRST CLASS Mark Conover 10721 Wunderlich Dr Cupertino, CA g5014 11th Executive Meeting 7pm at Fresh Choice 22"d Self Rescue Training Vertical Practice Contact: Cindy Heazlit (see Exec list) See inside for a description of this activity 22"d Potluck Party 3pm at Roy Elder and Susan Shalit' s (408) 926-4609 or (408) 272-4617 See inside for more details 25th Monthly Meeting Note: Annual Elections Take Place 8pm at Telegen 27-30th CRF Lava Beds Project Contacts: Bill Devereaux (503) 363-3831 and Janet Sowers (510) 236-3009 sowers@ lettis.com 27-30th SFBC Trip to Arizona Contact: Peter Bosted (650) 234-9966 bosted@slac.stanford.edu -::i)ctober 1997 R97 --------/ December 6th Caving 101 Contact: Cindy Heazlit (see Exec list) 6-7th Santa Claus Trip Contact: Eric Goodill (See Exec list) 9th Executive Meeting 7pm at Fresh Choice 13th Annual Grotto Christmas Party Contact: Bill and Peri Frantz (408) 356-8506 or frantz@netcom.com January 11th Annual CRF and WRTC planning meetings (in Fresno) Contact: Peri Frantz or Mike Spiess (see above) 13th Annual Trip Planning Meeting Time and Place TBA

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s f b c newsletter In this Issue: Directions to the new meeting location Page 2 Elections Coming Up! Page 2 Misc. Announcements Pages 2-3 Empire Cave Cleanup Pages 3-4 Moaning Caverns A Longwinded Tale of Bad Air Pages 4-7 The Arts and Letters Section of the NSS Page 7 kOTM, Membership Form, Minutes, Summaries Etc. Pages 8-11 Upcoming Trips Page"l2 San Francisco Bay Chapter National Speleological Society Volume 40, Number 11 November 1997 Note: The Meeting location has moved! SKETCH MAP SHOWING DIRECTIONS TO USGS AND 1 i/25/97 SFSC MEETlNG NOTE: MAP IS NOT TO SCALE Marsh Road Main USGS Complex fNot here, fotks) \NillowRoad Palo Alto St. PatriCk's Seml.nary • F1re Sta Chevron Station •• • To SF VA Hosp Universlt A venue To San Jose Cover Image by: John Tinsley, of directions to this month's meeting site at the USGS oftices in Menlo Park. See inside for details.

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Page 2 San Francisco Bay Chapter Newsletter November 1997 IMPORTANT NOTICE: The Meeting Site Has Moved!!!! Due to circumstances beyond our control the regular meeting site at Telegen is no longer available to us for our monthly meetings. Currently we have not located a permanent meeting location, so if you have any suggestions please let the Executive Committee know as we really need a new permanent location. Fortunately we have been able to make arrangements for the upcoming meeting, at the USGS facility in Menlo Park (Many thanks to John Tinsley for coming through for us in this). There is a map on the cover of the newsletter and these are the directions to follow to get there: The November 25th meeting of the SFBC will convene at the US Geological Survey, Building 8, Room 8111, begininning promptly at 8 PM; the facilities are reserved until II :00 PM. Please read and follow these directions for a smooth journey and access to the meeting, because the meeting is at 275 Middlefield Road and not the 345 Middlefield Road USGS address with which many of you may be familiar from buying topo maps and the like, or past CRF meetings for that matter. From Hwy 280-get to 101 by the most convenient means, using either 85, 84, Oregon Expressway/Page Mill Road for greatest et1iciency, then proceed north or south on 101 as may be required to get to Willow Road. The follow the directions below. From SF or SJ-take the Willow Road exit westbound from Bayshore Freeway (101). Proceed through several stoplights until you reach Middlefield Road (Chevron Station on NE corner). Turn right onto Middlefield Road and get into the left lane. Proceed north 2 blocks to Linfield. Turn left into the first driveway you get to (100ft from corner), and park anywhere (careful of handicapped parking, even after hours). Walk east across parking lot towards a loading dock, and then enter building to right of the loading dock. Tinsley should be somewhere there to welcome you; the USGS Security has been alerted to the likely presence of copious quantities of strangers on that date and hour, so you need not anticipate warning shots fired into your legs. Enter building, turn right and follow signs to Room 8111 (conference room). NOTE: Hallways to which we do not have access will be barricaded with tape--please observe this restriction cheerfully, or guards may become obnoxious, and what's even more hazardous to your health, so will Tinsley. Elections Announcement A.s you are all hopefully a\vare month's vvill also include the annual general elections for officers of the SFBC. At the last monthly meeting the following people were nominated for the positions indicated: ChairmanPeri Frantz Vice-Chair Mark Scott Treasurer Eric Goodill Secretary Lysa DeThomas Newsletter Robert Mudry The Executive Board welcomes any additional nominations that you care to submit, and we will have another round of nominations prior to the actual election during the next monthly meeting. Absentee Ballot Chair:-------------------Vice-Chair:------------------Treasurer: ______________________ _ Secretary: _______________________________ _ Newsletter Editor:----------------If you are unable to attend the next meeting and would still like to vote (and you meet the requirements for voting as noted in the SFBC general information page) then please complete and cutout the absentee ballot above (or provide the same information in a similar way). And then seal the ballot in an unmarked envelope and enclose that envelope in another envelope which has your name on the outside. (a return address for example) This can then either be mailed to the SFBC mailing 8.ddress of: SFBC. P.O: Box 2282, Menlo Park, CA 94026 or given to one of the Executive Committee who can take it to the meeting on your behalf. If you end up corning to the meeting you will have your ballot returned to you prior to the commencement of voting. Obviously the ballots have to be in the SFBC PO box by the day of the elections. Vertical Hauling and Lowering Systems Module for the WRTC/SRC By: Cindy Heazlit The SFBC will be sponsoring a course on caving self rescue techniques for the Self Rescue Committee of the Western Region Training Committee (WRTC/SRC). Training will take place on November 22ct, and will feature the Vertical Hauling and Lowering Systems module. Students will learn how to improvise various rescue hauling and lowering systems using their own vertical gear. There will be discussions and hands on sessions dealing with the "best" type of system to use for each situation and the limitations of each system. Special emphasis will be placed on edge techniques and how to avoid problems during a haul. There will also be discussion on how to determine when the problem is too large, difficult, or dangerous for a self rescue. Students must be vertically competent, which includes the ability to quickly perform change-overs. They must also have the ability to place secure anchors. Due to the technical difficulty of this session, class size will be limited to 12 individuals. The class will take place during a very long day. Students should bring all the equipment they would normally take on a full vertical caving trip, and be willing to let it be used as part of a rescue system. This class is a "work in progress" currently being developed by the WRTC/SRC. All individuals participating in the module are expected to provide constructive feedback to the SRC.

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Volume 40, Number 11 National Speleological Society Page 3 Cave Management Plan Help Request Lysa DeThomas has requested help from anyone with experience or knowledge and examples of Cave Management Plans in connection with her work on the Gray Whale Ranch acquisition in Santa Cruz by the State Park Service. If anyone wants to help or knows someone who has experience in these areas please contact Lysa at (408) 454-9881 (home) or (408) 479-4023 (voicemail) or dethomas@cruzio.com Potluck Party Announcement By: Susan Shalit Join us for a Fall party in the hills with a view of the valley. If the sun is shining, there will be a sunset. Bring binoculars and telescopes for day and night viewing from the deck. Sit by the fire, talk with friends or play Scrabble, trivia, card games, etc. Bring your own games, if you wish. WHEN: Saturday, Nov. 22, 3pm WHERE: Roy Elder and Susan Shalit's home 3844 Suncrest Ave. San Jose, CA 95132 RSVP: 408-926-4609 or 408-272-4617 DIRECTIONS: (Call ahead to tell us what you would like to bring, so that we don't end up with all pumpkin pies) Fro:n 680: Talce Berryessa e:;it Go East about 2 miles past Piedmont Ave. where Berryessa becomes Suncrest Ave. Go about 1 mile up Suncrest, past water tank on your right. After Perie Dr. it's the 3rd house on your right. From 101 South: Take 13th Street exit Go left on 13th over the freeway Tum right on Commercial Left on Berryessa After crossing over 680 heading towards the hills, Go East about 2 miles past Piedmont Ave. where Berryessa becomes Suncrest Ave. Go about 1 mile up Suncrest, past water tank on your right. After Perie Dr. it's the 3rd house on your right. PLENTY OF STREET PARKING AVAILABLE, CURB YOUR WHEELS, ITS STEEP. Empire Cave Cleanup Trip Report November 1st, 1997 By Robert Jon Mudry Empire Cave is located on University of Santa Cruz property, in a heavily traveled area and within walking distance of University housing. This makes the cave the target of partiers and vandals, particularly on Halloween night. To counteract this threat, and save the unique arachnids which call Empire Cave home, the SFBC sponsors a yearly cleanup effort on the day after Halloween. As usual, I am either very late or very early for everything. This time, I was forty minutes early, so I had a few moments to survey the surrounding area. The little patch of dirt we call the "parking lot" was littered, but not that bad, relatively speaking. The cave entrance was also fairly clean. Lysa put up signs the night before, warning would-be cavers of the endangered arachnids, and much to my surprise they were still there. A few minutes before noon, three members of the newly formed Santa Cruz High Cave Restoration Club showed up. We chatted for awhile, and I got the impression that they were all rather "with it," or at least more so then when I was at sixteen. They all had their own helmets, lights, and backups. From the muddy, knee padded jeans of one of them, I can safely say they had been underground before. Shortly after, Michelle showed up, mostly to say hello to Lysa and the Frantz', who still had not arrived. She chatted for awhile, mostly sizing us up I think, and decided to stick around for awhile to give a hand with the cleanup. Lysa finally showed up with the Frantz' and Ken, and we all geared up to go underground. Eric, age 8, would also be joining us on this trip. The entrance is a large cement block, with a hole in the top to permit access. A 15 foot ladder eased access into the first large chamber. Much to all of our surprise, this first chamber was relatively clean. A few batteries were found, and a bit of broken glass, but most of the trash was candlewax. and smaller items. We spent maybe twenty or thirty minutes in this area; scooping as much of the wax out of the cave as possible,. and picking tiny shards of glass out of the mud floor. We also collected any half burned wood we found, and ended up with a half-full but rather heavy bag of trash. A large corridor connects the first chamber to the rest of the cave, and following this we did spot some fresh hay. A little panic set in at first, for fear that the back of the cave was littered with the stuff but further investigation proved our fears false. The hay mostly scattered around in very small patches, and the other chambers were also relatively free of trash. A few batteries, a bit more glass, some soaked newspapers, and some half-eaten fruit was about the extent of it. Obviously the cave was not used this Halloween. The signs Lysa left inside the cave werestill intact, and the trashbags stashed next to them were untouched as well. An easy, but muddy crawl leads to final chamber, and this is where I headed. I wanted to work alone for awhile, in the back of the cave while the others were cleaning elsewhere. It was actually nice being alone, where the only light was mine. The final chamber contains the only remaining formations, a series of rimstone dams, currently empty of water. Hopefully when the cave floods this year, some of the mud will be washed away and the dams will refill. I picked around in the clay-like mud for a bit, picking up cigarette butts and decaying orange peels. The rest of the group soon caught up, and I took the opportunity to snap a few pictures of everyone. I used a cheap automatic camera, so I don't expect many of the pictures will actually turn out, but with any luck I can scan them in and salvage one or two. Eric was having a great time, and the high school students were really busting their butts to get things cleaned up. No metadolloff spiders were spotted this time, and I didn't see any Empire Cave pseudoscorpians hanging around either, but all in all, it was a good trip with around 60 pounds of trash, mostly half-burned wood, removed from the cave. Shortly after we were done with the cleanup, we spotted a couple of groups hooting and hollering, approaching the cave. Of course

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Page4 San Francisco Bay Chapter Newsletter November 1997 they had fast food containers and alcohol. However, they assured us that since they were locals, they would never even think of littering. Needless to say, I would like to go back one more time before the cave t1oods for the winter and try to pick up any new trash that "non-locals" may have left behind. You win some and you lose some, I guess. Moaning Caverns, a longwinded tale of bad air. By Glenn Butcher Photo By: Glenn Butcher of David Herberg, Eric Goodill, David Parks, David Roser, and Glenn Butcher in Moaning Caverns. On a beautiful autumn afternoon, five adventurous souls, went in search of the mysteries of Moaning Caverns. This clear and crisp October 11th, started bright and early at 2:30 in the afternoon, when David Parks volunteered not only to drive, but pick me up, and with curbside service no less. We then rendezvoused with Eric Goodill in his posh Atherton neighborhood, most recently the scene of police SWAT team activity complete with television crews, helicopters and hostages, but that's a tale for another day. Proceeding to the Motherlode country for me is like Pavlov's dog. Always rewarded with a backpacking, river rafting, snow skiing, mountain climbing, or in this case a caving adventure, this beautiful scenic road east always has me drooling! Carpool topics include cave diving, high finance, music, cave rescue, computer technology, vertical practice, and of course the obligatory CAVE LIES. A brief calorie stop at Columbia's 76 station and we arrived at the Moaning parking lot at 6pm, with a scenic sunset and faint smell of wood smoke. No one wanted to camp out but me. sigh. Moaning Caverns is a commercial cave owned and run by the Fairchild family. It is located just north of the Melones Reservoir, which is north of Columbia near highway 49. You can also reach Moaning from Angles Camp also along highway 49, then east on highway 4, onto Parrots Ferry road. Large signs on the road draw attention to Moaning Caverns, including one style that resembles a National Forest sign. Several buildings on top of a large hill with karst rock formations all around is hard to miss. The entrance to this cave, unlike many caves, can be published, it is located inside the gift shop! Pulling into the parking lot we spotted a coal black cat, which I thought quite appropriate for this time of year. We were greeted by David Roser, Moaning Caverns Professional Cave Guide and all around great guy. I suppose he was startled to see three city folks show up, milling about after closing time, but quickly warmed to the idea of NSS. folks and our off trail, after hours, extra curriculum adventure. Now I would have thought that the very last thing a professional cave guide would want to do is to go caving yet again, but David surprised me by being quite enthusiastic about the prospect of joining us. Our fearless leader David Herberg arrived, having joined us separately so that he could perform in the Los Trancos Marching Band, which I gather is a heavy metal punk rocker techno jazz blues band (artistic license). Turns out that David had actually missed this particular rock extravaganza because of the world renowned Bay Area traffic nightmare. Thank goodness our leader had the proper judgment to sacrifice his rock career to ensure our enjoyment whilst spelunking. He certainly has his priorities straight. In all seriousness I want to sincerely thank Mr. Herberg for leading two cave trips in two consecutive weekends, bravo. We started to get our cave gear sorted out and we began to get suited up. Eric Goodill was sporting his cordura suit with extra built in padding. My battered and bruised knees secretly envied this feature. Mr. Steve Fairchild was kind enough to meet with us and brief us on himself, caving, some history, problems, and Moaning Caverns specifically. He also mentioned his continuing effort in the development of Black Chasm Cave as a potential show or commercial cave. The public approval process is about to close. He further mentioned the opportunity for (and expressed needing help in) a large clean up effort, in Black Chasm early next year. He related a story about an adversarial relationship between a cement or quarry interest and the Nature Conservatory group. Long ago there was a dispute concerning the future plans for this particular cave and this dispute resulted in the apparent malicious dumping of spent carbide in a hard to access and decorated area. The rumor is that it may have been the Nature Conservatory group rather than the cement interest responsible for this desecration, although the specific facts remain somewhat uncertain. None the less the damage has been done and now the great effort of restoration remains. I was impressed by this kind man and his vision. Moaning Caverns, I was told, is 61 ?, not well ventilated and may contain "bad air" near the bottom. I found out that the water forming these marble caves is slightly acidic, and during the process of crystallization, out gasses carbon dioxide. This carbon dioxide gas builds up at the bottom of the cave due to its deep nature and limited air exchange. The deepest regions are best visited in late winter as the air pressure and temperature differences, and air exchange, are at their greatest. Finally the three Daves, Eric and myself were ready. We stepped into the now deserted gift shop. Clearly this is a large and

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Volume 40, Number 11 National Speleological Society Page 5 impressive operation with thousands of visitors every year. We began putting on our harness and climbing gear as Dave Roser began telling us his history as a cave guide, former river raft guide and then the history of the cavern itself. The tour includes a vertical perspective map of Moaning Caverns on the wall with some historical photographs. Also shown was a large display case of many cave artifacts including arrowheads, speleothems, cave pearls, many bones both human and animal, rocks, crystals, old tools, etc. (Personally I found this display case troubling. I recall from my childhood the onyx and cave formation being destroyed and looted to support roadside souvenir shops in rural Kentucky, and this unpleasant memory always disturbs me). Within this display was a smallish partial human skull. Story goes it was carbon dated to 13,000 years old. If true it makes this one object the oldest discovered human remains in North America, which is also proudly proclaimed on the brochure. However upon further questioning, we scientists are such a skeptical Jot. turns out that this carbon dating test may have been of the speleocoated crystalline material rather than the bone itself. . These sorted tales create more questions than answers but I dubiously accepted them none the less, being so terribly entertaining. The small entry room has a very large rock pit surrounded by a wooden railing. Four ropes, each nine sixteenth inch diameters, were bolted into a four by four ceiling beam, and the ropes descended off into this pit. Several well used harness hung by the chimney with care, dozen of racks and helmets were stored on their nails in the far wall. Guide David told us his professional spiel, including that they don't use the F*** word (fall) or the S*** word (stuck), rather you may become delayed. Their motto is "Don't let go of the rope", words to live by. He then reassured us by saying that after so many years and thousands of tourists rappelling and caving, no one has been seriously injured. He further added that the one broken back did not count as a serious injury. After more cave lore and tour sayings, and a final equipment buddy-check of our climbing gear, we began our descent, with Eric the brave going first. Once below the entrance floor we descend about ten feet to a man made platform, built to protect rappellers from falling objects, such as tourists' cameras, purses, children, etc. Then from the platform you enter into a smaller rock opening and a slanted vertical climb down. Being a rather small chimney space, one rock sticks out prominently into your face and is aptly named the Blarney Stone. Downward we rappel past the well worn tlowstone to the last formation called the "Oh My God" ledge. This being my very first vertical cave on rope, I thought I was well prepared from my several vertical practices, all led by expert instruction. I quickly learned that even with all of that indispensable training, the first time is still the first time. "OH MY GOD". Suddenly I am suspended over this huge chasm room and all I can remember from my training is "its the lip stupid, its the lip stupid". Then, all of a sudden, this peaceful serenity washes over me as I glide into this free rappel space. The walls and flowstone quickly give way and open up into a huge and majestic view. This gigantic room is very well lit and large pronounced formations are all around. My descent slows as I take time to soak in the exhilarating experience. Never have I seen such a huge cavernous space, especially dangling from a rope. What a great perspective. On the domed ceiling are several large stalactite formations and to the side I see a wooden platform above a huge spiral wrought iron staircase, seemingly dwarfed by the cavern itself. Far below me, on a ledge, .I see David Herberg in his day glow red caver suit, and an eternity further down I see a tiny insect on the rope wearing Eric's helmet. Twisting and turning to get a better perspective I am in awe. The proportion of this mighty cavern is overwhelming. l stop my progress and wriggle out my camera to take a few snap shots. This cavern is so large and well lit my flash seems inconsequential. Something like photographing the grand canyon, seemingly uncaptureable I store the camera away and continue my descent. Plummeting further down David now looms large, and asks if I would like to stop and share his small ledge, still a hundred feet above the floor. I say yes, but promptly descend right past the ledge. Oh well. My controlled descend rate suddenly slows, and as I double check my rack and gear I remember Mr. Fairchild mentioned that water from the rock overhang makes the rope swell in this section. Down and down I go, plunging into this huge abyss. There is a remarkable feeling of control, descending like spider man from the ceiling into this new and exciting world. Giant white formations spring up from the caverns walls. On down, I am sure, past the 150 foot level I go. Then I see Eric grinning, some mumbled echo reverberates in this quite place. Slowing I see a pointed rock at the focus of my descend, gravity aiming me toward that precise point. Suddenly with ten feet to go something grabs my butt and my descent quickly stops. Fumbling I realize that the four ropes have tangled just below me. A quick jerk (me) clears the line and now I'm down, feet on the pointed rock. Squatting low without thinking, I gain my balance and unthread my rack. Scrambling around on the cave floor seems foreign and awkward after gliding effortlessly down upon that lifeline. Once clear of the huge fall zone I shout "OFF ROPE" which echoes around the giant amphitheater shaped dome. I join with Eric watching the others rapidly descend. One by one the others come, from on the highest perch they advance. An excellent formation in the background makes an impressive backdrop for another camera click. Once down we all marvel and the spacious nature of California's largest cavern. Sitting on the commercial cave benches, catching our breathe lost on the breathtaking absieling, we four are entertained by David R.s' well rehearsed cave interpretation. The lights are dimmed and with trusty flashlight he proceeds to illuminate various cave faces and tales, this resident tribe of silent formations. Some are quite obvious and jump right out, others require a bit of imagination. ET and Elvis, Santa and a skull, even Madonna is a permanent fixture here. Very entertaining but expert showmanship somewhat lost on this non tourist group. I could not help but notice the air, something strange. Indistinct. Curious. Humid, damp and dead still I had expected, but this air had some other intangible quality. Something I couldn't quite pin down, it seemed a little ..... well thin. Not quite a particular aroma but rather a textural feel to it. I suddenly noticed I was still out of breath and panting heavily. It was not an unpleasant feeling, no headache or foul smell, other than myself that is. Realizing now that this is the bad air that they spoke of! Too much C02 I thought to myself. Eric produced his lighter, an impromptu oxygen detector and promptly struck it. Suspended and inch or so above the lighter this small flame struggles to reach down but fails to. The flames seemed discolored, sputtering. With this realization I became dizzy, not quite faint. I didn't know if this was due to the air or manufactured from my imagination. Perhaps all the exhilaration had interfered with my concentration. Kind of like high altitude, not dysfunctional but rather a dulling of our keen senses and sharpest reasoning. I promised myself to concentrate hard, so as to not err while caving and climbing. Another factor I had not prepared myself for, but not debilitating. I kind of rather enjoyed it, not unlike the peaceful feeling while sitting around the campfire. After the brief interlude of commercial speleojargon and assorted cave tales, we proceeded down. into a large dark opening in the

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Page 6 San Francisco Bay Chapter Newsletter November 1997 cave floor, "the Black Hole". Further into this entrance it darkens, having escaped the flood of commercial lighting. A smallish downsloping very polished and slippery path leads into a large anteroom. A knotted rope provided skid resistance, and once again my training voice recalls "a knotted rope of more than a few feet may mean death". Thankfully this was more like a hand line than a vertical section. Once inside this room we observed some roof collapse, some of the jutted rocks with flowstone and formations solidifying around them. It is here that we found yet more bad air. In the far side of this room was an enormous gaping black pit. Guarding the pit entrance was a small wooden barrier, no doubt to keep interested tourists from accidentally toppling in. Both sides of the anteroom had lots of rope and rigging, much of it possibly undisturbed for many years. In fact several carabineers had heavily calcified and crusted over as if the cave itself was trying its best to reclaim its sovereignty. Old steel bolts and huge rusted angle iron jutted from both walls. Several ropes and much rigging hung over the side and disappeared into this blackened pit. Several precarious aluminum ladders lashed together plunged at odd angles down and under, out of view. Twenty or so feet down the pit curved over vertical and underneath into the darkness, the floor of the pit not visible. Fearless leader David H. produced and brand new rope and began scrutinizing the existing rigging. I happened to have several pieces of tubular webbing and David Parks had some extra carabineers, and we quickly rigged our primary and backup anchors. I could not resist yelling "ROPE" as it pitched over the edge even though no one existed below to hear us Our new friend and cave guide volunteered to over go first. It is then that I learned he, Eric and David Herberg, our experienced leader, each had explored this pit only once before. For David Parks and myself this was our very first time in this magical place. After much panting sounds and great rattling echoes of precarious ladders I hear a faint and distant "OFF ROPE". Next was my turn, my first descent of this seemingly bottomless pit. "ON ROPE ... CLIMBING". Over I go, keeping butt low, training voice activated, solid stance, trying my best to avoid the questionable wet and muddy ladders. Several old soaking wet ropes hung down, challenging my every foot fall. Down and down I went, the third ladder doubled back and receded away from me as now I was hanging free, suspended away from the curving jutted rock walls. Slinking down further now the opposite wall curves under and then shocks me with an unexpected touch. "Continue rappelling down" a voice from behind and below. Quickly turning I see that the pit continues down under the ladders now overhead. Grappling down further past the jagged rock wall and down to a staircase of boulders, my legs again feel wobbly and my head light. Panting rapidly I realize how really thin the air has become. Sweating profusely, down some more until once again I squat down tugging the line to its extent. and unfasten the racks' grasp on the rope. "OFF ROPE" I shout standing back away from the wall and rubble leading up to the bottom ladder. "off rope" is the distant acknowledgment. Once again battling for my breath I marvel at this the secretive "Lake Room". Huge ceilings and large walls give way to a rocky and muddy floor. Plenty of standing room and head room remind me that my head is numb and floating. My hair is soaked as I take off my helmet to stand and relax a moment. "More of a puddle room", David R. comments. Here in this lowly place the water drips from a hearth shaped overhang and forms a pond less than ten feet wide. Crystal clear and obviously running the water looks cool and inviting. From this shelf many stalactites protrude, the larger forming mini draperies. Centered is evidence of a small water fall. Dozen of soda straws hang down, none appear broken and all pristine white. Both white and discolored brown formations hang all around very delicate and intricate, each end contains a crystal drop of water reflecting my light. Very wet and dripping this location is obviously quite active, and an old bucket brimming full of very clear water sits off to the side. An old rusty shovel and a broken hoe, indicate past efforts of further exploration. Another room is rumored nearby, large and decorated like the Cavern now so far above us. Another entrance for the miners long ago, is the current Moaning lore. Some tale of blasting it shut. Mystery room. Lost entrance. Maybe larger still. Frankly my mind is not registering fact from fiction or was I just imagining it. After resting and drenching my thirst, I produce my new slave flash and begin playing amateur speleophotographer. Still breathless, I begin imitating the masters, going through the motions, mimicking the magic that I had witnessed before. All the while my head spinning and lungs puffing from this airless abode. "This formation is my favorite", says David Roser. Blinding tlash. "ON ROPE" clank clank puff puff "OFF ROPE". One by one our caving party reunite. With plenty of room, several poses and many tlashes later we are all rejoined. Now tive sets of lungs struggle to compete for the sparse life giving oxygen. Too tall David Parks stoops low to avoid the delicate formations. Once again Eric produces his oxygen detector. Spark spark spark spark, and alas no tlame at all! Wow. Several passages look workable here, especially the large gaping hole in the floor. Upon closer inspection I am told that this was once the dam for the lake and was clearly the drain point for all the water to exit this room. Some one had dug or perhaps broken through exposing this hole leading to another vertical chimney. David Roser related that he had indeed been to the bottom. A tight chimney that zig zags back and forth ending in a small sump nearly directly below us. Told that this chimney goes another fifty feet, I could not imagine the air quality even further down and in a much more contined space. Out of breath I begin to make my ascent out. Exiting the same order we entered, Guide David went tirst. While waiting we gathered considerable garbage including several discarded latex gloves and some degraded cardboard. Other odd and ends produced enough stuff to completely fill a loaf of bread wrapper and into my pack it went. Our small offering of reverence to this awesome place. I decided to ascend out using my frog rig and at first made good progress. Up to the ledge where the slack rope was tangled. Once the rope was free and below me I continued up the free hanging ascent. Not far into this process, I became fatigued. Stopping to catch my breath didn't seem to help a bit. No air to catch. Not thinking clearly, my form was poor and my efficiency lacking. Several more strokes and then I reached for the oververt ladder. Swinging around I stepped into the muddy rung. The ladders creaked and shifted as they bore my full weight. Now with feet under me this method was much quicker. Up and up I went past the sketchy frayed webbing which joined the ladders. Steeper and steeper the ladders went until they arched under the overhanging pit wall. While loading my seat harness I flipped around to the other face of the ladder. What an odd feeling, climbing on one surface and then switching another, the ladders clanked and swayed but held fast. Up and up past the next vertical junction and a tangle of the older ropes. Faintly a headlight flashed above, must be the final ladder segment. Up to the top still pushing my ascender. Finally the top, and the air seemed thicker or maybe just the relief from exertion. Unhook, clear the lines, one last check, "OFF ROPE" echoes down the pit. Barely audible "ok" from far below. Fatigued from the no air climb I

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Volume 40, Number 11 National Speleological Society Page 7 search my pack for the morsel of food and water I brought. Split this bagel with me? I offer Dave, having remembered we interrupted his dinner plans. Sure he quickly replied, but watch the crumbs of course. Off with the light, panting in the dark, I felt totally relaxed savoring the bagel thinking it the best I had ever had. Doing OK down there? "SARRIGHT" puff puff clank clank. One by one our sweaty friends with their smiling faces reappear. Once regrouped we quickly up hauled the rope. disassembled our rigging, shed our climbing gear and got every thing neatly packed away. Scrambling out of the anteroom and up the knotted rope and its slippery slope, once again we were bathed in the brilliance of commercial cave lighting. After resting and drinking a bit, and several more photos, we began a circuit of caving directly below the cavern floor. Entering a gaping hole behind some solid flowstone formations we descended the tunnel called the "Journey to the Center of the Earth". Here the air was the best so far, and soon I found out why. A small electric fan blew circulating air right into my face. Cooling and comforting, I enjoyed this short reprieve. This is the first speleofan I have ever seen, but again this is the first commercial cave I have ever been in. Next we traversed a tricky bit called the "meat grinder". Following the boots inches from my face 1 slithered past the large worn rock obstacles and belly crawled into a tiny tube passage and into a small room. Here Eric climbed down a short way to the "Roach Motel" room, in which cavers check in but they don't always come out. One by one we then entered the "Pancake Room". This eighteen inch high passage was polished smooth by the many visitors passing before. Although tight, plenty of overhead hand holds and the smooth marbled surface made this ten foot section easy. In fact our cave guide showed his imitation of a shark attack by shaking his exposed legs and the quickly pulled himself out of sight. Obviously practiced and quite convincing. Trying the same maneuver, blink, out goes my light. Darkness envelopes me as I try to remember the passage I had just glimpsed before. Pushing further on I stood up into the chimney and began fumbling around with my battery pack. Finally the security of the light returns, just as David R. offers me his spare bulb, not needed. Past the pancake room, and up a small chimney climb, we next crawled through the "Godzillas' Nostril". A side stroke maneuver and up a slight grade we exited into the "Conference Room". I waited for the others happy for the opportunity to rest. The offer of the "Rabbit Hole", a vertical chimney passage, goes unfulfilled, as the rest of the group may have been as tired as I. Up another chimney and through a chasm to emerge again from a small opening in the cavern floor. Again the spectacle of this awesome spacious room comes into view. So high the ceiling, a scale of reference eludes me. David R'. directs to one of the gigantic formations rising out of the cavern floor. Pointing to several drip holes he tells us that the ancient Indians likely heard the water dripping into the hollow bored holes and that is where the moaning legend may have started. Quietly straining to hear the ancient voices... kerplunk, galorp, kerplop, krlorp, spalap, kerplunk. Did I hear spelunk?. The Moaning spirits no doubt. Gathering our climbing gear we began our trudge up the towering spiral staircase of welded wrought iron and steel steps, up to the top. Round and round we go, climbing this steel merry go round. Each step firmly welded into place. What an enormous effort this construction must have been. One hundred feet to the first side bracing, this gigantic structure winds upward. I tried to imagine hauling the steel railings and curved pieces and assembling them like a giant erector set. Did they hang suspended from the roof to start this construction? Clearly a feat of engineering, now a welcome ascent from this mighty pit. One last group photo at the top of the platform and then we finally emerge back into the gift shop. How curious four walls and a floor look after our five hour vertical caving adventure. Now well past midnight, these late night cavers emerge into the cool October night air and immediately begin steaming. Hungry and dehydrated we search Angles Camp for a late night eatery, alas all the old favorites are closed. Reluctantly we bid farewell to our fond caving friends, but not before David Roser shares his tales of Black Bart the local gentleman bandit, and finally his poetic rendition of "The Cremation of Sam McGee". Thanking this wonderful guide and new found friend seems inadequate for the wonders he has shown us and the tales he has spun. While we were driving away from this fabulous adventure, I couldn't help thinking how really lucky and fortunate we all are. GOD has provided this hole in the ground for our pleasure and enjoyment. Saying a silent prayer of thanksgiving, how fortunate it is to be gifted and able, to go caving. Have mercy for those who couldn't make it caving today and GOD bless those of us that did. This ends our story of Moaning Caverns, except for the blown out flat tire at 4:30 in the morning somewhere in the great Central Valley, hardly uneventful. Just goes to show that there are hazards confronting every serious caver. Oh yeah, I eventually figured out what the mystery of Moaning Caverns really mean, it was my poor moaning muscles the very next morning! The Arts and Letters Section of the NSS By: Paul Steward I am happy to announce the forming of a new section within the NSS called "The Arts and Letters Section of the NSS" The goal of this section will be to put out a bi-annual publications (provided sufficient material) that wi!! focus on C.t..VEfiction, non-fiction, humor, drawing, poetry, cartoons, song writing, etc., for the purpose of bringing together people who enjoy writing and drawing, with CA YES as the focal point. We hope to spotlight individual talent within the caving community, and to help with writing, editing, and publishing skills, with the hopes of getting peoples works published. Also, we hope this section could be a place where newsletter editors around the world could get material and ideas for their own grotto newsletters. Like any publication, we will need material. If you are a writer, editor, publisher, artist, etc., send us your stories, drawings, writing and publishing tips, old or new material, it doesnt matter. As with anything new, we want and welcome all ideas you have to make this the very best section for everybody. The anticipated cost will be $5.00 a year. We are not asking for money yet. We NEED to gather as many names (required by the NSS) as possible for the present time. If your are interested, please fill out the following form and send to the.address below. Feel free to call me with questions. Return to: Paul Steward 277 Clamer Rd.Trenton, NJ. 08628 (609)-530-9743 pddb@juno.com Name ______________________________________ _ Address. __________________ _ City, State, Zip. _______________ _ Phone# __________________ _ E-mail ___________________________________ _ NSS# _____________________________ ___

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Page 8 Summary for October Open Intlows Misc. Total Inflows Outflows Misc. Change Close Newsletter copying Newsletter postage Total Outflows San Francisco Bay Chapter Newsletter Equipment 558.52 558.52 Monthly Financial Summaries Hardhat 412.38 412.38 By: Eric Goodill Operating 1851.25 26 .. 00 26.00 321.72 56.83 38.40 416.95 -390.95 1460.30 Knot of the Month By Cindy Heazlit Reserve 806.88 806.88 Total 3360.51 26.00 26.00 321.72 56.83 38.40 416.95 -390.95 2969.56 November 1997 Italian I Munter Hitch: Good for belaying, and as an emergency rappel. This is a self-reversing friction knot. It will switch direction, depending on the load. The carabiner should be large enough to allow the knot to "flip over" when the load reverses. Twist the Rope Twist it again \ L.ESS I=R,.tcTtoAJ Clip a carabiner through the double ror.e section. Load the knot Important!! The knot must be loaded and aimed in the right direction to be effective!

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Volume 40, Number 11 National Speleological Society Page 9 SFBC Meeting Minutes Submitted by this month's secretary, Steve Ruble October Monthly meeting Time: 10/28/97, 8-10pm Location Telegen Co. Headquarters Redwood City Attendance 4 Grotto Officers, 38 members or guests, and the usual watch dog . Special topic Past Regional, and upcoming grotto elections. • Noted again is the very fine facilities for our monthly meetings. Thanks again to Bonnie and Jessica for use of their conference room. (We won't miss it until it's gone). • The program was a collection of slides from the Bosteds again. International caving in Switzerland and beyond, and some local shots from the regional area. Great program, thanks. • Introductions were made, sign in sheet and hard hat were passed around. Announcements: • There are still many caving t-shirts available, some from the recent regional. Buy one for a friend for xmas! • The Bosteds have a the new 1997 calendar available. Ask Ann for a discount. Upcoming trips; CRF Lilb:.Jrn, Thanksgiving to Onyx, Cave cf the bells, and possibly Dantes decent, and others, (see the newsletter). No Knot of the month, this month. Special Topic Nominations ChairmanPeri Frantz Vice-Chair Mark Scott Treasurer Eric Goodill Secretary Lysa DeThomas Newsletter Robert Mudry After the break: (thanks to Mark for the Altoids) Old Business; Gray Whale ranch updates .. New Business; • A mention was made about the need for NSS award nomination letters. • Another mention of potential cave closure dates due to bat sensativities, add to web page? Gail Beach won the caving quilt • Glenn Boucher talked about the "cave fee project opposition force" • There was a discussion on how to improve future Auctions Trip Reports • Various reports that all sounded great. (Moaning, Heater, Pinacle Point, Crystal, IXL, Marble Falls, Lilburn, Grapevine, Rabit Hole, Hurricane). The next meeting will be the Exec Meeting, on the 2nd Tuesday, with the next monthly meeting on the 4'h Tuesday. October Monthly meeting Time: 11111/97, 7:47pm to 9:22pm Location Fresh Choice restaurant (San Mateo) Attendance Cindy Heazlit Eric Goodill Steve Ruble Mark Scott Old Business Barbara Maeso Ruble Glen Butcher Jim Lakner Regional The expenses were reviewed, and it appears that we miss judged the total costs. The SFBC may have to make up the difference, once all the receipts are turned in. Elections The Exec committee reviewed the membership lists to determine if we can entice other potential candidates to step forward and accept nominations. WEB site There was general discussion about the procrress and direction of the web site. o Gray Whale Ranch -It's been reported that the cave manacrement 1 . 0 p an IS proceeding. Incoming mail was reviewed. New Business Future SFBC meeting site An important issue, as we have lost the availability of our past site. Everyone is encouraged to assist in locating a suitable site within the geographical local of our current membership. Any and all ideas need to be investigated. Location of the 1st 1998 Exec meeting and trip plannincr session ili 0 , (Jan 13 ) -The Ruble's have volunteered their house again, unless a more centrally located site can be suggested. Absentee Ballots for grotto elections will be included in the next newsletter. Membership information form-We discussed the proposed form submitted by Eric (looks good). A gigantic box of "Altoids" was given to Mark, and shared by all. (Will probably have enough for the next dozen meetings or so).

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Page 10 San Francisco Bay Chapter Newsletter November 1997 SFBC General Information Newsletter: This newsletter is a monthly publication of the San Francisco Bay chapter (SFBC) of the National Speleological Society (NSS). Any material not specifically copyrighted may be reproduced by other Internal Organizations of the NSS without permission provided credit is given to SFBC and the author. Opinions expressed within this newsletter are ;1ot necessarily those of SFBC. its board members, or the NSS. The newsletter editor welcomes material for publishing including, cartoons, trip reports, clippings, drawings, photographs, letters to the editor, accident reports, etc. Hard copy, disks, e-mail, fax and phone calls are acceptable media. Please call to check for possible format problems with machine readable text. Black and white photographs are preferable; color photos are acceptable. Deadline for submission is the Friday after the executive meeting. Dues/Membership: Dues are due January I. Checks may be made payable to SFBC/NSS, PO Box 2282, Menlo Park, CA 94026 or can be delivered directly to the treasurer at the meeting. Price for annual membership is as follows: Regular Membership: $20.00; Family Membership: $8.00; Subscription Only: $12.00 Membership is open to anyone. However, in complying with the NSS rules governing Internal Organizations, only members of the NSS and this Internal Organization. have voting rights. Waivers: Waivers must be signed by all persons participating in SFBC Activities. Waivers are required for each SFBC activity. Forms are available at all ct:apter meetings and vertical pr8ctices Trip leaders reserve the right to limit participation on their trips based on number of participants or individual qualifications. Executive Meetings: Executive meetings are held on the second Tuesday of each month at 7pm at the "Fresh Choice" restaurant in San Mateo. Anyone is invited to share a meal and swap stories with us, but only the elected officers can vote on grotto issues. "Fresh Choice" is located in a shopping center just South of Hi 92 on the West side of El Camino in San Mateo. From 92, exit South (from either direction) and take the 1 right turn into the shopping center driveway. Can't miss the restaurant. Chapter Meetings: Meetings are held on the fourth Tuesday of each month, (Note: This is not necessarily the last Tuesday of the month) at 8:00PM SHARP. Location: We are meeting at the USGS offices in Menlo park for the November meeting only. Directions can be found on page 2 of the newsletter. If you have any suggestions for a permanent meeting location the Executive Committee would be very interested in hearing from you. Volunteers: Librarian: Jim Lalmer (408) 738-2939 (home) LAKNERJ @vncpo l.ne.ge.com Equipment Managers/Store Keepers Gail McCoy and Tom Mathey ( 408) 865-1763 (home) Board Members: Chair: Merrilee Proffitt (51 0) 339-7483 (home) mproffit@library.berkeley.edu Vice Chair: Cindy Heazlit (408) 448-8857 (home) cheazlit@ix.netcom.com (home) cindy.heazlit@lmco.com (work) Secretary: Steve Ruble (650) 692-0477 (home) sruble@ix.netcom.com Treasurer: Eric Goodill (650) 323-0976 (home) ericg@cisco.com Newsletter Editor: Mark Scott PO Box 7685, Stanford CA 94309-7685 (650) 497-4321 (home) (650) 725-3318 (work) (650) 725-3377 (fax) miscott@ stanford.edu

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Volume 40, Number 11 National Speleological Society Page 11 SFBC Membership Information Form Dues are due at the end of the year! Here is a handy form to allow you to get them in on time! Membership Types and Rates (please check one) Type Renewal New Member (1998 dues) (1997 dues only) (1997-98 dues) [] Regular* $20 $9.50 $20 []Associate $20 $9.50 $20 []Subscription $12 $12 $12 *Must be NSS member. Please enter the number below. NSS members: [ ) Do not list the SFBC as my primary NSS Internal Organization (I/0). Each I/0 of the NSS receives a certain number of votes in the Congress of Grottos (COG) based upon the number of NSS members who list that I/0 as their primary affiliation with the NSS. Checking the box means the SFBC won't represent your vote. SFBC regular or associate membership also gives you membership in the Western Region of the NSS. Date _______ _ NSSnumber ___________ __ Member's Name _________________________________________ __ Address, _________________________________________________________________________ _ City ____________________________________________________________________________ __ State Zip+4 Home Phone ( ___________________ _ Work ( _______ -----------------------E-mail __________________________________________________________________ __ Other grotto(s ) _____________________________________________________________________ _ Family Members ($8 for as many as you want, applies to regular and associate only) Name E-mail Name E-mail Name E-mail Name E-mail Name E-mail Name E-mail Office Use Only Amount paid [ ] Cash []Check Check maker ___________________________ _ Check no. ____ _ [ ] Sent to mailing label coordinator. [ ] Deposited dues.

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Page 12 San Francisco Bay Chapter Newsletter San Francisco Bay Chapter National Speleological Society PO Box 2282 Menlo Park, CA 94026 FIRST CLASS November 1997 Mark Conover R97 10721 Wunderlich Dr Cupertino, CA 95014-3848 November 22nct Self Rescue Training Hauling Module Contact: Cindy Heazlit (see Exec list) See inside for a description. 22"d Potluck Party 3pm at Roy Elder and Susan Shalit's (408) 926-4609 or (408) 272-4617 See inside for more details 25th Monthly Meeting Note: Annual Elections Take Place and New temporary meeting location, see inside for details 8pm at USGS Menlo Park 27-30th CRF Lava Beds Project Contacts: Bill Devereaux (503) 363-3831 'nd Janet Sowers (510) 236-3009 sowers @lettis.com 27-30th SFBC Trip to Arizona Contact: Peter Bosted (650) 234-9966 bosted@ slac.stanford.edu December 6'h Caving 101 Contact: Cindy Heazlit (see Exec list) 6'h Santa Claus Trip Contact: Eric Goodill (See Exec list) and John Tinsley (650) 327-2368 or jtinsley@ isdmnl. wr. usgs.gov 9'h Executive Meeting 7pm at Fresh Choice 13'h Annual Grotto Christmas Party at Bill and Peri Frantz's House 16345 Englewood Ave, Los Gatos Contact: Bill and Peri Frantz (408) 356-8506 or frantz@netcom.com 31"-4th Avery Ranch New Year's Gourmet Retreat (Ed: The dates may be wrong since I guessed) Contact: Peri Frantz (see above) January 11th Annual CRF and WRTC planning meetings (in Fresno) Contact: Peri Frantz (see above) or Mike Spiess (209) 434-3321 13'h Annual Trip Planning Meeting Steve and Barbara Ruble's House 1315 Tuolumne Rd, Millbrae 7pm (see Exec list) 27th Monthly Meeting 8pm Location TBA February 9-13th Western Bat Working Group Workshop Reno, Nevada Contact: Charlene Vullo (208) 736-2369 cvullo@ id. blm. gov lOth Executive Meeting 7pm Location TBA 24th Monthly Meeting 8pm Location TBA

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s f b c newsletter In this Issue: Election Results Page2 Crystal Consumnes Trip Report Page2 Directions to the Annual Holiday Party and Trip Planning Meetings Page 2-3 Grotto Information Page4 Membership Renewal Form PageS Upcoming Trips Page6 'i--."1': ;,..... , / San Francisco Bay Chapter National Speleological Society Volume 40, Number 12 December 1997 Cover Image by:.Ann and Peter Bosted of Crystal Cave

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Page2 San Francisco Bay Chapter Newsletter December 1997 Election Results After a contentious and hotly run campaign (well, that isn't strictly true, actually there was only one nominee for each position (Peri dropped out of the running for Chair as soon as someone else was nominated for the position 8-) and the closest aspect of the elections was whether we had a quorum of members for the elections to be valid, as it turned out we did, by just one person though!!) the elections took place at last month's meeting at the USGS offices in Menlo Park (many many thanks to Tinsley for arranging the use of the facility for us on such short notice). The results were: Chair Lynne Jesaitis (who was nominated and elected without even attending the meeting, see what can happen if you skip the meetings!!!) Vice-Chair Mark Scott Treasurer Eric Goodill Secretary Lysa DeThomas Newsletter Robert Jon Mudry Cave Report Crystal Consumnes Nov 1, 1997 By: Lorena Sellers Attending: Eric Goodill Trip Leader Glenn Butcher Larena Sellers There's gold in them thar hills and a murder story too! Crystal Consumnes is on the property of Joyce Smith, and in keeping with new grotto policy on asking permission first, we stopped by the Fairplay Hardware store for a friendly visit. Talking with Joyce is a must for future visits to Crystal Consumnes. She's a sweet, hip 'ol girl who lived in Fairplay for most of her married life and ran the hardware store with her late husband. She was very impressed that we asked her permission to enter the cave and entertained us with stories of cavers past and other interlopers: Consumnes has its own self appointed guardian. The gentleman in question lives in a broken down, burned out bus on the trail to the cave. It seems he takes personal interest in the cave and makes every effort to bully prospective cavers from entering. We did not encounter this infamous individual on our trip but future adventurers beware! The town of Fairplay was rife with scandal when a stiff, cold body was found in one of the larger rooms in the cave ... OOOH, AAAH! When the authorities were called in to investigate, the body had disappeared! This caver thinks she heard a strangely human moaning sound from deep in the heart of Crystal Consumnes! The cave is on gold claim property and there is a stream full of gold to cross on the cave trail. The driving portion of the trail to the cave is a little rough, so make sure you have a sturdy vehicle ''Thanks Jodie!" On the walking portion we met gold prospectors panning in the stream. Actually, they were just families having a fun weekend together and earning about $2.00 an hour-not bad, making money while on vacation! The panning equipment was like something out of a Dr. Seuss book! We crossed the stream in "rock hop" fashion a "toe wetter'' for us less agile cavers. The cave entrance was easy enough to find and we entered around 1:30ish. We met several hikers and other cavers along the way. Crystal Consumnes is a "happenin' place" and a veritable social club. A total of six other cavers explored the cave with us that day. We encountered the first set of three in shorts, sans helmets and knee/elbow pads and one of them did not even have a light! The second set of three was a mom and her two kids-they also did not have helmets and pads but mom was armed with a ball of string! We found the cave very badly damaged. It looked as though someone had actually harvested the crystal formations with a hammer. Whole walls were shorn of the top layer of rock crystal. There was graffiti in every room and enough candle wax on the floors to make a wax sculpture. Besides the human kind, the only other life form we saw was one solitary bat, a really small one and we couldn't identify the species. Glenn discovered a new room! Getting there required a small but challenging climb which is probably why it remained undiscovered. We had lunch there and thus we christened it the .. lunch room." We relaxed for a long while in the lunch room and had a fun knot tying practice session. Acting on our childish impulses, we also played hide and seek from the other cavers. We also discovered a new lake room but I'm not sure who should get the credit for this. The room is very small, just big enough to sit on the "shore" without getting wet. We saw what appeared to be calcite rafts on the surface. Glenn had fun leading the way and Eric had fun watching Glenn go around in circles, I just had fun. We exited the cave around 6:30ish and were mildly surprised to find that we had accidentally found the second entrance. Not realizing that the sun had gone down, I thought the stars were actually pinpoints of sunlight coming through the ceiling it was a twilight zone moment! We had to recross the stream in the dark! We topped it off with dinner at Denny's. Thanks for a great trip Eric! Invitation to the Holiday Party The Annual Grotto Holiday Party will be held at the Frantz's on December 13th (next Saturday). (Many thanks to Bill and Peri for hosting us again). Tree trimming will start at 4pm and the potluck dinner will start at 6pm. Call ahead ((408) 356-8506) and find out what is needed in terms of food. Don't forget to bring items to be auctioned (and you checkbook) and a gift (valued at less than about $10 and wrapped) for the gift "exchange" game. There will be plenty of hot water available for those who want to shower after visiting some of the (relatively) close Santa Cruz caves. To get to the Frantz's see the following map and directions: From Santa Cruz: Take 17 to the East Los Gatos exit. Proceed to 2"d traffic light (T-intersection), and tum left on Los Gatos Blvd. At the next light tum right on Kennedy Road. Tum left on Englewood. The house is on the left side after the second speed bump at number 16345 Englewood. From the 'East Bay: Take 880/17 to the East Los Gatos exit and follow directions as above. From the Peninsula/ San Francisco: Take 101 or 280 South to 85. Take 85 South to Bascom Ave./Los Gatos Ave. exit. Tum right on Los Gatos Blvd. Proceed to Shannon Rd. (one light past Blossom

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Volume 40, Number 12 National Speleological Society Page3 Hill Rd.) and tum left. Go two blocks, tum right on Englewood. Chez Frantz is the 4th house on the right at 16345 Englewood. If Bill and Peri Frantz 16345 Englewood Ave Los Gatos, CA 95032 (408) 356-8506 Lark Ave you hit the speed bump you have gone too far! Los Gatos To Santa Blossom Hill Road Saratoga Ave/ Hwy 9 Kennedy Road Invitation and Directions to the Trip Planning Meeting This year's trip planning meeting which replaces the Executive meeting for Januazy is to be held on Tuesday the 13th at the Ruble's house starting at 7pm (the same place as last year). If you are interested in leading a trip sometime this year or just want to find out which ones are going to be led them come along. And remember if you don't show up them you might just be "volunteered" to lead a trip this year!! The address is 1315 Tuolomne Road in Milbrae and directions follow. Contact Steve Ruble at (650) 692-0477 or sruble@ix.netcom.com for more information. From the South: North bound 280, take Mill Ave. exit, but continue straight paralleling the freeway. There will be a total of three stop signs, then tum right (on Riverton). Take the next left tum (on Crestview). At the next stop sign (Tuolomne) turn right. The address is 1315 Tuolumne. From the North: Go South on 280, take Larkspur Avenue exit. Go under the freeway. Go to the second stop sign, turn right on Crestview. Go to the next stop sign and turn left on Tuolumne. The address is 1315 Tuolumne.

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Page4 San Francisco Bay Chapter Newsletter December 1997 SFBC General Information Newsletter: This newsletter is a monthly publication of the San Francisco Bay chapter (SFBC) of the National Speleological Society (NSS). Any material not specifically copyrighted may be reproduced by other Internal Organizations of the NSS without permission provided credit is given to SFBC and the author. Opinions expressed within this newsletter are not necessarily those of SFBC, its board members, or the NSS. The newsletter editor welcomes material for publishing including, cartoons, trip reports, clippings, drawings, photographs, letters to the editor, accident reports, etc. Hard copy, disks, e-mail, fax and phone calls are acceptable media. Please call to check for possible format problems with machine readable text Black and white photographs are preferable; color photos are acceptable. Deadline for submission is the Friday after the executive meeting. Dues/Membership: Dues are due January 1. Checks may be made payable to SFBC/NSS, PO Box 2282, Menlo Park, CA 94026 or can be delivered directly to the treasurer at the meeting. Price for annual membership is as follows: Regular Membership: $20.00; Family Membership: $8.00; Subscription Only: $12.00 Membership is open to anyone. However, in complying with the NSS rules governing Internal Organizations, only members of the NSS and this Internal Organization. have voting rights. Waivers: Waivers must be signed by all persons participating in SFBC Activities. Waivers are required for each SFBC activity. Forms are available at all chapter meetings and vertical practices Trip leaders reserve the right to limit participation on their trips based on number of participants or individual qualifications. Executive Meetings: Executive meetings are held on the second Tuesday of each month at 7pm at the "Fresh Choice" restaurant in San Mateo. Anyone is invited to share a meal and swap stories with us, but only the elected officers can vote on grotto issues. "Fresh Choice" is located in a shopping center just South of Hi 92 on the West side of El Camino in San Mateo. From 92, exit South (from either direction) and take the 1 right turn into the shopping center driveway. Can't miss the restaurant. The January meeting will be the Annual Trip Planning meeting and will take place at the Ruble's house. See elsewhere in this newsletter for directions. Chapter Meetings: Meetings are held on the fourth Tuesday of each month, (Note: This is not necessarily the last Tuesday of the month) at 8:00 PM SHARP. There is no monthly meeting in December however and this month there will be the Annual Grotto Holiday Party instead. Location: Since the December meeting is to be replaced by the Holiday party this month we will be meeting at the Frantz's house. See elsewhere in this newsletter for a map and directions. As of the moment the location for the January Monthly meeting has not been finalized, although it looks likely that we will meet on Stanford University campus. If you have any other suggestions for a permanent meeting location the Executive Committee would be very interested in hearing from you. Volunteers: Librarian: Jim Lakner (408) 738-2939 (home) LAKNERJ @vncpo 1.ne.ge.com Equipment Managers/Store Keepers Gail McCoy and Tom Mathey (408) 865-1763 (home) (408)-495-1391 (Tom's work#) tmathey@ baynetworks.com Current Board Members: Chair: Merrilee Proffitt (510) 339-7483 (home) mproffit@ library .berkeley .edu Vice Chair: Cindy Heazlit (408) 448-8857 (home) cheazlit@ix.netcom.com (home) cindy.heazlit@lmco.com (work) Secretary: Steve Ruble (650) 692-0477 (home) sruble@ix.netcom.com Treasurer: Eric Goodill (650) 323-0976 (home) ericg@cisco.com Newsletter Editor: Mark Scott (650) 497-4321 (home) (650) 725-3318 (work) miscott@stanford.edu Next Year's Board Members: Chair: Lynne Jesaitis (510) 642-8058 (work) (510) 339-7483 (home) ljesaiti @nature. berkeley .edu Vice Chair (or is that Chair of Vice?): Mark Scott (650) 725-3318 (work) (650) 497-4321 (home) miscott@ stanford.edu Secretary: Lysa De Thomas (408) 454-9881 (home) (408) 479-4023 (voicemail) dethomas@cruzio.com Treasurer: Eric Goodill (650) 323-0976 (home) (408) 527-3460 (work) ericg@cisco.com Newsletter Editor: Robert Jon Mudry (408) 737-7704 (home) mushroom@ best. com

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. . ,, Volume 40, Number 12 National Speleological Society PageS SFBC Membership Information Form Dues are due at the end of the year! Here is a handy form to allow you to get them in on time! Membership Types and Rates (please check one) [ ] Regular * $20 [ ] Associate $20 [ ] Subscription $12 *Must be NSS member. Please enter the number below. NSS members: [] Do not list the SFBC as my primary NSS Internal Organization (J/0). Each J/0 of the NSS receives a certain number of votes in the Congress of Grottos (COG) based upon the number of NSS members who list that J/0 as their primary affiliation with the NSS. Checking the box means the SFBC won't represent your vote. SFBC regular or associate membership also gives you membership in the Western Region of the NSS. Date. _______ _ NSS number _______ _ Member's Name. ________________________________ _ Address. ____________________________________ ___ Srnre _____________ __ Zip+4 ___________________________ ___ Home Phone( ____ , ________ __ Work (.-------'----------------------'E-mail ____________________________________ _ Other grotto(s) __________________________________________________________ __ Family Members ($8 for as many as you want, applies to regular and associate only) Name, _________________ E-mail, ___________________ __ Name, ___________ E-mail, ___________________ __ Name, ________________ E-mail, ____________________ __ Name,__________________ E-mail, _____________________ _ Name. _______ E-mail. ___________________ __ Name. __________________ E-mail __________________ __ Office Use Only Amount paid. _______ _ []Cash []Check Check maker ______________ Check no. __ _ [ ] Sent to mailing label coordinator. [ ] Deposited dues.

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?;--::..... _ ...... San Francisco Bay Chapter Newsletter f... ' = ..... -............. -.......... . Page6 San Francisco Bay Chapter National Speleological Society POBox 2282 Menlo Park, CA 94026 December 1997 9th Executive Meeting 7pm at Fresh Choice 13th Annual Grotto Holiday Party at Bill and Peri Frantz's House 16345 Englewood Ave, Los Gatos Tree trimming starts at 4pm, and Potluck dinner starts at 6pm Contact: Bill and Peri Frantz (408) 356-8506 frantz@netcom.com (see i.nside for detailed directions) January 1998 2nd -4th A very Ranch New Year's Gourmet Retreat Contact: Peri Frantz (see above) 10th-11th Annual CRF and WRTC planning meetings at Fresno State's Center for Irrigation Technology Contact: Peri Frantz (see above) or Mike Spiess (209) 434-3321 FIRST CLASS Mark conover 10721 Wunderlich Dr 8 Cupertino. CA 95014-384 13th Annual Trip Planning Meeting Steve and Barbara Ruble's House 1315 Tuolumne Rd, Millbrae starts at 7pm Contact: Steve Ruble (650) 692-0477 sruble@ix.netcom.com (see inside for detailed directions) 27th Monthly Meeting 8pm Location TBA 31st Trip to Aroyyo Tapiado Mud Caves (Anza Borego Desert) Contact: Terry Silva (408) 629-0821 ss573@ earthlink.net Date undecided: Caving 101 Contact: Cindy Heazlit ( 408) M8-8857 cheazlit@ ix.netcom.com R97 February 1998 9-13th Western Bat Working Group Workshop Reno, Nevada Contact: Charlene Vullo (208) 736-2369 cvullo@id.blm.gov lOth Executive Meeting 7pm Location TBA 24th Monthly Meeting 8pm Location TBA


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